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Trade control and its discontinuance.
DRAPERS' COMPANY.

'I he earliest accounts in the possession of the company Company

are those of the wardens for the year 1415. In that year never conFoundation and Object.

the number of members is shown to exceed 100, and

amongst the members were included persons not of the of craft. The Drapers' Company derives its origin from an ancient craft, the parson of St. Martin Ongar being entered as

Evidence of guild of dealers in cloth formed for social and religious as owing quarterage. The income for the year is 371. 15s. 6d., 1415 as to well as for commercial purposes. The site of the founda- derived from the rent of houses, assessments for proces. objects of

tion of this brotherhood is unknown, but as a guild of sions, fees on apprenticeship and freedoms, and for fines Early guild. weavers existed in London as early as 40 years after the

and quarterage. The expenditure for the same year is Conquest, the probability is that the dealers in cloth there 231. 12s. 6d. and includes payments to chaplains for Divine had also formed a guild by that time. Fifty years later, in Services, repairs of houses, salary of the beadle, expenses the reign of Henry II., there were many such dealers in to Bartholomew and Westminster fairs on the corupany's the provincial towns, trading in cloths of both British and

making their trade search, payments to minstrels, and for foreign manufacture under licences received from the

hoods or garlands and meat and drink for them, hire of King.

horses for persons to ride with the mayor and sheriffs and Legis.

The reign of Edward III., as is well known, witnessed a to meet the King and Queen Dowager on the King's Edward III. great development of the English cloth manufacture. In

return to London after the battle of Agincourt, payments to protect 1338 the King, by statute (1) prohibited the exportation of for table cloths and garlands, and for the Lord Mayor's English

English wool and the importation of cloth from abroad; mess; the Lord Mayor for that year being of the company. cloth manufacture. (2) abrogated some useless provisions of Magna Charta The company's records contain no statement as to when Cessation with regard to the widths in which English cloth was to be

the company ceased to have the charge of Blackwell Hall, of trade manufactured. He, at the same time, invited a number of but early in the 17th century their control over the trade

Backwell' skilful weavers* from the Low Countries to settle in

had considerably diminished. The wardens last attended Hall Pairs. London under his protection.

to search at Southwark and Bartholomew fairs in 1737.
The earliest ordinances of which the company have any There are at present 17 members of the drapery and
record, and which are dated 1418, purport to be a revision upholstery trade on the livery, and some of the new
of an earlier set made in 1322, five years before Edward III. apprentices bound at the company's hall are apprenticed to
came to the throne.

drapers and members of other allied trades.
Description The matters regulated by these ordinances are, in the
of ordi.
words of the return, “ The finding of two priests to sing

Constitution and Privileges.
original for the whole fraternity, maintenance of an altar light, Court.-The court consists of the master, four wardens, Courts.
guild.

“ giving of livery, annual meetings at Divine Service, elec- and 25 assistants. The election takes place pursuant to
“ tion of wardens, contributions for the annual feast, pay- the charter. Two of the livery are annually elected
“ ment of quarterage, choosing new livery, relief of poor wardens, and after a year of office take their places as
“ members, funeral services, and the remembrance of the

assistants.
souls of deceased brethren and sisters by the company's No fine or fee is paid on adenission to the governing body.

priests, attendance at meetings of the fellowship, correc- The business of the conipany is transacted at courts. Committee:.
" tion of members, and settlement of bargains between Routine business is dealt with by committees, and com-
them, meetings for processions, time of attendance at

mittees are also occasionally appointed to consider and
Westminster, Bartholomew, and Southwark fairs, keep-

report upon special matters.
ing secret the counsel of the fellowship, dealings with A fee of three guineas is paid in respect of every attend- Fecs.
foreigners (i.e., persons not free of the city), employment ance at a court. The sums thus paid have been on an
of apprentices and journeymen, and settlement of dis-

average 3,2251. a year during the last 10 years.
putes between them and their masters, enrolment of

The opinion of the court is taken, sometimes by show of apprentices, yearly rendering of accounts by the wardens,

hands, sometimes by ballot, and occasionally by division, salary of the beadle, reading of the ordinances, and als)

the master having a casting vote in case of equality. regulations as to the persons who shall attend at feasts,

Persons are removable from the court in case of bank" and the order of sitting in the hall.”

ruptcy or for other gooil cause. The company's first charter, granted by Edward III., in

Members are generally of 36 years standing when they 1365, recites in the preamble that the dyers, weavers, and

reach the court, and they remain on it generally for about fullers have become makers of cloth, and refused to work

12 years. the cloth of others, except at excessive prices, and that Members:—During the last 50 years 1,583 persons have Number of there was “hardly a shop in the City of any trade in which been admitted freemen, 500 by service, 1,047 by patrimony, “ drapery was not more or less exposed for sale," the cloth

five by gift, and 31 by rerlemption. There are no means thus indiscriminately sold being often high in price and of ascertaining how many of these persous are still living. defective in quality. The charter ordains that

none shall

During the last 10 years 273 persons have been admitted,
Edward ill. 66
Promiscuous
use the mystery of drapery in the City of London unless

