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out of gold brought from the coast of Africa. The Sovereign, á recent English gold coin, contains 20 shillings, or a pound sterling. This term sterling, which is used to designate English money, it is said, was in early times applied to the Germans who lived in England, and as these Germans were much occupied in manufacturing coin, the name of the workmen was transferred to the money itself.

The most ancient money, known to have been fabricated in France, is supposed to have been struck by Theodoret, king of Metz, and grandson of Clovis, who died in 547. In some collections are found gold sous of Louis the Debonnaire. The first laws in France against counterfeit money were issued by this prince. In 987, when Hugh Capet was proclaimed king of France, there were more than 150 different kinds of money in the country. The florin was an ancient coin of Florence, upon which was represented a flower. It was introduced into France in 1068. ' Francis the First, in the year 1539, had a project for designating the different kinds of money by the letters of the Alphabet.

Uncivilized nations have various mediums of exchange, which answer the purpose of money. In some parts of Africa blocks of salt are used in this way, and thus become the standard of value for other articles. Small shells also circulate as money. Historians relate, that paper money was issued in China as early as A. D. 997. It was used also in Japan.

In modern times it has ceased to circulate in both countries,

XXXII. THE VALUE OF MONEY IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

OF EUROPE, ESTIMATED IN DOLLARS AND CENTS.

As the Comparative value of money in different countries is subject to slight and irregular changes, it cannot be precisely fixed for any given time. The following tables are believed to approach as near to it, as the nature of the subject will admit. The Asterisks denote, that the denomination to which they are annexed is only nominal, and not represented by any real coin. The fractional parts of the cents are decimals. GREAT BRITAIN.

FRANCE

cts. Farthing 00,46 Denier

00,08 Penny 01,85 Sol, or 12 deniers

00,92 Groat

07,40 Livre Tournois, or 20 sols 18,52 Shilling

22,22 Ecu, or crown, 6 livres 1 10,00 Crown, or 5 shillings 1 11,16 Pistole,* 10 livres

1 85,17 Sovereign, or pound . 4 44,44 Louis d'or

4 44,44 Guinea, 21 shillings 4 66,66 Franc

18,74

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HOLLAND. Stiver Scalin Guilder, or Florin Rix dollar Ducat Gold Ducat

.

01,04 06,24 16,66 20,83 25,

66,66 1 00, 8 83,34

PORTUGAL Re Vintin Testoon Crusade of ex Milre* Moidore Joanese

00,86 04,32 12,96 15,55 25,92

77,76 2 07,40 3 88,80

ITALY.

01,94

DENMARK. 11,64 Skilling 38,80 Duggen

97 Marc* 2 07,86 Rix marc . 8 00 Rix ort

Crown

Rix dollar
00,12 Ducat
02,50
12,50

FRUSSIA. 50,00 Grosh 1 25 Coustic .600 Tinse 800 Ort

Florin

Rix dollar*
00,80 Ducat
03,18 Frederic d'or
15,92
23,88

RUSSIA. 79,60 Altin 92,60 | Grievener 1 36,12]Polpotin 3 20

Poltin
Ruble

Zervonitz
00,24
00,92

TURKEY. 02,77 Mangar 55,55 Asper* 1 00 Parac

Bestic

Estic
00,86 Solata
03,14 Piaster*
03,44 Caragrouch
51,85 Xeriff

Soldi Chevelet Lire* Testoon Croisade Pezzo of ex* Genouine Pistole

03, 10, 25,

50, 1 00, 200,

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SWITZERLAND, Fenning Cruitzer Sol* Gulden Rix dollar

AUSTRIA

00,28 01,12 03,33 05,55 11,11 22,22

88,88 1 11,10 2 22,20

Cruitzer Grosh Batzen Gould

XXXIII. REVENUES, EXPENDITURES, FINANCE, TRADE,

AND MANUFACTURES OF GREAT BRITAIN.

[Abstracted from the Parliamentary Documents.]

1.- Finance.

AN ACCOUNT of the ORDINARY REVENUES, and EXTRAORDINARY RE

SOURCES, constituting the Public Income of the UNITED KINGDOM OF
GREAT BRITAIN and IRELAND,
For the Year ended 5th January, 1828.

Total Pay

Total Income ments out of Payments HEADS OF REVENUE.

including the Income into the Balances. in its progress Exchequer.

to the Exch.

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ORDINARY REVENUES.
Customs
Excise
Stamps
Taxes, under the management of the Commis-

sioners of Taxes
Post Office
One Shilling in the Pound, and Sixpence in the

Pound, on Pensions and Salaries, and Four
Shillings in the Pound on Pensions
Hackney Coaches, and Hawkers and Pedlars
Crown Lands
Small branches of the King's hereditary Revenue
Surplus Fees of regulated Public Offices
Poundage Fees, Pells Fees, Casualties, Trea-
sury fees, and Hospital Fees

Totals of Ordinary Revenues
** The gross Receipt has been collected at an
Average of £6 15 9 1-2 per £100.

