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dent, his capabilities, and his mental complexion. These impressions, it is but fair to state, have been formed after five years' constant instruction of Japanese youth, both abroad and in this country.
We can treat our subject best by making a contrast between the Japanese and the western student. The first great point of difference which the foreign instructor notices in Japan is the almost utter absence of any necessity of enforcing obedience. In his own country he knows that among his most important needs are physical vigor and a stern will. To govern a class of boys of the Anglo-Saxon race is like holding the safety-valves of as many steamengines. To control a class of boys at home reqnires the expenditure of an amount of nervous force that many teachers do not possess, which injures the health of many and makes a day's toil in the school-room sovere even to exhaustion. It has become almost a maxim in the United States that no one should be a teacher more than fifteen years of his life. No wonder that the nervous and dyspeptic pedagogue or the worn professor at home looks upon Japan as the teacher's paradise and hails the Japanese student as the embodiment of his ideals. To leave the boys of his own land, who feed their bodies with beef and their brains with the ideas that have made England and the United States what they are, whose constant struggle is to repress their rebellious physical energies, and to come among the quiet, sedentary, and docile race of these islands, is a grateful relief to the nerves of the worn teacher. When, however, the instructor has youth and exuberant health and spirits, he would gladly exchange a little of the easy submissiveness and docility for a little fire and energy, which he misses so much.
The professional teacher comes to Japan with great expectations. In all the typical virtues of the scholar be expects the young native to be superior. In his work the teacher hopes to find the happiness that is to compensate him for his exile from home and congenial associations.
Nor are his expectations too great or doomed to disappointment. He meets as voble young men as ever thirsted for knowledge. He finds that he has but to point the way and his pupils follow. Their perfect trust and confidence in him are as beautiful as their diligence is commendable. It was once said that Japanese youths were fickle, that they changed teachers as often as the moon her form. If this were true in the past it is not so now, at least in the government-schools. The Mombusho have acted energetically in this matter throughout the country and deserve all praise for having enforced their rules requiring & student who enters a school to remain for å term of years. More than this, the very native officials, whose ability to plan and execute a scheme of foreign language we deny and whose utter unfitness to make rules for foreign teachers and to have charge of educational matters, properly so called, we think we have demonstrated by facts, have shown themselves fully able to be the strict wardens and the kind and careful governors of their students in all that is outside of educational matters. In the government of the students, after they leave their foreign instructors, we see little to condemn and much to commend. The native official has demonstrated his fitness to administer discipline and to provide for the daily need of the boarding-pupils and to administer the economics of education. He has done his work, the cost being considered, far better than a foreigner could do it. From the chaos of three years ago, to the order, regularity, and discipline of to-day, is a change that must be as gratifying to the Mombusho as it is to their foreign servants.
The Japanese student of the present no longer scrapes along, untidy in summer and shivering in winter, but comes to school clad as comfortably and appears with as much dignity, all the facts considered, as a critic could desire. The schools of Tokei are rapidly approaching that point when the precision, punctuality, and discipline observed will chal. lenge comparison with the best of Europe or America.
The average Japanese student is bright, quick, eager, earnest, and faithful. He delights his teacher's heart by his docility, his industry, his obedience, his reverence, his politeness. In the course of five years the writer can remember no instance of rudeness, no case of slan. der, no uncanny trick, no impudent reply, from any of his many pupils. Some teachers complain of deception and lying practiced by their pupils; with them we cannot from experience join. Indeed, in almost all the gentler virtues, in abstinence from what is rude,
coarse, and obscene, the average Japanese school-boy is rather the superior of his confrère in the west. In the bereditary virtues of respect to superiors, obedience, politeness, and selfcontrol, he is unquestionably the superior. On the teacher's first entrance among Japanese students who are unused to foreigners, he may notice some peculiarities, allowable in the Japanese code of etiquette, but repulsive to him; but these soon disappear or cease to annoy. In fire, energy, manly independence, and all those positive virtues which are exhibited in action and not in abstinence, the Japanese student is quite inferior to the western student.