28 by service, 240 by patrimony, and tive by redemption.
“ he has been apprenticed thereto, or in other due manner The fees on admission by service or patrimony are Fees.
“ admitted by common consent of the said mystery, and that nominal, that on admission by redemption is 1141.
“ each of the said mysteries of the dyers, weavers, and A large number of apprentices are bound at the com- Apprentices.
“ fullers shall keep to their proper craft, and not meddle pany's hall or placed out by the company, the expense of
“ with the making, purchase, or sale of drapery, upon

apprenticing being, in many cases, defrayed out of trust pain of imprisonment and forfeiture of the cloth or its

funds devoted to this purpose. 654 bindings have taken
" value, and that none shall sell cloth within the city or

place within the last 10 years, and 17,0001. has been thus
“ suburbs except drapers free of the said mystery.” The expended.
company receives the usual powers of trade controi.

The livery is unlimited in number. The number of the Livery.
The trade in woollen cloth was from the earliest timet

livery, including the court, is 302. The number of calls to
regulated by statutes, none of which, however, seem to the livery during the past 10 years has been 83. The fine on Fine.

have in any way affected the position of the company. admission to the livery is 251. Most of the members of Blackwell In 1405 the company received from the municipality the

the company are free of the City. charge of Blackwell Hall, the only authorised market for

Privileges.— The members of the court are entitled to the sale of woollen cloth in the City of London.

some small bequests in addition to the above fees.

Those of the livery who are otherwise qualified have the Liverymen Charters.

parliamentary and municipal franchise.“ In ori'er to be not elixille The company has received charters as follows :come eligible for pecuniary assistance they have to retire

for pensions

or donations, (1.) Edward III., 1364.

from the livery, in which case they receive back the amount (2.) Henry VI., 1438.

of their fines. * (3.) Henry VI., 1439.

Pensions and donations.-The suns paid on an average Sums thus (4.) Edward IV., 1466.

annually to members, their widows and daughters, from paid to
(5.) Edward IV., 1479.

the trust and corporate incoine have been :-
(6.) Richard III., 1481.
(7.) Philip and Mary, 1558.

Pensions, including those paid to inmates
(8.) Elizabeth, 1560.

of the company's almhouses, &c.

4,017 (9.) James I., 1607.

Donations

705 (10.) James I., 16:9.

4,722

In 1879 there were 125 pensioners and 155 donees. These Walloons accepted the King's invitation because of the oppression to which their trade gulds were subjected ly the aristocratic municipalities. Hallan's Middle Ages, Vol. 1., p. 350.

* In 1834 members of the court were eligible for pensions amounting † As late as 1640, 57 statutes relating to the trade were in force.

in some cases to 2001. a year, without retirement.

freemen.

Charter of

sale of cloth and interference of cognate trades.

llall.

freemen.

Officers and Servants. The salaries of the English officers, (1) clerk, accountant, chaplain, and office clerk ; (2) Irish officers, agent, surveyor, and land agent; and (3) servants, beadle, butler, porters, &c., amount to about 4,0001. a year. The beadle has also a house.

Property.
Corporate Property.
Real estate.

The company possesses house property in the City of London and Southwark producing a r nal of 35,0001. a year.

Of this sum about 25,0001. a year aises from tenements let on long leases. The remaining 10,6001. a year arises from premises let at rack rent.

* The estate consists of about 100 sets of premises, offices, warehouses, shops, show-rooms, wharves, &c., in

Mark Lane, Cannon Street, Cheapside, Cornbill, the Poultry, Eastcheap, St. Swithin's Lane, and other parts of the City, and also in Tooley Street, Southwark. It includes the offices called Drapers' Gardens in Throgmorton Street, recently built by the company under an Act of Parliament, and let at a rent of 15,0001. a year.

Of the total rental of 35,0001. about 18,0001, according to the return, arises from lands, including the site of Drapers' Gardens, which have been purchased by the company themselves, and almost the whole of the remaining 17,0001. is derived either from “obit” lands or from absolute gifts to the company in its corporate right.

The dates of the wills which the company takes its title are as follows: Harlewyn, 1478, Eburton, 1490, Calley, 1513, Cremor, 1506, Clerke, 1548, Brothers, 1541, Prud, 1533, Meggs, 1595.

Only a small fraction of the rental according to the return arises from lands held by the company subject to charitable uses.

The company possesses also a farm at Purleigh, Essex, rated at 3291. a year, and a few small rentcharges and rents for rights and rights of ways.

The rateable value of the company's hall and garden is 6,2501. Those of the company's almhouses and other premises is 4,0221.