OTHER RESOURCES.
Money received from the East India Company,
on account of retired Pay, Pensions, &c. of
His Majesty's forces,

arriving in the East In-
dies, per Act 4 Geo. IV., c. 71
From the Commissioners for the Issue of Ex.

chequer Bills, per Act 57 Geo. III., c. 34, for the employment of the Poor Money received from the Trustees of Naval

and Military Pensions On account of advances made by the Treasury,

for improving Post Roads, for building Gaols, for the Police, for Public Works, employ

ment of the Poor, &c. &c. Imprest Monies, repaid by sundry Public Accountants, and other Monies paid to the Public Money bronght from the Civil List, on account

of the Clerk of the Hanaper Repayment

on account of Money advanced out of the Consolidated Fund, in the Year 1825, for silver coinage From the Bank of England, on account of Unclaimed Dividends

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AN ACCOUNT of the NET PUBLIC EXPENDITURE of the UNITED KINGDOM

EXPENDITURE.

NET EXPENDITURE.

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Dividends, Interest, and Manage

£.
d. £.

d. ment of the Public funded Debt, (exclusive of 5,704,7061. 138. 10d. issued to the Commissioners for the Reduction of the National Debt,) 4 quarters, to Oct. 10, 1827

27,366,601 70 Interest on Exchequer Bills

873,246 12 3

28,239,847 19 3 Trustees for Nav. and Mil. Pension Money, per Act 3 Geo. IV., c. 51

2,214,260 0 0 Ditto Bank of England ditto, 4 Geo. IV., c. 22

585,740 00

2,800,000 0 0 Civil List, 4 Quars., to Jan. 5, 1828

1,057,0000 0 Pensions, ditto, to Oct. 10, 1827

365,908 15 11-2| Salaries and Allowances, ditto

180,896 1 51-4 Courts of Justice, ditto

148,047 8 714 Mint, ditto

14,750 00 Bounties, ditto

2,956 13 8 Miscellaneous, ditto

245,459 911 Ditto Ireland, ditto

303,199 190 For the purchase of the Duke of

Athol's Interest in the Public

Revenues of the Isle of Man 134,200
Advanced towards rebuild. London
Bridge, per Act 7 Geo. IV., c. 40 120,000

254,200 0 0

2,472,418 7 Army

7,876,682 8 21-2 Navy

6,414,727 4 0 Ordnance

1,914,403 00 Miscellaneous

2,863,247 19 5

19,069,060 11

71-2 Lottery Prizes

193,044 0 0 Bank of England for Discounting

and Management in the Funding of 8,000,0001. Exchequer Bills

36,267 1 3

229,311 1 3 By the Commis. for issuing Excheq.

52,810,637 19 10 1-2 Bills, per Act 3 Geo. IV.,

c. 86, for the Employment of the Poor

551,900 0 0 Advances out of the Consolidated Fund in Ireland, for Public Works

437,753 19. 9

989,653 19 9

53,800,291 19 71-2 Surplus of Income over Expenditure

1,132,226 14 21-2

54,932,518 13 10 ABSTRACT of the NET PRODUCE of the REVENUE of GREAT BRITAIN, in

the Years ended on the 10th of Oct. 1827, and the 10th of Oct. 1828.

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AN ACCOUNT of the TOTAL AMOUNT of the UNREDEEMED

FUNDED DEBT, and of the charge thereof, on the 5th of Jan. 1827; of the Debt and Charge thereof created in the Year ended 5th Jan. 1828; -of the Debt and Charge thereof reduced in the course of that Year. Total Debt on 5th Jan. 1827.

Debt. Charge.
Great Britain

£752,110,232 28,994,557
Ireland

31,691,506 1,177,255

783,801,739 30,171,812
Debt created in the Year 27.
Great Britain

1,204,400

39,942 Ireland

524,186 18,282

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Debt reduced in the Year 1827. Debt.

Charge.
Great Britain

£6,628,266 204,111
Ireland

1,425,168 47,633

8,053,434 251,745
Total Debt on 5th Jan. 1828.
Great Britain

746,686,366 29,830,387
Ireland

30,790,525 1,147,904

777,476,892 29,978,292

Total £785,530,326 30,230,037 Note. Besides the reduction of the Funded Debt in 1827, as above stated, there was paid within the same year, out of the Sinking Fund, to the Banks of England and Ireland, per 5 Geo. IV. c. 45, towards the discharge of the Exchequer Bills placed in their hands, for the Suins advanced by them to pay off the Proprietors of £4 per Cents. who did not assent to receive 33 per Cents. in lieu thereof:Principal

£383,800 Interest

2,759 £386,559

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SUMS PAID for INTEREST on EXCHEQUER BILLS.

Estimated Charge upon Payment for one

Consolidated Fund Year,

for one Year, to 5th Jan. 1828.

to 5th January, 1828. Interest on Exchequer Bills issued upon £. 8. d. £.

d. the credit of Consolidated Fund 71,0607

4 72,510 2 1 Interest on Exchequer Bills issued upon

the credit of Duties on Sugar, &c. 29,369 15 11 Interest on Exchequer Bills issued upon the credit of the Aids, 1827

772,816 90

1873,246 12 3 72,510 2 1

99

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