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lished a work on statistics, which has passed through many editions, and the plan of which has served as the basis of the most approved later treatises.

Geography and statistics have this difference; the former treats of the earth, in relation to its figure and geometrical measurements; to its structure, its physical characteristics, and political divisions; whereas the latter gives an account of whatever influences the condition of the inhabitants, or the operations of government on the welfare of men in promoting the ends of social being, and the best interests of communities.

These objects can be attained in different countries, only through the immediate agency of governments. Individuals may, with great labor, collect facts upon particular topics, but they have not the means nor the power to gather from all the branches of social economy such detailed reports, as are essential to a comprehensive view of the condition of a country. As yet, however, individuals have done more than governments in this respect. Statements of population and revenue are all, that the official reports of states usually embrace. England and the United States are the only governments, in which the laws provide for a periodical census, extending to all the important branches of statistical knowledge. In England, the first census under this law took place in 1811, and is repeated every ten years. The first census under the law of the United States was taken in 1790, and is likewise repeated at stated periods of ten years each.

The most important works on the statistics of the United States are Pitkin's and Seybert's; and also the recent “ Tabular Statistical Views,” by Watterston and Van Zandt.

XXI. STATISTICS OF THE WORLD.

[From the Companion to the British Almanac.] The French are in the habit of bestowing very minute attention upon this interesting branch of inquiry; and some of their men of letters have devoted themselves to the preparation of Tables of reference, which may show, from time to time, the progress and actual condition of the various states of the world. Amongst others, M. Adrien Balbi has applied himself for twenty years to these important labors, and he has recently published a Chart, entitled “ Balance Politique du Globe, en 1828,” which is considered the most correct work of its kind, and which the author states is the resultof a long period of the most laborious

investigation. The late distinguished geographer, Malte-Brun, mentions this production, which was nearly completed before his death, as a most valuable abstract, of which he intended to insert a part in his concluding volume.

From this Chart of M. Balbi, the following Table has been compiled. The geographical division is that of M. Walkenaer. The surface of the earth has been estimated at 148,522,000 square miles, of 60 to the equatorial degree (geographical miles), of which nearly three-fourths, or 110,489,000 square miles are covered by the Ocean and the interior Seas ;-the remainder, consisting of 37,673,000 square miles, forming the five parts of the world, called Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and Australasia (or Oceania). The square geographical mile has been retained in the following Tables, instead of the English square mile being adopted, as the former is used in most works on geography, particularly in those of France and Germany. The English square mile is about three-fourths of the area of the square geographical mile ; that is, four English square miles are nearly equal to three geographical.

The table contains in successive columns, the names of countries, extent in square miles, population, reigning sovereign, or head of government, capital cities, with their population, principal religious denominations, revenue in pounds sterling, debt in pounds sterling, army, navy.

The particulars relating to each State are carried across two pages, and the figures prefixed to each are repeated in the last column of the right hand page, to assist the reference. For those States which have Colonial Possessions, a second line is given, showing the total extent of their power :— Example 1." French Monarchy, 154,000 square miles, 32,000,000 population "--gives the area and population of France itself; but the second line, “ Total of French Monarchy," includes the amount of France and all its possessions and dependencies. Wherever this mark (?) is attached to a sum, or stands in the place of one, the information is considered questionable or is not to be obtained.

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(Kingdom of Bavaria Kingdom of Wirtemberg Kingdom of Hanover Kingdom of Saxony Grand Duchy of Baden Grand Duchy of Hesse Electorate of Hesse Grand Duchy of Saxe Weimar Do. of Mecklenberg-Schwerin Do. of Mecklenberg-Strelitz Do. of Holstein-Oldenburgh Duchy of Nassau Duchy of Brunswick Duchy of Saxe-Cobourg-Gotha Duchy of Saxe Meiningen Duchy of Saxe Altenburgh Duchy of Anhalt-Dessau Duchy of Anhalt-Berneburgh Duchy of Anhalt-Koethen Princip. of Schwarz.-Rudolstadt Prin. of Schwarz.-Sondershausen Principality of Reuss-Greitz Princip. of Reuss-Schleitz Pr. of Reuss Lobenst.-Ebersdorf Prin. of Lippe-Detmold Prin. of Lippe-Schaubenburg . Prin, of Waldeck Pr. of Hohenzollern Sigmaringen Prin. of Hohenzollern Hechingen Prin. of Liechtenstein Landgrave of Hesse Homburgh Republic of Francfort

154,000 32,000,000 Charles X., 1824 188,000 32,554,000 194,500 32,000,000 Francis I., 1792 80,450 12,464,000 Frederic William III.,

1797 19,000 6,143,000 William I.,1815(Stat

holder, 1806). 252,000 15,562,000 11,200 1,980,000 Junker David Wyss

Landmann 22,120 3,960,000 Louis I., 1825 5,720 1,520,000 William I., 1816 11,125 1,550,000 George IV., 1820 4,341 | 1,400,000 Anthony, 1827 4,480 1,130,000 Louis, 1808 2,826 700,000 Louis I., 1790 3,344 592,000 William II., 1821 1,070 222,000 Charles Fred., 1828 3,582