The company's Irish estate is situated in the barony of Irish estate. Loughinghollen, Londonderry, and includes lands in the parishes of Arboe, Ardtrea, Lissan, Derry loran, Tamlaglit, Desertlyn, Desertmartin, Kilcronaghan, Magliera, and Ballynascreen.

The gross annual rental is 14,5001. The estate is subject to tithe redemption charge payable in annual instalments of 7221. The total outgoings appear to be about 4,0001. a year, including expenses and inprovements.

The acreage is 27,000, and the number of tenants 100. The tenants, with the exception of a very few, who pay less than 51. a year rent, hold under lease. The leases are for 31 years in case of rents of 15l. a year and upwards, for 21 years in case of rents above 51. but under 151. The Ulster custoin applies to the greater part of the estate. The tenant right of the farms sold during the

year

1279 averaged 22 years purchase on the rent paid by the tenant. Personal Property.

The

company possesses about Personal 21,0001. stock, arising from the sale of lands or otherwise, proporty. and producing dividends of about 6001. a year.

The estimated value of the plate, pictures, &c. of the company, including their wine, is 16,0191.

City property.

* By the charter of James I., the Drapers' Company are stated to possess either by legal title or without legal title, the following property which is thereby confirmed to them :

The capital message, with appurtenances called Diapers' Hall, with the gardens, buildings, curtilages, messuages, and tenements thereto belonging, in the parish of St. Peter-le-Poer, in the ward of Broad Street, and the parish of St. Stephen, Coleman Street, London, or either of them. Also ten messuages or tenements adjoining Drapers' Hall, and a garden in the aforesaid parish of St. Peter-le-Poer, in the separate occupition of certain persons therein mentioned. And ten messuages or tenements lying together in Lothbury, in the parish of St. Margaret, Lothbury. Ånd two messnages or tenements, formerly one in Lothbury, in the said parish of St. Margaret, Lothbury. And eight messuages or tenements lying together in the parish of St. Stephen, Coleman Street. And four messuages or tenements, and nine stables, with garden to the aforesaid tenements or buildings, near London Wall, and in the parish of St. Alphage, near Cripplegate. And a capital messnage, and three mes. suages or tenements adjoining, in the parish of St. Mary Bassishaw. And ten messuages or tenements, formerly three messuages and five tenements. in Beech Lane, in the parish of St. Giles Without, Cripple. gate. And all those eight messuages, tenements, or almshouses adjoining the last-mentioned messages or tenements situate in Beech Lane and parish aforesaid. And all those ten other messuages or tenements, with stables and appurtenances, formerly one messuage known by the name of the Bull, situate in West Sinithfield, in the parish of St. Sepulchre Without, Newgate. And all those five messunges or tenements, formerly one messuage, in West Smithfield, in the said parish. And all that messuage or tenement in St. Nicholas Shambles, in the parish of Christ Church, London. And all that other messunge in St. Nicholas Shambles, and parish aforesaid. And all those two nessuages adjoining each other in the parish of St. Michael-le-Querne. And all those two other messuages or tenements adjoining each other in the parish of All Saints, Honey Lane. And all that messuage called the Gout, and another mes. suage adjoining in Westcheap, in the parish of All Saints, Honey Lane. And all that messuage or tenement, being a corner house situate in Westcheap aforesaid, in the parish of St. Mary-le-Bow. And all that other messunge or tenement in Bow Lane, otherwise Cordwainer Street, in the parish of St. Mary Aldermary. And all that other corner house in Watling Street and Soper Lane, in the parish of St. Antholin. And all those three messuages or tenements, formerly two, in Walbrook, in the parish of St. John the Baptist, Walbrook. And all that capital mes. suage called the Herber, and a messunge or inn called the Chequer. And all those sixteen messuages or tenements, and two stables near adjoining the said capital messuage, situate in the parish of St. Mary Bothaw. And all those four messuages at or near Dowgate, in the parish of St. Michael Paternoster. And all those three nessuages or tenements, formerly two, situate near London Stone, in the parish of St. Mary Bothaw. And all that corner messuare or tenement situate in Candlewick Street and Abchurch Lane. in the parish of St. Mary Abchurch. And all that capital messuage, and cight other messuages adjoining in St. Swithin's Lane, in the parish of St. Swithin. And all that messuage or tenement in Sherbourne Lane, in the parish of St. Mary Woolnothi. And all that tenement in Sherbourne Lane, in the parish last aforesaid. And all those four messuages or tenements adjoining in Berebynder Lane, in the parish of St. Mary Woolchurch. And all those three mes. suazes in Cornbill, in the parish of St. Christopher. And all those six messuages or tenements in the aforesaid parish of St. Christopher. And all that messuage or tenement in the parish of St. Boltoph Without, Aldersgate. And all those two messuages or tenements, formerly one, in Cornhill, in the parish of St. Michael. And all that other messuage or tenement in Cornhill and the parish last aforesaid. And all that ad. vowson and right of patronage of and in the parish church of St. Michael, Cornhill. And all those two messuages or tenements, formerly one, in Birchin Lane, in the parish of St. Edmund the Kink, Lombard Street. Another corner messnage or tenement in Birchin Lane and Lombard Street aforesaid, in the parish of St. Edmund the King. And all those four messunges or tenements lying together, formerly one messnage and two tenements in the several parishes of St. Nicholas Acon, St. Mary Abchurch, or in one of them. And all those five messuazes or tenements lying together in Thames Street and St. Laurence Pountney Lane, in the parish of St. Laurence Pountney: And all that other messungeor tenement on New Fish Street Hill, in the parish of St. Margaret, Bridge Street, otherwise New Fislı Street, and all that other messnage or tenement and a wharf called Bell Wharf, and fourteen messuages or tenements adjacent in the parish of St. Olave, in the borough of Southwark. And all those eleven messuages or tenements in the said parish of St. Olave, nearly adjoining the wharf and premises last mentioned. Ind all those two messunges or tenements in Buttolph Lane, in the parish of St. Botolph, Billingsgate. And all that messuage or tenement in Petty Wales, in the parish of All Hallows, Barking. And all those 13 alms. houses, in the parish of St. Olave, near the Tower. And all that mes. suage or tenement in Tower Street, in the parish of All Hallows, Barking. And all that capital messuage in Mark Lane in the aforesaid parish of All Hallows, Barking. And all those four messuages or tenements lying together in Mark Lane, in the aforesaid parish of All Hallows, Staining. And all those two messuages or tenerents at or near the end of Tower Street, in the parish of St. Dunstan-in-the-West. And all those three messuages, formerly one corner messuage, near Tower Street, in the parish of St. Margaret Pattens. And all those six messuages near adjoining the last-mentioned three messuages in the parish last men. tioned. And all those three messuages and a shed in the said parish of St. Margaret Pattens. And all those eight messuages or tenements ad. joining in the parish of St. Andrew Hubbard. And all those nine mes. suages lying together in or near Little Eastcheap and Philpot Lane, in the aforesaid parish of St. Andrew Hubbard. And all that messuage in Gracious Street, in the parish of St. Benet, Gracechurch. And all that annuity or yearly rent of 521. 108., arising out of messuages, lands, tene. ments, and hereditaments, in the parish of St. Lconard, Shoreditch, formerly in tenure or occupation of Robert Russell, and all buildings, erections, &c., thereto belonging,

