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received from the "capi-mastri(employers), with its own byelaws, which were reformed in 1578. from the labourers “ obbedienza ”* only was required. The ordinances of the

(Paraglione) Foreigners when admitted to the freedom of a Guild, were revised in 1601. or the exercise of the trade, commonly paid an admis- Pizzicagnoli (Artis Lardarie), the Pork Butchers.sion fee or craft premium amounting to twice as much The original statutes of this (probably the oldest) as that paid by natives. The fines or fees due from the butchers' craft (Beccariorum) were granted in the 15th members were recoverable under a penal or by royal century, but in default of ordinances of a later date it warrant from the refractory. The sums realised by has left us in ignorance of its more recent history. the fines were divided according to a fixed scale Fabbri, the Smiths (an old and important Corporabetween the society, the R. C. A., and the commune. tion).–Of their statutes nothing is known, but they All differences and disputes on trade questions which must, unquestionably, have had their own regulations could not be arranged by the “Massaro” were taken based doubtless on the same principles as those which before the public magistrates, from whom lay a right governed the other societies. of appeal to the Podesta, whose decision was final.

We have no knowledge of any statutes dating from a The ordinances contained, moreover, trade-regula- period anterior to 1500, because as they must have tions binding in a measure on all the citizens, amongst been in MS. (the use of printing began in Imola in the which were certain rules and prohibitions relating to 16th century), the few copies which existed would be buying and selling within or without the city at market easily lost or destroyed; or again, they may have been or fair time.

joined to some other ancient documents deposited Those members who had obtained the freedom and amongst the archives, but now altogether unknown, established themselves in trade (i capi-mastri matrico. not having been mentioned by any of the old annalists lati) were called upon to decide as public experts in or chroniclers of Imola. Early in the present century matters relating to their trade.

the Guilds entirely lost all trace of their former public The order of precedence amongst the societies when character, and those which are still in existence are of they marched in procession together appears to have an essentially private, their functions being limited to been that indicated by the book “ Alma virtus,” which charitable and religious observances. Since 1831 there is dated 1272. The Guild which is last-mentioned, that of are only eight recognised, the “barbieri” (of recent the Smiths, had the post of honour, marching at the head creation), the “ callegari ” (“conciapelli”), “calzolai,” of the other Corporations, which followed in inverse ** canepini,” “ fabbri,” “falegnami," muratori,” and order.

“sartori.” To each of these bodies the commune subThe Societies or Companies which formerly existed in scribed annually 3 scudi (Fr. 15:96). Imola (legally that is to say) were the following :

Every art or mystery had for its chief or protector Gargiolai (anciently capistrarii), the Ropemakers. some nobleman of Imola. The master and deputy Their last statute is dated 1778, in which are recited the master (il Massaroed il Solto-Massaro) were in truth old ordinances which from the beginning of the 16th only the collectors of the members' contributions, which century were gradually reformed.

they handed over to the above-mentioned protec. Musatori, the Masons.- Formerly incorporated with tor They were also the mediators in the quarrels the Carpenters (falignami) under the title Magistrooum between the workmen and the public in all matters muri et lignaminis, it is not known when and why the relating to the craft and its exercise, and they were separation took place, but it is certain that in 1565 summoned as experts by the courts in such questions as the Musatori had no longer any connexion with the required the opinion of a member of the trade. They falegnani, as will be explained below. Their regulations, gave aid to the sick and needy, the old and impotent of dated 1624, reformed in 1654, and again and finally in the association, and kept up the old custom of resorting 1778, are still in existence.

in a body to the Cathedral on the festival of St. Cassiano, Falegnami, the Carpenters.—Their niost ancient ordi. to make an offering of wax candles, for which purpose nance bears the date 1565, the most recent (which are all the companies assembled in the hall of the Palazzo printed) are dated 1778.

