« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »
be able to make a display which would be creditable to itself and to the whole country. It is, therefore, left to managers of schools and schoolsystems of every grade to exhibit in any class or classes they may elect.
Class I affords an opportunity for the public schools of towns and cities and separate institutions of learning of 'every grade to compare their own work with the work of others, performed under like conditions.
Class II provides for the exhibition of anything that may be looked upon as of value in the line of educational products. Here no limit is prescribed in time or other conditions of preparation. As a condition of exhibition, however, it is required that the circumstances of the preparation be fully stated.
Class III opens the door for the exhibition of such products of the school-room as will serve to illustrate the working of a course of study or a system of instruction. In this class the smallest district school or private institution may have an opportunity to exhibit its plans and ways of working. Here a principal of a single school or one subordipate teacher in a large unorganized mass of schools may submit illustrations of a plan or process of instruction, methods of recitation, &c., in one or more branches of study, though the number of pupils be represents may be comparatively insignificant.
No contribution will be received in any one of the three classes for pur. poses of competition.
(a) No article shall be exhibited unless the class to which it belongs be stamped or otherwise plainly marked on the article itself or on the cover containing it.
(b) It is recommended that all manuscript-work, especially in Class I, be written on letter-paper, s} by 10 inches in size.
(c) The questions to be answered should be written or printed directly above each answer in all manuscripts in arithmetic; and in all other subjects the same course should be pursued, or the answers should be so framed that the question may be plainly indicated thereby. The latter is the better plan.
(d) Every set or collection of manuscripts on any subject must be accompanied by the full list of questions presented the class in that subject, which list should be inserted immediately after the appropriate
RULE 1. Who may be examined.—None but bona fide pupils of the schools and of the particular grade of schools purporting to be represented shall be permitted to contribute anything for exbibitiou in Class I.
RULE 2. Time of examination. All manuscripts to be exhibited in this class shall be prepared from the 1st to the 15th of February. Not more than four hours shall be allowed for the writing of a paper on any one branch of study, which time shall include the entire work from the time the questions are placed before the pupil to the completion of the copy submitted.
RULE 3. The ground of examination.—The ground or limit of the examination shall be the work done within the current school-year up to the time of the examination and work preliminary thereto, according to the course of study of the institution or schools preparing the work, which course of study shall accompany all manuscripts sent for exhi. bition.
RULE 4. Questions, by ichom prepared and precautions to be obserred. -The questions for examination shall be prepared by the superintendent of schools or some other person not engaged in the instruction of the class or classes under examination, and the utmost care shall be taken that no information in regard to the nature or topics of the questions be circulated among the pupils and that no previous intimation of the ground of examination, except as in Rule 3, be given to the teachers of the classes to be examined.
RULE 5. Manuscripts to be exhibited.-All scbools, colleges, technical schools, special schools, and school systems of towns and cities exbibiting in Class I may be represented, first, by papers prepared as above from one entire class of each grade, in which pen and ink are used in writing, and, second, by not less than one paper in ten selected from all the other manuscripts prepared in the examination.
[NOTE.—It is to be understood that when any grade of pupils, fifthyear grade, for example, is examined, all the pupils in that grade throughout the entire town or city system shall be examined in all branches upon which written examinations are required for transfer; and that thereafter, for each of the subjects, the manuscripts of some one entire class of that grade be taken for exhibition, and also onetenth of all the other manuscripts of that grade; and, further, that the exhibition of manuscripts of entire classes and selected manuscripts shall be especially subject to the following rule:]
RULE 6. Title page and declaration of chief officers.-A title page, after model A, for the papers of entire classes, or after model B for selected papers, shall be inserted in every volume, collection, or set of manuscripts designed for exbibition in Class I; and no papers shall be ad. mitted for exhibition in this class unless accompanied by a declaration from the principal executive officer of the school or other institution of learning thereby represented, that said papers were executed in accordance with the above rules and Rule 7, as below.
NOTE.—The course of study in some towns and cities is divided into eight grades, to correspond approximately with the average time taken for completing the course assigned to primary and grammar schools.
In such cases it will be easy to fill this blank; but, when the number of grades does not correspond with the average number of years thus re. quired, it is desirable that the blank be so filled as to show approxi. mately what year of the course is represented by the manuscripts.
In the title page marked A it might be well to insert the name of the teacher of the class under the words “ one entire class represented."
RULE 7. Ileadings of manuscripts and declarations of students or pupils.-Every manuscript of every pupil or student should be headed, in the pupil's own handwriting, with his name, age, grade, or class, the name of the school or institution of which his class is a part, and the date of the examination. At the foot of the last page it should contain, also in the pupil's own handwriting, a minute of the time taken for the writing of the paper, which must include the whole time elapsing from the putting of the questions before the pupil to the handing in of the copy exhibited. On the completion and handing in of any manuscript or specimen for exhibition under Class I the student or pupil should make the following declaration on a separate slip of paper, over bis own signature, viz: “This accompanying manuscript was written by myself, without aid from any source.”