Trust Property. The company is trustee of some 80 charities, the joint income of which is about 28,0001. a year. Of this sum about 18,0001. arises from rents, about 10,0001. from dividends. The estates producing the rents are much scattered. A considerable proportion arises from house property in the City and in Middlesex, but the company possesses trust lands of various descriptions in ten of the counties of England besides Middlesex.

In the statement of “income and expenditure” trust property is excluded.

The charitable income is thus distributed :

Internal Charities. It is difficult to estimate the sum applicable to the almshouses and poor of this company. The sum paid as above includes a contribution from the corporate income. Perhaps the sum allotted to these purposes in the company's trust funds is about 3,0001. a year. Of this sum about 1,5001. would appear to be charged on land, house property in Gracechurch Street, Cooper's Row, Shoreditch, &c.

The almshouses were formerly on the sight of the property in Cooper's Row, but have been transferred to Tottenham. External Charities.- Almahouses : (1.) Queen Elizabeth's College, Greenwich.—A founda

tion supporting a chaplain and about 40 almspeople from the neighbourhood of Greenwich. The income of the charity is upwards of 2,0001. a year, about 1,6001. of which arises from house

property at Greenwich and farms in Kent. (2.) Almshouses for the poor of certain parishes in

Newington and Shoreditch, with an endowment of about 3,0001. a year, of which 2,0001. arises from house property in the City and Islington, and some agricultural land in Kent. These almshouses are administered under a scheme framed

in Chancery. (3.) Lucas's Hospital at Wokinghamı, with an income

of about 6001. a year, 4001. of which arises from farms in Bedfordshire.

Schools : (4.) Bancroft's Hospital, consisting of a free middle

class school and almhouses at Mile End, with an income of upwards of 5,0001. a year, about 3,0001. of which arises partly from house property in the City and partly from farms in Essex and Sussex. The number of pupils is apparently about 100. The company have recently offered the Charity Commissioners to devote 50,0001. towards the

extension of this school. (5.) Howell's Girls' Orphanages at Llandaff and Den

bigh, with an income of upwards of 6,0001. a year, more than 5,0001. of which is derived from house property in the City, a very valuable estate in Austin Friars, Throgmorton Street, &c., and a farm in Kent. The number of girls educated is

about 100. (6.) A small school at Bow, with an inadequate endow

ment, which is considerably supplemented by the

company. (7.) The Greencoat Hospital, at Greenwich, a middle

class school for the sons of inhabitants at Greenwich, with an income of about 1,0001. a year, arising chiefly from the rents of houses in East

Greenwich. (8.) A female orphan school at Tottenham, with an

income from dividends of upwards of 1,0001. a year. The company have largely assisted this

charity out of their corporate funds. Apprenticeship, loan and prison charities, &c. : (9.) A large number of benefactions for the purposes of

apprenticing youths (see above), with an income of upwards of 2,0001. a year. The charities are administered under a scheme in Chancery.