Communale, and, preceded each by its own standard, Mercanti, the Traders (l'antica societa Mercantorum), went in procession to the Church. On the standard, in including the Mercers (merciai), the Skinners (pellic

addition to the likeness of the tutetary Saint, was ciari), and the Hatters (cappellari or cappellai). —The painted the pedigree or family tree (lo stemma genti. Bull of Pope Benedict XIV. (1742), in which their ordi- lizio) of the protector. nances were approved, contains a recital of their statutes Those which have survived to the present day confine of 1565 and the same as revised in 1715. The original themselves to the public celebration of the feast of their manuscript of their ordinances of 1565, written on patron Saint, and a few other functions of a religious sheepskin, is amongst the Municipal archives, together nature. with the amended statutes of 1590.

The barbers have the management of some property Brentatori, the Wine Measurers.—Although there are left them by will from the funds of which the oldest no records of a Corporation of “ brentatori

member receives a subsistence, and each of the others remote period, they are nevertheless mentioned in the on a fixed day in every year a cake of varying dimen. Communal statutes of 1334, which contain special regn

sions. lations for the governance of this trade. Their byelaws II.–To belong to a Corporation it was necessary to known to us (capitoli conosciuti) are dated 1620 and follow the trade, but the right of following the trade printed on parchment. They do not appear to have had depended upon admission, which was granted on appliany ordinances before this date, and by these regulations cation, and the only persons entitled to practise such the “Massaro” was directed to do as the other Com- trade were those who had the matricola,” the panies had done and procure a standard.

“capimastri,” and the workmen and journeymen who Sartori, the Tailors.-- This company or association had subjected themselves to the regulations of the (compagnia o congregazione) was formed in the last society and had been recognised (presa obbedienza) by century, and their statutes are dated 1740. In earlier

the Massaro." times the Tailors had no separate Guild, and were,

So far as can be ascertained from the statutes of some perhaps, numbered with the Mercers (merciai).

of the crafts the “matricola ” or right to follow a Calzolai, the Bootmakers.-In this Guild were included certain trade was preserved in a family by lineal descent, the "Scarpari(cobblers or makers of wooden shoes), as in the companies of the Masons (statutes of 1654, "callegari,”"arbottini,” and“ ciabottini,”(shoemakers)

reformed in 1719), and of the Merchants (statutes of “conciapelli” (tanners), and “sellai” (saddlers). Their 1742), in the Shoemakers' Company (statutes of 1762), earliest ordinances (1646), reformed in 1752, are recited the preservation was limited to the 5th generation. in the latest (1762).

III.-It does not appear from the ordinances that Conciapelli, the Tanners. In the Tanners Company these companies ever possessed any real property. At were included both masters and men, and the Skinners the present day the number surviving is small, and they also, who were originally incorporated with the Mercers, are more in the nature of pious brotherhoods which have were at a later date affiliated to the same society. The preserved their religious, but lost their public and civil “Conciapelli” seceded from the “Calzolai” after 1762, character, and are only partially recongnised in law. and their byelaws, which were approved in 1776, are

IV.-It is not known whether these Corporations ever noteworthy for their liberality of sentiment and aban

interfered in the administration of charitable institutions donment of the old forms and restrictions to which the (Opere Pie) or not, but from an early period it was the other companies still clung.

mission of each society to succour its own sick and Arte della Seta, the Silk Trade.- This Guild was, by a

miserable, as may be gathered from the statutes decree of the Council of Imola, established in 1534,

generally,

V.-No Corporation now takes any part in municipal * "Obbedienza" was a sort of recognition of the society and its

feasts, and the only companies which participate in ec. rights.

clesiastical festivals are the Buttuti," and some similar

at a very

bodies associated with the parish churches for purely society. On initiation an entrance fee was paid, which religious purposes.

gave the new member the right to participate in the ALESSANDRETTI. joint property, for, unlike the modern associations, the

old societies did possess real property (beni stabili),

especially in the cities. The applicant on his admisThe Guilds of the Province of Siena.