The manuscripts of every class shall be accompanied by a written declaration, by the teacher or by the one who had charge of the pupils of the class at the time of the examination, that the entire work of the class was done under his own eye and that all the regulations were ob. served as herein prescribed. These certificates, written on separate sheets of paper, shall be sent to the superintendent or other officer bar. ing the direction of the examination. They need not, however, be sent to the Exhibition. (See Rule 6.)
Bound volumes or portfolios of examination papers prepared at any previous time in regular examinations, and without reference to the Centennial or any other “exbibition.”—An exact statement of wbat it purports to be should accompany each collection of this class. Such statement should set forth whether the collection is from an entire class or whether the papers are selected ; and, if selected, what part of an entire grade is represented ; also, the time occupied in the examination, the rules under which it was conducted, and all such other information as may be necessary to enable any one to judge of the merit of the ex. hibition. In Class II may be included also any work of students or pupils connected with, or incident to, school-work, such as collections of insects, plants, shells, &c., collected and arranged by pupils or graduates of schools, colleges, or other institutions of learning; specimens of manual skill in the construction of models of any sort prepared for the illustration of school studies; drawings and specimens of penmanship of special merit; in short, anything which may be fairly exhibited as results of school instruction or training. Every production in this class should be accompanied by a statement of the age, sex, and class of the pupil, the time occupied in producing the article, whether it was made with or without the assistance of professors or teachers, and of all the circumstances wbich should enter into an estimate of its educational value or bearing.
It is not necessary that students or pupils contributing to this class be members of the schools represented during the current year. All that is required is that they should have been bona fide members of the school represented and that the work be directly traceable as the result of school instruction.
MATERIAL TO ILLUSTRATE SYSTEMS OF INSTRUCTION.
Specimens of examination papers, exercises in review, regular lessons or class-exercises of any nature which may be adapted to exbibit and illustrate the course and method pursued in any line of study or instruction, from the commencement to the end thereof, in any public, private, or corporate institution or system of institutions of learning.-The value of any exhibition in this class will not depend so much upon the excel. lence of the specimens submitted as upon the clearness with which they may show, in outline and in detail, the plans and processes of instruction pursued. The specimens should be few, and it is quite indispensable that they be accompanied by written or printed explanations, as the case may seem to demand. More will depend in this department than in any other upon the judgment, invention, and taste of teachers and school officers; more, indeed, than upon the skill with which the schemes may be carried out in practice. Exhibitions in this class may also consist of proposed schemes or syllabuses of instruction in any department of literature, science, or art, without accompanying specimens from pupils, if, from the nature of the case, illustration be impracticable. If, howerer, any scheme is submitted as one which has been adopted in any institution or system of schools, it is not to be accepted as such, unless it be explicitly stated by the highest executive officer of such institution or system that it has been as regularly and systematically carried out in practice as any other work required in the school or schools under his or her care.
DRAWING AND PENMANSHIP.
All exhibitions in drawing and penmanship shall be stamped or otherwise plainly marked as entered for exhibition in Class I, II, or III, as the case may be; and the preparation and display of the same shall be governed by all the rules for the respective classes, and in addition thereto by the following
SPECIAL RULES FOR PENMAXSHIP.
Specimens in penmanship shall be written on paper of the ordinary size of the writing books commonly used in the schools, and shall consist of not less than eight or ten lines of poetry or prose, the selection to be announced only at the time of writing. (See Rule 3.)
No written copy shall be permitted, either on blackboard or elsewhere, in sight of the pupil at the time of writing. Not more than two hours shall be given to the writing of such a specimen after the matter to be written is placed before the pupil.
SPECIAL RULES FOR LABELING DRAWINGS.
The labels are the underscored words, and they are to be used to designate drawings according to the explanations annexed.
In the drawing of problems, the thing required shall be written out in the pupil's own handwriting on the same sheet and side of the sheet with the drawing.
FROM FLAT COPY.
Free-hand.—Drawings from flat copy, without the use of a rule, straight-edge, or measure of any kind at any step of the work.
Semi.free-hand.—Case 1. Drawings from flat copies, in which the construction-lines were made with a rule or in which points were located by the aid of rule or' measure.
Case 2. Drawings made on paper having construction lines or points either made in or printed on the paper.
Instrumental.-Drawings of machines, geometrical or architectural problems, or any kind of drawings made from flat copy, and in which mechanical appliances have been used.
Free-hand.-.Drawing made entirely free hand, line by line or part by part, at dictation of teachers, no rule or measure of any kind being allowed.
Semi-free-hand.-Drawings in which distances were measured or construction-points were located, but otherwise free-hand.
Instrumental.- Drawings in which the rule or measure was freely used.
Frec-hand.- Drawings made entirely free-hand.
Semi-free-hanı.—Drawings in which construction-lines only were made or construction-points were located with the rule or by measure.
Instrumental.-Drawings from memory with the free use of mechanical aids.