(10.) “ Loan” charities administered under a scheme

in Chancery and “prison charities," the income of the latter being applied by the consent of the Charity Commissioners to the foundation of

scholarships at elementary schools in London. (11.) Doles and payments to the poor of several

parishes in the City, and of several provincial towns and villages, and sums for the endowment of sermons and lectures by clergymen, and other miscellaneous objects, including the Arabic pro

fessorship at Cambridge. The company have themselves founded and maintain out of their corporate funds, at an expense of 3,0001. a year, the Drapers' College at Tottenham, a middle-class school for the education of the children and grand-children of freemen.

Exhibitions. The company is trustee of two small scholarships tenable at Oxford and Cambridge, the amounts of which they have agreed to considerably augment.

Church Patronage. The company are patrons of St. Michael's, Cornhill, the value of which is stated in the Clergy List to be 7931. ; it is believed to be considerably more.

They have also the appointment of a clerical lecturer at Bristol, and of the master of Lucas's Hospital at Wokingham, who is a clergyman.

General and Technical Education. The Company have voted 10,0001. to Finsbury Technical College, and 4,0001. a year to the City and Guilds of Lon. don Technical Institute.

The following are the amounts expended by the company during the last 10 years in furtherance of General and Technical Education, it is not stated whether wholly out of corporate funds :

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Income and Expenditure. (Corporate). The following is the statement furnished by the company for 1878 and 1879:

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Act of

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Foundation and Object.
The guild of Fishmongers out of which the Fishmongers' Guild of
Company sprang, unquestionably existed prior to the reign Fish.
of Henry II., 1154.

It was an association or brotherhood mongers. of persons having for its object the mutual protection of the members, especially in their trade of fishmongers, the promotion of social intercourse, and the making provision for indigent members, their widows and children. The guild appears to have early received from the municipality of London a monopoly of certain branches of the trade in fish, with power to prescribe rules for the government of the mystery.

The first charter which incorporated the guild was Charter and granted by Edward I. on his accession in 1272. It appears

Edw. I., to have perished. In the same year a statute was passed 1272. prohibiting partnership in fish with foreigners who bring it in their ships, thereby to enhance the price, and ordaining that none shall store up fish in cellars, to retail afterwards at exorbitant rates, or buy before the King's purveyors

have made their choice, and that no fish except sait fish shall be kept in London beyond the second day, on pain of forfeiture of the fish and being fined at the king's pleasure.

*Mr. Herbert states that the City“ Assize of a Fyscher” “Assize of a maad in consequence of this Act limits the profit of a Fyscher." London fishmonger to a penny in the shilling. It also forbids forestalling and regrating the market, to prevent which, none were to sell their fish “

secretly within doors," but to “sel it in piayne market place.” Also no fishmonger was to water fish twice or sell what was bad. If Continuance he broke either of these regulations he was to be amerced of trade for the first offence 12 pence, for the second 20 pence, and legislation. for the third to be “ jugyd to a pair of stockys openly in the marketplace.” For the next 200 years the English trade in fish was regulated by numerous statutes. Of these the best known appears to be the statute of Westminster, 13 Edward II. c. 17, for the preservation of salmon; the latest an Act of Edward IV. passed in 1483, which prescribes various regulations for the package of small fish.

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Rates, taxes, rents, and insurance
Repairs, furniture, and plate.
Law expenses
Annual subscriptions, donations, and pen-

sions
Salaries to officers and servants in England
Coal, lighting, and stationery
Salaries to agents, bailiffs, &c. in Ireland,

and charges of management in respect of

Irish.estates Disbursements for courts and committees,

including dinners Disbursement on account of public enter

tainments at the hall Expended on works of a public nature, and

invested in buildings, improvements, and plantations in Ireland New buildings, in England Incidental expenses

TOTAL EXPENDITURE

2,007 14 6

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(See Mr. Hare's report as to (1) Buck's charity, (2) the Hazlewood charity, (3) Bancroft's Hospital, (4) "loan ” trusts, (5) Cullum's charity, (6) Granger's charity, (6) Howell's charity, (7) Walter's Almshouses, (8) Sir John Milborne's Almshouses.)

• Vol. II., p. 10.

tion of

courts."

chuirter of

as

tation.

Freemen.

Fish

The fishmongers' quarter and markets lay between In addition to their early byelaws, an abstract of which Recent byemongers'

Billingsgate and Upper Thames Street, as the names Old forms part of the return, the Company procured in 1843 laws, quarters.