sion to membership of a Corporation was required to

Siena, July 25, 1883. swear to observe its statutes and to submit to the penal. In Siena as in Tuscany and other parts of Italy the

ties fixed for non-observance of the same. Corporations have flourished, and in more ancient times III.-It has already been observed that the old Corhad a share in the management of public affairs. Some

porations, especially in the cities, did possess real of them are mentioned by name in the oldest documents

property (beni immobili), the modern ones as a rule do

not. which we now possess relating to the communal administration, and in and after the 12th century in the IV.—The working-men's societies or trades unions more important documents the Guilds of the Pork- (Societa operaje) not being as yet judicially recognised butchers and of the Notaries (l’arte de' Pizzicajoli e dei do not administer any public charities (opere di benefiNotai) are found facing the names of the first Magi- cenza pubbliche), by which, as I understand the quesstrates of the city. This, however, notwithstanding they tion, are meant the helping of sick members, the did not take nearly such an active part in the Municipal making provision for their old age, the distribution of Government as they are known to have taken in other alms, and the establishment of a pension chest. places and especially at Florence. The cause of this V.-To this question the answer must be an emcircumstance will probably be found in the fact that phatic negative, for such interference under the existing a really democratic form of Government was never

laws would be impossible. established in Siena, the supreme power passing from VI.-- In reply to this it must be explained that one oligarchy to another, a process of change which was there is no civil anniversary of any importance in assiduously kept up with great loss of the city's quiet which the working-men's societies with their banners at home and detriment to its power abroad. But amid do not take a part. Sometimes, following an ancient frequent and sometinies disastrous vicissitudes caused custom, allusions to which are met with in the statutes by these constant changes in the State the Corporations of the old Guilds, they accompany the bodies of continued to exist with more or less prosperity, and in deceased members to the grave, and in the small towns the 2nd half of the 14th century were re organised and and country districts they not seldom take a part in divided into 12 capitudini or associations of cognate processions and other religious ceremonies. trades.

C. L. BAMBI. Their political importance, however, gradually declined, and any one who consider, their statutes attentively will inevitably come to the conclusion that It has already been mentioned that several of our these bodies had originally no other objects than those friendly societies (societa di mutuo soccorso) had their of protecting their industry or craft from outside origin in the old Corporations of Arts and Mysteries. competition, mutualassistance, and, above all, compelling Many other cognate institutions which are still in every one who followed a trade to seek admission into existence sprang in all likelihood from the same source, the Guild of that trade, framing laws, and adopting and it is probable that any one with time and leisure measures, which, it must be admitted, were of a some- to devote to this subject would be able to advance what violent nature.

numerous proofs in support of such an assertion. The In the process of time, and with the decay of the free syndic of the city of Luccha writes to the prefect of the institutions of the commune, which gave place to the province that the religious brotherhoods and corporanew dynasty of the Medici, the Corporations grew tions (confraternite e corporagioni religiose) which still gradually weaker, and were altimately, especially at survive in that city are offshoots of the old Guilds, and the institution of free trade among the Tuscan vine- preserve to this day some traditional usages of the old growers, reduced to a condition of objectless inutility. associations (sodalizi). Nevertheless, the civil and criminal jurisdiction exer- It may not perhaps be altogether supererogatory to cised by the trade Corporations, in virtue of their send to the honourable Commission of Inquiry a portion ancient statutes, was left to them in the Medicean times, of this letter in which is traced the history of the so that if the constitution of such associations is an Lucchese Corporations of Arts. obstacle in modern times to the free development of “ They existed from very ancient times, and were trade and industry, the administration of justice must inaugurated in the 12th century. Of one entitled the have suffered in those days at the hands of these petty Guild of the seven Arts (intilotata “ Delle sette Arte”), tribunals of organised imbecility, actuated too frequently which included the “ Muratori,” the falegnami,” the by personal spite and jealousy.