431,000 Francis, 1785 578

77,000 George, 1816 1,880 241,000 Peter, 1823 1,446 337,000 William, 1816 1,126

242,000 Charles, 1815 731 143,000 Ernest, 1826 691 130,000 Bernard, 1803. 397 104,000 Frederic, 1780. . 261 56,000 Leopold, 1817" 253 38,000 Alexis, 1796 240 34,000 Ferdinand, 1818 306 57,000 Gunther Frederic, 1807 270 48,000 Gunther Fred.Charles,

1794 109

23,000 Henry XIX., 1817 156

28,000 Henry LXII., 1818 182

26,000 Henry LXXII., 1822 330

72,000 Leopold, 1802 157

26,000 George William, 1787
347 54,000 George, 1813
293

38,000 Anthony, 1785
82 15,000 Frederic, 1810
40 6,000 John, 1865
125

20,000 Frederic, 1820
69
52,000 De Malapert (Burgo

master) 51 49,000 Græning, Schmidt, Norr

nen, & Dantze, (Burg.) 114 148,000 Amsink, Heise, Bartels,

& Koch, (Burgo.) 88 41,000 Beneke, Kindler, Boeg,

& Evers, (Burgom'rs.) 13 2,859 Wm. Gusta. Fred. 1825

36 37

38

Republic of Bremen

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* Of this number, 59 are ships of the line, 51 frigates, and 213 inferior vessels.

Capital Cities,

with their Population.

Principal Religious

Denominations.

Revenue. Debt.

Armies. Ships. £ Sterling. £ Sterling.

1

2

Paris, 890,000 Catholic, Calvinist 39,560,000 184,960,000 231,560 323 *
Vienna, 300,000 Catholic, Greek, Cal- 14,000,000 58,400,000 271,400 72

vinist, Lutheran
Berlin, 220,000. Protestant, (Lutheran, 8,600,000 29,067,200 162,600 1

Calvinist,) Catholic Amsterdam,201,000 Catholic, Calvinist, 6,473,440 152,000,000 43,300 86?1

Lutheran

3

.

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2,100

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

2,100

Zurich, 10,000 Calvinist, Catholic Munich, 70,000 Catholic, Protestant Stuttgard, 32,000

Lutheran, Catholic Hanover, 28,000 Lutheran, Catholic

en, 70,000. neran Karlsruhe, 19,000 Catholic, Lutheran Darmstad:, 20,000 Lutheran, Cath. Cal. Cassel, 26,000 Protestant, Catholic Weimar, 10,000 Lutheran Schwerin, 12,000 Lutheran N. Strelitz, 5,000 Lutheran Oldenburgh, 6,000 Lutheran, Catholic Wiesbaden, 7,000 Protestant, Catholic Brunswick, 36,000 Lutheran Gotha, 11,000 Lutheran Meiningen, 5,000 Lutheran Altenburgh, 10,000 | Lutheran Dessau, 10,000 Calvinist, Lutheran Berneburgh, 5,000 Calvinist, Lutheran Koethen, 6,000 Calvinist, Lutheran Rudolstadt, 3,000 Lutheran Sondershausen,3000 Lutheran Greitz, 6,000 : Lutheran Schleitz, 5,000 Lutheran Ebersdorf, 1,000 Lutheran Detmold, 2,000 Calvinist Buckeburg, 2,000

Lutheran Corbach, 2,000 Lutheran Sigmaringen, 800 Catholic Hechingen, 3,000 Catholic Liechtenstein, 700 Catholic Homburgh, 3,000 Calvinist, Lutheran Francfort, 48,000 Lutheran Bremen, 38,000. Lutheran, Calvinist Hamburgh, 112,000 Lutheran Lubeck, 22,000. Lutheran Kniphausen, 100

Lutheran

3,164,000 9,568,000 35,800

950,440 2,260,000 13,950 1,040,000 2,560,000 13,050 1,120,000 2,800,000 12,000 814, 120 1,560,000 10,000 628,560 1,080,000 6,190 620,000 263,200 5,680 196,520 651,640 240,000 980,000 3,590 52,000

120,000 720 155,160

1,650 210,000 -432,000 3,000 252,000 320,000 98,280 280,000

1,400 77,560 80,000 1,270 61,040 100,000

1,030 73,410 82,760 530 46,560 82,760 370 33,080 124,120 320 33,600 37,760 540 20,680 12,200

450 14,480 20,680 200 13,440

280 24,840 72,400?

260 50,680 72,400 22,210 41,360 240 41,360 124,120 520 31,040 155,160? 320 12,400

51,720 150 140,000 312,0001 55 18,600 46,560 200 78,600 827,440 470

23

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26

27

28

690

29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

38

39

41,360 312,000 380 224,000 1,880,000 1,300 41,360 360,000 400 15,520 ?