Fish Street, Fish Street Hill, Fishmonger's Lane, and also and 1860 byelaws regulating the time for which the wardens
that of Friday Street, where fish was sold for use on fast are to hold office.
days, testify.*

Vacancies are filled by elections from the livery. In the Elections. Stock fish- Of the trade in fish not comprised in the early guild, the case of equality, a new election is held, the chairman, the mongers. mystery of Stock fishmongers was one of the most impor- master or his deputy, not having a casting vote. Not

tant. There was a fish inarket called Stocks Market, more than one member can be elected at a single court.
now on the site of the Mansion House, and also one in' The mode of voting is by ballot.
Stockfishmonger Row, near London Bridge, the names of A fine of 331. 13s. 6d. is payable on admission to the Fine.
which places and of the trade are attributed by Stow to the court.
circumstances of the stocks used at the “ fyschers' assize" Courts are held monthly for general business.

In Courts. being stowed on the spot. The Stock fishmongers received addition seven courts are held during the year called Consolida

a separate charter. They and other guilds carrying on the “relief courts,” specially for the purpose of considering “Relief trules under trade in fish were by the undermentioned charter of Henry cases of claims to charitable assistance preferred by poor Henry VII.

VIII., 1537, consolidated with the Fishmongers’ Company members, and also for that of considering motions for grants

defined and incorporated by the charter received of money to purposes external to the Company, whether from Edward I.

charitable or public. It is the duty of the renter warden,

and his successor designate, once a year to visit all the Annual visiCharters.

pensioners residing in London or within six or seven miles The Company has raised charters as follows, viz. :- of it, and from the number of the pensioners and the dis. (1.) Edward I., 1272. Lost.

tance to be traversed this visitation occupies several days. (2.) Edward II., 1307. Lost.

Special branches of the Company's business are deputed Committer. (3.) Edward III., 1327. Lost.

to committees, of which there are seven, consisting of (4.) Edward III., 1364. Extant.

from three to twelve members respectively. The committees (5.) Edward III., 1365. Proclamations (2).

are (1) the committee of wardens, (2) the committee for (6.) Richard II., 1399.

general purposes, (3) the account committee, (4) the audit (7.) Henry VI., 1427. Inspeximus of preceding. committee, (5) the Irish estate committee, (6) the sub(8.) Henry VI., 1433.

Irish estate committee, (7) the wine committee. (9.) Henry VII., 1508.

Fees of one guinea are payable for attendance at courts (10.) Henry VIII., 1537.

and committees. The sum thus paid amounts to about
(11.) Edward VI., 1518.

2,0001. a year.
(12.) Edward VI., 1551. Repurchase of forfeited lands. Members of the court are liable to removal in case of
(13.) Mary, 1553.

bankruptcy or misconduct.
(14.) Elizabeth, 1559.

They are on an average of nine or ten years standing
(15.) Elizabeth, 1569.

when they reach the court.
(16.) James I.,+ 1604.
(17.) Charles II., 1684.
(18.) William and Mary, 1690.

Members.
(19.) George III., 1815. Inspeximus of Charter of

The number of freemen and freewomen cannot be
James I.

stated.
Control of Trade.

The livery consists of 432 members including the court.
Fish meters. The Company has always exercised the jurisdiction con-

ferred upon it by its several charters by the appointment of
“ fish meters,” whose main duty is to be in constant
attendance at Billingsgate Market for the purpose of Nominal fees are charged in respect of taking out the Fees.
examining the wholesomeness of the fish offered for sale, freedom by patronage or servitude ; the fee in respect of Freedom of
with power to condemn any fish which may be proved to the freedom by purchase is 1131. 10s. 6d.

the city. be unsound.

Candidates for freedom by purchase are elected by the
At the present time the Company have in their employ court and required to be proposed by a member to whom
three such fish meters, whose salaries, as well as the

they are personally known.
charges under a contract for deodorising and removing in A freeman by purchase is required to become free of the
barges the condemned fish are paid out of the general funds city.
of the Company.

Others are not compelled to do so, but no freeman of the
The fish meters make a daily return to the Company of Company can take an apprentice except on production of a
the quantity of fish brought to market, and a monthly copy of his freedom of the city.
return of the quantity of unwholesome fish which has been Forty apprentices have been bound at the Company's
seized and condemned by them. The nionthly returns are hall during the last 10 years, eight of them to fish-
published. A number are sent to the Cominissioners as

mongers.
an exhibit to the Company's return.

The livery fine is 311. 158. Candidates are elected by
Fisheries

The Company also discharge the duty of prosecuting vote of the court on the nomination of one of its members.
offenders against the provisions of the Fisheries (Oyster, The candidate must obtain a majority of the votes of those
Crab, and Lobster) Act, 40 and 41 Vict. c. 42, which is

present.
chiefly directed against the offence of exposing for sale Liverymen are removable for just cause.
undersized fish or fish in close time."