fabbri ferrai," the “scalpellini," and in fact all the When the times and the acknowledged necessity for trades concerned in the building and furnishing of a the unification of Tuscan legislation are considered, it house we have records which go back to the year 1194. must be admitted that the suppression of these bodies, The origin of others was considerably less ancient, but ordered by Pietro Leopoldo in various decrees (the is certain that there was no handicraft, trade, or prolatest of which is dated Feb. 1, 1770), was a provident fession in Lucca which had not at one time or another step. It is a remarkable fact that immediately after- a society or company where its members might meet. wards, that able ruler substituted in Florence, for the The administration of these societies varied according suppressed Guilds, a chamber of commerce, with almost to the times. Their chief object was originally the the same powers and privileges as belong at the present imposition on the members of certain trade regulations, day, to that institution, which has been revived, and is but with their growth or re-organisation they acquired widely diffused over the present kingdom of Italy. the aspect of religious associations, recreative assem

I.-The reply to the first part of this question will blies, or mutual aid societies, while interference with be found in what has already been said. At the present the trade in most cases either became a secondary conday we have seen craft associations exist, but are not sideration or was altogether neglected. Matters were derived from the ancient ones, with which indeed they in this condition with those which remained at the have nothing in common. The most ancient of the expiration of the Republic in 1799, and further in each existing Guilds cannot claim an origin earlier than the Corporation the name of the trade was disused, and they first trentennium of the present century, while the were known only by that of the patron Saint. majority of them have been founded since 1859.

" By the law of 1808 these harmless societies were II.—I do not remember having found in the statutes legally suppressed, but on the downfall of the of any of the Guilds of Siena or any other Italian city Napoleonic rule a few of them recovered their former any trace of the existence of hereditary right. And standing, and resumed possession of their property. this is true, not only of the Guilds, but of all public This remnant of the ancient Corporations reduced in institutions (publico ufficio). Any one intending to numbers and activity, and limited to the performance practice a trade in a city (I speak now of more ancient of certain devotional functions, have survived to the times in which the companies were in a more flourish. present day. ing condition) was required to procure admission to 'Judging from those statutes which remain to us the the Corporation of his trade, for there was a clause in old societies in Lucca had a great variety of regulations, the statute by which it was ordered that no one might but in none of them is it expressed that the right of follow any business or industry unless he was a mem- membership descended from father to son. Sometimes, ber of the Guild of such trade or industry. It was however, to a son who followed his father's trade (il further ordered tbat no master might take into his mestiere paterno), and wished to enter the Guild of shop, with a view of teaching him his trade, any ap- which his father had been a member, certain advantages prentice (garzoniello) who was not on the rolls of the were conceded.

· Me:bership of a Corporation was sometimes a from the inspection to which charitable institutions are recessary condition of following a trade, and sometimes subject. It does not exercise any control over the it was optional.

trade of which it bears the name, nor are its members “The religious Corporations or confraternities, which in the habit of taking part in processions. are very poor and are merely the scattered relies of the Another Corporation of arts and mysteries survives in fallen Guilds, limit their activity to religious and chari- the Province of Aquila, that of the woollen weavers table observances for che benefit of the inembers, such as (quella degli esercitenti l'arte della lana), in Sta. Maria accompanying their remains to the grave and to taking delle Buone Novelle. Until within the last few years part in processions and other ecclesiastical festivals. it was composed exclusively of woollen weavers, but They have long lost all right of interference with or with the decline of that industry the number of memcontrol over the trades which they once represented.” bers diminished, and in order to preserve the institution

Tbe same observations have been made for their it was opened to the wool combers and hatters (agli respective cities by the Syndics of Alghero (Province of scardassieri ed ai cappellai). Sassari), Urlino, and Reggio di Calabria, and the Prefect It does not interfere in any with the trade which it of Macedata.

represents and has no real property. 'The Prefect of Udine sends a communication from Its chief objects appear to have been the assistance Dr. Vincenzo Zoppi, containing some important infor

of sick members and thiose rendered unfit for work and mation relative to the Corporations of arts and mysteries the causing of its members-clad in a traditional livery in Udine.