In intellectual power and general ability, we are very much inclined to believe that the average Japanese student is the equal of the average western student. Even in the perception and conception of abstract ideas, we are inclined to think him not inferior, provided his knowledge of the vehicle employed—i. e., the language—be equal to that of his rival. We have had two years of experience and observation of Japanese, American, and English students in the same class, and have not been able to detect any difference in their capabilities. Whether the Japanese student can hold his equal way through the highest studies of a foreign university, whether he can go beyond a certain point and win independent conquests by his own intellect with ability equal to that of the foreigner, is a question not yet ripe for solution. To express any positive opinion on this point would be presumptuous, and would be almost tantamount to a decision of the question whether the Japanese intellect is peer to that of the Anglo-Saxon. Some Buckle or Lecky may decide the question a century or two hence, but its discussion can have no practical value at present. The necessary data upon which to found a conclusion must be furnished by the future; they certainly cannot be found in the past.
It has been hard to hold the critic's pen while writing this article. We have striven to express unbiased truth, though many happy, many sad, memories have sorely tempted us to write only as admirer and friend. There seems no grander, no more sublime sight than we have seen in the youth of apan leaving home and country to go to other lands, and there deny themselves comfort and ease to master the languages that would open to them a new world. We have seen them nobly toil, feeding the flame of their intense devotion with their own life's oil. One, two, three, a half-score, have we seen consume with the passion for knowledge, and, dying, regret not their loss, but that of their people, to whom they had hoped to bring back the sacred fire of knowledge and to kindle and pass on the torch in their own dearly-loved, but darkened, land. Some of their sepulchers are with their people and some are on alien but kindly soil. As critic, as friend, we praise the living ; but of the dead, what shall we say? There can be spoken no word so eloquent as their tombs. There can come to their native land no honor greater than their ashes and their fragrant memories. Abroad, there can nothing speak more eloquently the praises of their country, there can be no art or monument embodying the new life of Japan more grandly, more solemnly, than that burial-lot in the quiet college-city of New Brunswick, with its six marble shafts, on which are chiseled names strange to the sculptor, but familiar to the fellow-countrymen of those who sleep beneath.
To the dead, all honor; to the living, all deserved praise. The foreign teacher in Japan, however discouraged and weary, finds his joy, his daily cheer, and his exceeding great reward in his students. To have led the humblest sons of Japan over the arduous road to knowledge, and thus to have helped on the civilization of this very interesting people, is an honor, even though his masters begrudge him appreciation or thanks. Whether in social exile in the interior, away from the stimulating energies and social pleasures of civilized life, or whether annoyed by men whose necessity alone tolerates bim, the honor of being a teacher of such eager and grateful pupils must be and is sufficient.
IV.-NATIVE TEACHERS. The study of foreign languages and science, though extremely important, constitutes but a part of education in Japan. A scheme of national instruction for this country must necessarily include more that refers to the education of the people in their own than in a foreign tongue. Only a small portion of the rising generation will obtain a knowledge of foreign
languages and science, and a still smaller number will be brought under the direct instruction of foreign teachers. The rest, who constitute a vast majority, will, it is hoped, receive the best sort of education which an improved system of schools and instructors can furnish them.
To the creation of an improved system of public instruction in the vernacular and the training of a corps of qualified teachers, the best energies of the education-department are pledged and will doubtless be given.
At present the demand for intelligent young men, able to speak a foreign language, trained to western methods, and instructed in western learning, is far greater than the supply. In & few years this will cease to be the case ; whereas, of natives well educated in their own language, there is not the slightest danger of there ever being too many. Hence the great inportance of that department of the work of the Mombusho which relates to the supply of native teachers.
The new education in Japan will be radically different from the old ; hence the necessity for a new type of native teachers. The Japanese schools of the future will be organized on western principles and after western models, and foreign science and methods of instruction are to be introduced. In these schools the old typical Japanese teacher will be an anachronism.