During the last 10 years there have been 364 admissions
There are at present 39 liverymen connected with the

to the freedom, 257 by patrimony, 33 by servitude, 69 by
trade.

redemption, and five by gift.

The number of admissions (not “calls ") to the livery
Constitution and Privileges.

which have taken place during the same period has been
Governing Body.— The court consists, as directed by the 153,
governing charter, of a master, six wardens, and 28
assistants.

Privileges.

Members of the court are entitled to the fees above-
# Mr. Herbert states :-“From carly inquisitions it appears that the
“ Old Fishmarket occupied a plot of land extending lengthwise, or east mentioned, and they and the members of the livery, when
" and west along Old Fish Street from Bread Street to the church of

otherwise qualified, have the right of voting for the mem-
" St. Mary Magdalene at Old Change, and breadthwise, north and south,

bers for the City and at the election of the Lord Mayor
" from the ends of those two streets to the opposite south side of Old
“ Fish Street. A jury of 1413 returned it to have been partly“ a void and other City officials, as well as that of being present, in
* space, as it was when only the centre was filled with fish stalls."

the case of the court, at all, in the case of the livery, at
He adds, " In this state there would have been an open communication
" with Queenhithe, from which the fish could be brought up the hill to some, of the Company's entertainments.
" the middle of the market, next St. Nicholas Cold Abbey, where is now

Members of the court and liverymen are not eligible for
" the narrow way of Old Fish Street Hill; whilst the north side of the
" market connecting itself with the Bakers of Bread Street, the fish-

pensions without resigning their positions respectively.
mongers of Friday Street, and the kingminters of Sheremoniers Lane, The Company has several presentations to Christ's
or the Old Chango; and these three again reaching to the goldsmiths,

Hospital in their gift, and have recently founded a large
mercers, and other tradesmen of West Chenp, must have been the same,
" nearly one large open market. When tall houses began to supersede number of educational endowments, of the annual value of

the original stalls on all these spots, the district became narrowed about 1,5001., for all of which the children of liverymen
"into streets, like other open parts of the city, and these inquisitions
were found necessary to ascertain the exact boundaries of the old and freemen are eligible. Loans are also under special

quarters." The church mentioned, St. Nicholas Cold Abbey, and the circumstances made to poor members in necessitous cir:
adjacent church of St. Nicholas Olave, contain many monuments of

cumstances, particularly to assist them in educating their
fishmongers.
† Accounted the governing charter.

children.

Act.

The following payments are made on an average annually to poor freemen, their widows, and children : Yearly pensioners, 8 at 501. 12s.

400
Weekly pensioners, 213 at 271. 11s. -

588
Almspeople:
St. Peter's Hospital, Wandsworth, 48 at
from 30s. to 358.

1,852
At Jesus Hospital, Bray, Derbyshire

At Harrietsham, Hollingborne, Kent
Donations for casual relief

570

worth, &c. There are about 400 holdings, including some mountain lands and woods, the rents ranging from 21. to 1001. Nearly all the holdings are on lease. The rental has fluctuated during the last 10 years between 8,0001. and 9,5001. The outgoings, including the expenses of manage. inent, have during the same time ranged between 5,0001. and 7,0007.* The tenant-right has sold variously at from 20 to 70 years' purchase.

The rateable value of the Company's hall is about 3,0001. a year. That of their almshouses, which are at Wands. worth, is not stated.

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3,410

Personal Property. The Company has at present investments in stocks to the extent of about 6,0001., producing a dividend of nearly 2001. The fund arises chiefly from the proceeds of the sale of lands, which are for the most part corporate property, though held to charitable uses. They also appear to derive about the same amount from “ interest on their corporate moneys.

The plate, pictures, and other property of the Company are stated to be worth 17,0001. It is not stated whether this sum includes the value of the Company's wine.

At the end of 1879 there was a debit balance against the. Company of about 15,5001. During the 10 years a sum of 42,0001. was spent on the London estates of the Company and on the building of industrial buildings at Walworth, against which must be set a legacy of upwards of 8,0001., which was carried into income.

City pro-
perty.

are

as

About 100 donations of various amounts are given annually. In 1880 a poor freenian received 1001. to assist him and his family to einigrate to New Zealand.

Four of the donees are in the fish trade, and 70 connected with it.

Officers and Servants. The salaries paid to the English Establishment, which consists of a clerk, three assistant clerks, a surveyor, 4001., officers, and a beadle, messenger, bargemaster, fish meters, and doinestic servants at the hall, ainount to upwards of 3,0001. a year.

The salaries paid to the Irish Establishment consists of an agent, sub-agent, clerk, wood ranger, and bog ranger, amount to about 4001. The agent has in addition a com. mission of 5 per cent. on the rents.

Property. Corporate property.