--to take part in religious processions. “In Udine,'' writes the learned librarian, “the most In conclusion, to avoid all mistakes, it may be well to ancient Corporation is that of the Calzolaj,' which first repeat that the Corporations of arts and mysteries which began to flourish at the end of the XIIIth century. Its survive in Italy are ex lege, having been abolished by object was for mutual assistance (mutua beneficenza), special laws of 1813, 1821, 1844, and 1847. and its statutes (which are now lost) prescribed certain

LUIGI BODIO, rules to be followed in the exercise of the trade. It still

Director of Statistics. subsists and possesses separate funds which it employs in relieving indigent shoemakers in accordance with its modern statutes. Neither in this society (“* Scuola) or

GUILDS OF RUSSIA. Corporation nor in any other was the right of membership transmissible from father to son. Any person

St. Petersburg, 15/27 June 1883. desiring to belong to a society was required either to 1. There were no Guilds in Russia in the Middle submit to a test (“ esperimento”) or to prove his ability Ages. The Guilds in our country were founded in the in some other way.

first instance in the 18th century, in the reign of They all possessed real property (“ beni stabili”) and Catherine the Great. They did not spring up concurfunds *** capitali"), the produce of numerous legacies rently with social progress, but by legal enactment. left by members (confratelli) or other religious people They are not a national institution and have not the (altri devoti) at their death, for donations during life, characteristics of those in Western Europe. In instituor charitable gifts.

ting the Guilds, the Empress wished to encourage Out of the funds realised by sales of real property, industry in the towns by granting a quasi monopoly, interest-bearing funds, and charitable donations, the their introduction being in fact a political measure.

Scuole” provided ielief for their sick, old, and The principle of our legislation is that persons applying impotent members, and made also on certain feast

for membership must have previously exerciseà a trade days gifts of soup and bread to all the poor of the in order to qualify themselves. This principle, how. place.

ever, is applied only to a few towns : in the majority of The council or court of assistants (consiglia) and the them there are no guilds; and in no instance in any of master (Priore) of these “Scuole” had the supreme thie villages. Industry is quite free from taxes and recontrol of the trade and the arrangement of all dis- strictions in the villages. putes arising amongst the members. In past ages the 2. Admission to a Guild is free to all on compliance supreme ambition of the Guilds of Friuli was to appear with the following conditions :-(A.) Service of threc in the ecclesiastical processions wearing parti-coloured years as a journeyman ; (B.) Age must be not less than caps, and preceded by their standard, on which was 21; (C.) The applicant must possess sufficient means to painted their patron Saint (each Corporation had its own open a workshop; and (D.) become a “ master" by patron Saint).

showing a specimen of his work. This title is conferred At Cassino, in the province of Caserta, there still by the Gnilds" Office (Ixkhovaia Uprava). Every exists a craft Guild. It was established in 1777 under one, even a foreigner, can temporarily belong to a Guild the name of the confraternity of Master Shoemakers by permission of the Guilds Office. Membership is not (Confraternita dei Maestri Calzolai) of the Holy Cross. hereditary, but the widow of a member may continue The conditions of membership were: i. The freedom the business of her deceased husband, subject to the (cittadinanza) of the city of Cassino. ii. Majority. iii. supervision of the Guild. The following the trade of a shoemaker (and no other), 3. The Guill, being in the eye of the law a person," and iv. the being master of a shop. It owns real property may possess real estate, but as a matter of fact the (beni immobili), the rents of which are applied to Guilds in Russia do not hold any real property with the charitable purposes, the expenses of worship and the exception of a few houses in large towns, occupied as education of four sons of members for an ecclesiastical offices of the Guilds themselves, and by the very few

charitable institutions founded and supported by the It does not exercise any control over the other shoe- artizans. I do not even know whether there are many makers, it only watches that its members do not all of these charitable institutions. I am inclined to think abandon the trade, and that they practise it honestly. there are none at all at present. If one of them applies himself to another trade the 4. The Guilds as a matter of fact do not supervise the society without more ado pronounces sentence of trades in any way, their main object being to conserve expulsion.