The need of properly-qualified native instructors is one of the greatest, if not the greatest, of the many needs of Japan. The sudden, almost violent, revolution in educational as well as political ideas, through which this country has passed, has discovered that sore need. It is quite safe to say that hitherto the western idea of a trained teacher and of a science of teaching has been unknown to the natives of this country.
That this is true seems to be abundan:ly proved by their persistence in employing men in their schools who were unfit to be teachers and also by their treatment of the professional teachers whom they brought from other countries. Further, their ideas of what an education ought to be were as different from the ideas now expressed in the school-systems of foreigu nations as those of the mediæval school-men differed from those of Herbert Spencer.
So long as the old education of Japan consisted merely in obtaining what we consider the mere work-tools and so long as they made an end of what we count the means, it could not be expected that instructors, such as are now needed, should appear. Every foreigner who has attempted the study of the Japanese language knows by experience that teachers, such as are numbered by thousands at home, cannot, or rather could not, be found in Japan. However learned the native might be, however diligent and earnest his pupil, it was not possible to make a teacher and to master a language at the same time. The native, knowing nothing of his own language by critical or analytical study, and the idea that a language could be mastered in any other way than by slavish repetition being entirely new to him, was unable to impart to a foreigner what was perfectly familiar to himself. The helpless learner, by dint of much direct- and cross-questioning and at much expense of perspiration and patience, might succeed in making himself a pump-handle and in persuading his teacher to be a pump. Usually, however, the patience of the pupil became exhausted, and the native remained as before, a deep well of Japanese undefiled.
The old typical Japanese teacher is rapidly passing away. Like the ripe scholar of other lands he has fallen out of his place, because his work was done. Learning was the chief qualification of the old native teacher; skill, ability to impart his acquisitions, were his last requirements. His chief duty was to stuff and cram the minds of his pupils. To expand or * develop the mental powers of a boy, to enlarge his mental vision, to teach him to think for himself, would have been doing precisely what it was the teacher's business to prevent. So long as education consisted in a tread-mill-round of committing to memory the Chinese classics, learning to read Japanese history and government-edicts, to write, and to reckon on the abacus, such a thing as mental development was unknown. There was but one standard, the Chinese classics. Every departure from these was a false step, everything new must be wrong. Under the Sho-gun's government, for centuries, the suppression of mental development was reduced to a system, if not to a science. That same usurpation which robbed the true ruler of this empire of his authority sought to crush all mental enterprise and to shackle the intellect of Japan beyond all hope of growth. Science was never taught, mathematics was confined to the four fundamental rules of arithmetic. Independent thought and investigation were branded as criminal. The might of priesteraft hedged in the mind in the direction of metaphysical speculation. The Chinese classics dominated, with a despotism that can at the best be but faintly conceived by a foreigner, over the field of politics and morals; while the all-overshadowing power of the great usurper in Yedo prevented all historical research, study, or composition, except what related to the distant past. Shut off from all contact with other intellects, the "ripe scholar" and the “great teacher" of old Japan were but school-men. The intellect of this nation, like the arboreal wonders of the Japanese florist, with its tap-root cut, deprived of fertilizing moisture, and stinted as to soil, became like the admired dwarf-pines four inches high, and as gnarled and as curious as they.
The manner of life of the old Japanese instructor was to squat on the floor with his five or six pupils about him on the same seat, who supported their elbows on a sort of table one foot high. Beginning with the first, he taught each pupil the pronunciation of the Chinese characters ; after the entire book had been committed to memory by sound, without any reference to sense, the pupil began again, and learned from his teacher the meaning of the characters. On the third reading the book was expounded to the pupil. Rarely did a class number more than six pupils. The work of the teacher was simply oral communication and that of the pupil imitation; memorizing and copying constituted a Japanese youth's education ; the old teachers of Japan and the Chinese scholars, though a very respectable body of men, did undoubtedly help to repress the intellect of their countrymen, and must be looked upon as co-workers with the bonze and the official spy.