Real Estate.-- The Company derive a rental of about 38,0001. a year from land in England. Of this sum, about 35,0001. a year is corporate, about 3,0001. a year is trust income.

This rental arises (1) as regards about 32,6001. a year from house property in the City, 26,0001. from property let upon long leases, the gross estimated rental of the premises being upwards of 50,0001. a year, 6,0001. from property let at rackrent. There are about 70 sets of premises, banks, offices, warehouses, shops, wharves, in Queenhithe, Old Change, Knight Rider Street, Fish Street Hill, Friday Street, the site of the old fish market as mentioned above, Upper Thames Street, Leadenhall, Lombard Street, Billiter Street, &c.

(2.) ds regards about 4,0001. a year from a large estate consisting of house property, at Walworth, in Surrey, let on building leases. There are upwards of 200 houses, the gross rental of which would perhaps amount to 20,0001. a year. Most of the premises are small houses, but the estate includes a considerable number of shops, which would command high rents.

(3.) As regards 2,0001. a year from farms in Derbyshire, Kent, and Norfolk. This is all trust property. Some of the land is copyhold.

(4.) The Company derives a small income, partly corporate, partly trust, in respect of ancient lights, rights of way, and other easements, in connexion with the above estates.

With respect to these properties (1) the City of London estate consists in great part of lands confiscated as having been left to superstitious uses, and subsequently purchased by the Company from the Crown in the reign of Edward VI. These estates have formed the subject of several proceedings in Chancery, in all of which the Company successfully maintained its title to the improved value.

(2.) With respect to a considerable portion, the Company state that, having lost all their earlier records in the fire of London, it is impossible for them definitely to state how they became possessed of the property. In these instances the Company refer to an old plan book of 1686 as evidence of their title.

(2.) The Walworth estate was purchased by the Company in 1808 out of the proceeds of a quay in Lower Thames Street, the property of the Company, which had been taken for the purposes respectively of the site of the Custom House, and of additions to the London and West India Docks.

Surrey property.

Trust Property. The Company are trustees of about 70 charities, from which the income is stated to be on

an average about 3,6001. a year. Of this sum about 3,0001. according to the Company's accounts arises from rents, the remainder from dividends, or from sums payable in respect of money legacies which have been charged by the Company on their general corporate revenue.

The charities supported out of this income follows:

Internal :

Support of the Company's almshouses and relief of poor members.

1. St. Peter's Hospital, Wandsworth, in which 42 almspeople free of the Company are provided for. The trust income is stated to be under 4001. a year, and the Company spend upwards of 2,0001. a year out of their corporate income on the maintenance of the institution. These almshouses were removed and rebuilt by the Company in 1851 at an expense of 25,0001.

2. A considerable number of small legacies for the relief of poor members external, but also partly internal.

3. Six presentations to Christ's Hospital purchased by the Company.

Partly Internal, partly External :

1. Jesus Hospital at Bray, Berkshire, in which 40 pa. rishioners of Bray and six poor freemen are received. T'he endowments consist of about 1,1001. a year, arising chiefly from lands at Bray and in the City of London. The Company add upwards of 1001. a year from their corporate income. A legacy of 2,0001. has recently been received by the Company for this charity.

2. Almshouses at Harrietsham, Kent, in which six parishioners and six poor freemen are received. The endowment is about 1001. a year. The Company add about 3001. a year out of their corporate funds.

3. Sir Thomas Gresham's Free Grammar School at Holt, Holt school. Norfolk, for the education of 50 boys. The endowment appears to be about 9001. a year, of which about 6001. arises from the rent of lands in the City of London and at Holt. The Company appear to spend about 2001. a year out of their corporate income on this charity, which has during the last 10 years been very much in their debt owing to their having rebuilt the school about 50 years ago. 'The debt is still upwards of 4,0001.

4. Doles to the poor of London, and provincial parishes, exhibitions (see below), external payments, such as for clergymen, and a large number of loan trusts which the Company is compelled to administer as such under an order of the Court of Chancery.

Position in relation to Universities. The Company has 22 exhibitions of 201. a year each tenable at Oxford, Cambridge, University College, London,

Title of
Company.

Ir' oh etate.

Ireland. The Company has a large estate in the baronies of Tick. eeran and Kernaught, in the county of Londonderry. Most of the prernises consist of house property, including a few mills and offices, &c., in the townlands of Ballaghavedin, Ballyholly, Ballykeen, Ballykelly, Ballynadenaghan, Ballyspallen, Barnakelly, Broighter, Broglasgow, Carnamuff, Drumhock, Glack, Glasvea, Gortgar, Letterlogher, Mulderg, Oghill, Sistrokeel, Tirglesson, Tullyhoe, Wal

• The Company have redeemed the tithe rent-charge. They expend on an average about 1,5001. a year in improvements, and subscribe about 2,0001, a year in grants to farming societies, schools, and th“ support of the Roman Catholic and Presbyterian clergy.

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