their own interests. But they still continue to arbitrate A Corporation of " calzolai” exists at Corneto Tar- between master and apprentice, and between the public quinia (Province of Rome). It appears to have been and masters, &c. Most persons, however, prefer the founded in 1410 by a certain Clement who bequeathed decision of a legal tribunal to that of the Guild. to it all his property. It is composed of 12 members 5. The Guilds have their banners (but only in the only who have the right of membership during life. On large towns), and they join in public processions when the death of a member the vacancy is filled by election ordered by the police. from the survivors after notice has been given of the In conclusion, I commend to the attention of the meeting for the production of documents proving the Commission, the work of Professor Ditiatin of the morality of the candidate, and the practice by him of Kharkoff University, “ The Towns of Russia in the the trade of shoemaker.

XVIII Century” (Goroda Rossii v XVIII viekie), which The Corporation possess real property. It does not will afford information respecting those Guilds which, administer any charitable institutions (opere di bene- with the exception of a few unimportant changes, still ficenza), and the Council of State by decree (parere) of retain their original status. the 3rd July 1880, declared it as being sui generis free

PROF. YANSON

career.

397

Abstracts of Returns.

(The following Abstracts were prepared in the Office of the Commission for the use of

the Commissioners in respect of the reception of the Companies' Deputations, , and the general purposes of the inquiry.)

MERCERS' COMPANY.

Early guild.

Merchant Adven. turers.

assistants. No fees are payable on joining the court. For attendance at courts a fee of four guineas is paid, and a fee of two guineas for attendance at committees. The sum thus annually expended ainounts on an average to about 9,0001. The members of the court have some patronage, as each recommends in rotation to appointments in Mercer's school, and to out-pensions on the Whittington estate, and to the Whittington almshouses. They no longer exclusively manage St. Paul's school, but appoint nine governors under the new scheme.

Members.—There are 166 freemen; the livery numbers 157. During the last 10 years 54 persons have been admitted to the freedom, 43 by patrimony, five by servitude, and there have been 82 calls to the livery.

The fees are, for the freedom, by patrimony, 21. 8s., by servitude, 11. 12s. Admissions do not take place by redemption. Livery fine, 41. 13s. 8d. The liverymen are invited to three dinners in the course

Members and their widows and daughters are entitled to admissions at the Company's and Sir Richard Whittington's almshouses, and to the benefit of certain presentations to Christ's Hospital preserved by the company for the sons of members, as well as to that of a fund formed by the company for the education of the daughters of members. The pensions range from 5l. to 2001., and amount at present to about 4,5001. a year in all.

of the year.

mercer

First charter.

Foundation and Object. The fraternity of Mercers is of great antiquity. The father of Thomas à Becket is said to have belonged to it, and his sister Agnes de Helles constituted the fraternitywhich, no doubt, had even then a licence from the Crownpatrons of the hospital of St. Thomas of Acon, foundled in 1192, a connexion which was only severed at the Reformation.

The fraternity had become a definitely established guild in the reign of King John.

About 1296 the fraternity of St. Thomas à Becket, which afterwards became the Company of Merchant Adventurers, arose out of the Mercers' guild, and, receiving a charter from the Duke of Brabant, established themselves at Antwerp, and became a foreign branch of the Mercers' guild. The term

is a translation of the Latin “mercator” through the French “mercier.” The members were merchants who dealt in miscellaneous as opposed to “staple” wares, e., the precious metals and articles of food.