23

40

41

† 3 ships of the line, 8 frigates, and 61 inferior vessels.
* 18 ships of the line, 20 frigates, and 50 inferior vessels.

STATES AND TITLES.

Surface

Reigning Sovereign, in Geogra. Population. Sq. Miles.

Head of Government.

or

ITALY.

.

WESTERN DIVISION.

SOUTHERN STATES. 42 Ropublic of Andora (Spain)

144

15,000 Magis. of the Republic ( 43 Republic of San Marino

17 7,000 2 Quarterly Chiefs 44 Duchy of Massa

71 29,000 Maria Beatrice, 1814 45 Duchy of Modena

1,500 350,000 Francis IV., 1814 46 Principality of Monaco

38

6,500 Honorius, 1819 47 Duchy of Lucca

312

143,000 Charles, 1824 48 Duchy of Parma.

1,660

440,000 Maria Louisa, 1814 E 49 Grand Duchy of Tuscany 6,324 1,275,000 Leopold II., 1824 50 Kingdom of Sardinia

21,000 4,300,000 Felix, 1821 51 State of the Church

13,000 2,590,000 Leo XII., 1823 52 Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

31,800

7,420,000 Francis I., 1825 53 Spanish Monarchy.

137,400 13,900,000 Ferdinand' VII., 1808 Total of the Spanish Monarchy 214,400 17,988,000 54 Portuguese Monarchy

29,150 3,530,000 Maria II., 1828 Total of the Portuguese Monarchy 430,000 5,607,000

NORTHERN STATES. 55 Monarchy of Sweden and Norway 223,000 3,866,000 Charles XIV., 1818 56 Danish Monarchy

16,500 1,950,000 Frederic VI., 1808 Total of the Danish Monarchy 341,000 2,125,000 57 British Monarchy

90,948 23,400,000 George IV., 1820
Total of the British Monarchy 4,457,598 140,450,000
58 Russian Empire

1,499,000 52,625,000 Nicholas I., 1826 Kingdom of Poland

36,700 3,900,000 Total of the Russian Empire 5,912,000 60,000,000 [Wodxicky, 1824 59 Republic of Cracow

373 114,000 Count Stanislaus, of 60 Ottoman Empire

155,000 9,500,000 Mahmoud II., 1808 Total of the Ottoman Empire 1,078,000 25,000,000 61 Republic of the Ionian Isles

754 '176,000 Prince Anthony Comu

to (President).

EASTERN
DIVISION

ASIA.
Surface 12,118,000 Geographical Sq. Miles.

Population 390,000,000 Inhabitants. ? 62 Chinese Empire .

4,070,000 170,000,000 Tao Kouang, 1820 63 Empire of Japan

180,000 25,000,000 Bounoaw, 1804 . 64 Empire of An-nam

270,000? 14,000,000 Minh Mea, 1820 65 Kingdom of Siam

124,000? 3,000,000 Kroma Chiat, 1824 66 Birman Empire

140,000 3,500,000 Madou Tchen, 1818 67 British Indian Empire

849,650 114,430,000 East India Company's Territory 349,000 80,800,000 Ld. William Bentinck, East India Company's Dependencies 485,000 32,800,000

[1827, Gov. Gen. Island of Ceylon

15,650 830,000 68 Kingdom of Sindia .

29,760 4,000,000 Djunkadji Rao.,

'1821 69 Kingdom of Nepaul

40,000 2,500,000 Bickram Djah, 1816 : 70 Confederation of the Sikhs

66,000 5,500,000 Son of Runjit Sin., 1827 171 Triumvirate of Sindhy

40,000 1,000,000 Son of Mir Gholaum 72 Kingdom of Cabaul

172,000 6,500,000 173 Confederation of the Beloutchis 110,000 2,000,000 Mahomet, 1795 74 Kingdom of Herat (Eastern Korassan) 50,000? 1,500,000 75 Kingdom of Persia

350,000 9,000,000 Feth Ali Schah, 1796 176 Khanate of Boukhara

173,000 2,500,000 Mir Batyr, 1827 77 Khanate of Khiva

145,000 800,000 Rhaman Kouli Khan, 178 Khanate of Khokhan

100,000? 1,000,000? Emir Khan [1826 179 Imanate of Yemen

40,000? 2,500,000? 180 Imanate of Mascate

39,000 1,600,000? Bidou Ebn Saar, 1808 81 Ottoman Asia

556,000 12,500,000 82 Russian Asia

4,006,000 3,445,000 83 Portuguese Asia

3,700 500,000 84 French Asia

400

179,000

[Ali, 1812

* 10 ships of the line, 16 frigates, 30 inferior. | 12 ships, 13 frigates, 60 inferior.

† 4 ships of the line, 6 do. 37 do. 0 4 do. 7 do. 18 do.

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