The old teacher poured in; the new teacher must draw out; the old teacher was a drillmaster, the new one must be that and more ; the old one stifled questioning, the new one must encourage it. We believe it to be the right of every student to drain his instructor dry; a scholar, unless manifestly endeavoring to waste the time of the teacher and class, should be heard and answered. The teacher should be very careful how he calls any question foolish.
The native teacher of the future must depend less on traditional authority and more on the resources of a richly-furnished mind. He must be a student himself; he must be able to get ont of the ruts ; he must be capable of developing the minds of youth, not merely of stuffing them; he must welcome the appearance of an unusually bright and eager mind as a gem to be polished with extra care, and not as a stone to be crushed into regulation-shape and size for the common turnpike-road. The new teacher must banish his pipe and pouch, his "hibachi" and tea-cups from the school-room ; he must taboo his lounges and abandon the habit of being regularly sick; he must stand up to his work. The great difference between a foreigner and a Japanese is that one stands up to his work and the other sits down at it. He who can stand can do more and better work than he who sits. We have set forth our ideal of a teacher in a former paper. Is it too high for a Japanese to aspire to ? We think not.
The measures taken and the institution established to supply the need of good native teacbers we have described at length elsewhere. 'Our former article on the Tokei normal schools details the method pursued and the system set on foot by the education-department, for which they deserve all praise. If the native officials are not in too great a hurry to dismiss the foreigner who now serves them, their enterprise will undoubtedly turn out, as it now bids fair to do, a splendid success. That the young men now training there have it in them to make good teachers, we fully believe. The social customs of this country and the habits of the Japanese mind are invaluable aids to the native teacher, as we have in another article intimated they are to the foreign teacher. The temptations of the new Japanese teacher are that he will yield to ease and indolence, undervalue strict discipline, and be too easily satisfied to keep in the ruts of mere authority, and thus lead his pupils after him. We hold to the belief that scholars are largely what their teachers make them, provided they are not changed frequently. Every possible encouragement should be given both by the government and the people to elevate the social as well as the intellectual standing of the teacher. In a country like this, where the government is creator and leader of public sentiment, most of this work inust be done by the personal encouragement of high officials. It is very gratifying to kuow that His Majesty the Emperor and the Empress have so conspicuously shown their great interest in education by visits of inspection to the chief schools of Tokei. “It is the prerogative of royalty to do good by presence alone.” Besides this, one who reads of the frequent and often generous private contributions to the cause of education in Japan cannot but believe that the coming native teacher will be appreciated. Certainly the mission of the teacher in Japan is a noble one, and to be envied. His country is passing through social revolutions in which he may be not only a helper, but in a large sense a leader. To be one of the “beginners of a better time,” to be in the advance of a new and nobler civilization, to rescue his fellow-countrymen from superstition and to shield them from priesteraft, both native and foreign, is a high and glorious aspiration. To all, then, whether enjoying the advantages of the excellent course of the Tokei normal schools or whether attempting self-development under foreign helpers abroad or ‘at home, we send fraternal greetings and congratulations. We hope that soon it may be said of Japan as emphatically as Brougham said it of England, “ the school-master is abroad in the land." The teacher's office is even more honorable than the soldier's, in that he defends his country from ignorance, a foe worse than foreign enemies. The teacher may be greater than the civil ruler ; for while one governs all kinds of citizens, the teacher makes good ones. That it is in the power of Japan, under that divine Providence that is no respecter of nations, to produce as noble specimens of the teacher's calling as are Wolsey, Hopkins, or Hadley in America, and as Temple, Arnold, or Jowett are in England, we do not doubt. Such men, however, are but growths of the social soil and mental atmosphere of their respective countries. To help in preparing the soil and atmosphere necessary to grow the men, character, and intellects who will adorn Japan as the western lands are adorned, is the work of honor and difficulty which now devolves on the department of education.