The guild has always been small in numbers. At present the members are slightly more numerous than they were in 1347. Patrimony was not originally a title to membership. Admissions took place only through apprenticeship, or the consent of the guild to receive the candidate.

The guild received its first charter from Richard II. in 1393.

In 1413 they agreed with the Master of St. Thomas of Acon for a little room, which appears to have been an office for business, and a chapel. They had previously no hall or chapel of their own. About this time also they received their ordinances, and became trustees of the charities of Sir Richard Whittington, who died in 1422-23. The land charge the company took by will under the custom of the City.

The company was heavily taxed to support the early wars with France and Scctland. It also had to supply corn and coals to the municipality of London in times of scarcity. The quota in each instance shows the iinportance of the company and the opulence of its members.

Besides the Whittington benesaction it had acquired in early times a large quantity of “obit ” land. These were confiscated at the Reformation and redeemed under Edward VI.

During the 16th century Dean Colet founded St. Paul's school, and other splendid charities were subsequently founded by Sir Thomas Gresham and the Earl of Northampton.

After the great fire the company got into difficulties in consequence of the cost of rebuilding the Royal Exchange, a part of the Gresham bequest, St. Paul's school, their hall, and their other buildings. To obviate thein, they resorted to a scheme, by which they raised a large sum in subscriptions to an annuity fund, which they guaranteed by a mortgage of their whole estate. The scheme turned out badly, and Parliament had to relieve the annuitants by an Act in the reign of George II. The whole of the bonds given for arrears of annuities were paid off at the beginning of the present century.

Salaries. The salaries paid to the officers of the company, viz., clerk, accountant, receiver, Irish agent, chaplain, and clerks, and to the servants of the company, viz., the butler and housekeeper, amount to upwards of 5,0001. a year. Several of the officials have also residences.

Property. Corporate Property. Real Estate. (1.) The company possess in their corporate rig lands in England, chiefly house property in London, the rental of which, including some investments of the proceeds of lands sold, amounts to almost 37,000 a year.

This consists of warehouses, shops, and other buildings in Tower Street, Cheapside, Gracechurch Street, Long Acre, St. Martin's Lane, Drury Lane, &c., and the Royal Exchange, half of which the company own. A considerable part of the estate consists of land held to superstitious rises, and redeemed as mentioned above.

(2.) The company have also an estate in Londonderry, in the barony of Loughinshollen, the parishes of Maghera, Desertoghill, Kellelagh, Ultree, &c., from which they derive a rental of over 10,0001. a year. Most of the farms are let to yearly tenants without leases.

The company's hall is rated at 3,3341. Their schools and almshouses are rated at

1. The English estates are managed at an expense of 2,9001., the Irish at an expense of 4,8001.

Annuities srheme.

Charters. The company received the above charter from Richard II. in 1393, a second charter from Henry VI. in 1424, and a third charter from Edward IV. in 1462.

Trust Property. The

company is trustee of a large number of benefactions, the income of which for 1879 and 1880 was about 35,0001. The larger part of this sum arises from rents.

The two largest estates are (1) Dean Colet's estate, with a rental (including, however, dividends to the extent of about 1,5001.) of 12,0001. It consists chiefly of a large nuraber of houses in the Commercial Road, let on building leases. This constitutes the endowment of St. Paul's school.

(2.) Lord Northampton's estate, consisting of lands in Kent, Lee, Lewisham, and Greenwich, with a rental of about 6,0001. a year. This is the endowment of Trinity Hospital, Greenwich.

Constitution and Privileges. Court.---The court consists of a master, three wardens, and (at present) 33 assistants. The warders are elected yearly from the freemen of the company by the court of

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Income and Expenditure. The following is the statement for 1880 :-

Corporate Income.

£ s.

d. £ English Estates :-One year's rental,dividends and sundries

36,608 14 2 Irish Estates :One year's rental of Company's share

10,227 128 One year's casual receipts

for year ending 31st Oc-
tober 1880, Company's
share

504 18 2

10,732 10 10

47,311 50

Education General and Technical. The company make the following statementThe Mercers' Company, as has been stated in other parts of these returns, keep up wholly or partially out of their own funds Mercers' School at College Hill, in London, a school at West Lavington, Wiltshire, and a school at Horsham, in Sussex.

Dean Colet's estate, as has also been stated, is entirely devoted to educational purposes, and from the income of this estate St. Paul's School is maintained.

The company have for several years past contributed the sum of 2,0001. per annum towards the funds of the City and Guilds of London Institute for the Advancement of Technical Education.

The following return shows the amount expended during the year 1880 :

Charity Income.
Dean Colet's Estate :-
One year's rental, dividends
and sundries

12,143 4 33
Earl of Northampton's Estate :-
One year's rental and divi.
dends

6,360 0 11
Sundry Charities :-
One year's rental and divi.

dends, including charges
which the Company are
bound to pay in respect
of certain estates

16,913 16 1

35,417 1 3

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82,758 6 33

Dean Colet's Estate.- Net income paid

to the governors of St. Paul's School 10,720 2 11 Net income paid to the governors of

St. Paul's School from Lord Camp-
den's estates

1,123 5 1 Cost of Mercer's School

2,208 10 5 Cost of West Lavington School and Almshouses

527 3 4 Cost of Horsham School

266 3 11 City and Guilds of London Institute

for the Advancement of Technical Education

4,000 0 0 Net income paid to master £ s.

d. of Mercer's School from Thos. Rich's estate

26 13 2 Net income paid to master of Lambeth School

96 13 2

53 6 4 Mrs. Robinson's exhibitions

160 0 0 Lady Margaret North’s exhibitions

80 0 0 Mrs. Barrett's exhibitions

20 0 0

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Donations for Educational Grants, 1880.

£ s. d. Merchant Seamen's Orphan Asylum 10 10 0 National Schools, Long Acre

20 0 0 Coleman Street Ward Schools

10 10 0 Coleman Street Infant Schools

10 10 0 City of London National Schools

5 5 0 City Sunday and Blackfriars Infant Schools

5 5 0 Princess Helena College

52 10 0 National Training School for Music 160 0 0 Fox Court Ragged Schools

10 10 0 Church of England Sunday School Institute

31 10 0 Reedham Asylum for Fatherless Children

52 10 0 British Orphan Asylum

105 0 0 Infaut Orphan Asylum, Wanstead

105 0 0 Royal Naval School

52 10 0 Royal Asylum of St. Ann's Society 105 0 0 London Diocesan Board of Education 20 0 0 St. Paul's, Old Ford, Working Men's Institute

21 0 0 Home for Little Boys, Farningham

52 10 0 University College, London

105 0 0

Return of the Corporate Expenditure of the Mercers' Com

pany for the year 1880. 1. Management of Estates.

d.

s. d. English estates, including

agency, surveyor's, land
agent's, and solicitor's
charges, income tax,
rates, insurance, repairs,

local subscriptions, &c. 2,891 12 2
Irish estates, including

agency, repairs, income
tax, poor rates, tithe,
rent-charges, mainten-
ance of schools, drains
and roads, contributions
to places of worship,
abatement of rent, dona-
tions for charitable pur-
poses for benefit of ten-
antry, &c. (Company's
proportion, one year to
31st October 1880) 4,837 12 9

7,729 4 11 2. Voluntary Charities. Education, general and technical

8,491 17 6 Donations and subscrip

tions to public institu-
tions, pensions to retired
officers, additional allow.
ances to almspeople and
others, donations to poor
mercers, &c.

6,743 16 10

15,235 14 4 3. Establishment Expenses. Salaries, wages, rates,

taxes, insurance, repairs
to hall and offices, main-
tenance of Mercers'
Chapel, coals, gas, &c. -

5,643 8 2

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