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and property.
In 1789 there were at Paris six

munities of arts and trades, are rather bodies like the merchant companies, and 44 communities of arts and Chambers of Commerce, societies of acknowledged trades, and the number had been much greater before public utility, like the Geographical Society (la société 1776. There were in the reign of Philippe le Bel de Géographie "), and the mutual aid societies, or 22 corporations of arts and trades at Beauvais, a town societies of the nature of " Confreries," merely tolerated of the second rank.

like the trades unions, &c. (compagnonnages d'ouvAs a type of the industrial communities may be riers), or, finally, industrial and commercial societies, mentioned the " drapiers drapants" (manufacturers of than Corporations in the old meaning of the word. These cloth); as a type of the merchant Guilds the “merciers' bodies, societies, &c., when they have been recognised or mercers, sellers of everything; makers of nothing by the State, as of public utility, or when they have (vendeurs de tout, faiseurs de rien), according to the been legally constituted“ sociétés par actions popular proverb; and as types of the transport com- other associations for commerce, industry, insurance, panies the skin trade of Paris (“la Marchandise de pean &c., become civil personages, and can

on certain de Paris "), the Mercantile Association of Rouen (“la conditions hold land, houses, funds, or other proHanse de Rouen "), and the merchants frequenting the

perty, and

administer charitable other river Loire and its tributaries (** les marchands fré- institutions such as schools, “magasins desauvetage,'

quentant la riviére de Loire et fleuves descendant en warehouses, docks, silk warehouses (conditions pour

ycelle "), &c. iv. Bibliography infra). The privileged les soies), &c., but here again is a system totally disCorporations have now entirely disappeared, and there tinct from that of the ancient Corporations, and in no is scarcely one remaining, the origin of which can be way connected with them. See the exceptions mentraced to the old régime. The notaries, brokers, and tioned below. money changers (Agents de change) are entirely distinct, IV.-The only Corporations (the name again is not and their constitution, even before the revolution, was by very exact) surviving in France, and taking their no means analogous to that of the bodies in which your name from a trade body areCommission is interested. They were official bodies, i. The porters of the ports, “halles," and markets, the and not trade Guilds.

organization of which, in certain towns, Marseilles, for II.—The privileges, immunities, and franchises of instance, and Paris (“' halle aux blés, halle aux beurres the corporations of arts and trades, and of the merchant and “halles," properly so called), recalls that of the Guilds could, as a general rule, be enjoyed only by Corporations of the Middle Ages, and evidently origithose actually engaged in the trade, and having a part nated from the ancient Corporations of similar names in its hierarchy, so that the right to the enjoyment of which existed befure the revolution. them was not hereditary; the son of a mercer or draper These Corporations are still in possession of a could not become mercer or draper and member of the monopoly confirmed by the police regulations. The corporation, unless, like his father, he had served his postulant is admitted by the syndicate of the company, time as apprentice, journeyman, and freeman (“apprenti, after giving proofs of his fitness. It is the syndicate also, campagnon, et maître '). The statutes, however, of in concert with the municipality, the chamber of com. most of the trades accorded to the sons, sons-in-law, merce (at Marseilles), and the prefectoral authority and sometimes even the nephews of freemen, consider- which fixes the tariff's and enforces the observance of able advantages denied to those whose family did not the regulations. From these syndicates you would belong to the Corporation. Among these advantages obtain information which would be more exact than may be mentioned the reduction of the period of any it would be in my power to furnish you with, and service as apprentice, as well as of the time required to be which would be possessed of a very lively interest, for passed in the grade of journeyman (compagnon on they are almost the only relics of our ancient corporate valet), and of the expenses of admission to the freedom, organisations which have survived the revolution. casier conditions for the masterpiece and some others. ii. The professional syndicates, some recognised like

But the “ Confréries,” which (originally at all events) the bakers (decree of 19 vendémiaire year X), and the were of a purely religious character, must not be con- butchers (decree of 30 Sept. 1802), and exercising founded with the trade Guilds, who were for the most legal powers as arbitrators between masters and work. wealthy men, and men whose affiliation to the brother

men, or employés, or even between the masters and the hood was at once an honour and an advantage to the cattle dealers ; the others, known as syndical chambers association. More frequently artizans, no longer en- of masters or workmen, having no official existence, but gaged in their calling, continued to be members of the

practising professional arbitration in a purely benevobrotherhood; but the two institutions were quite lent manner, organising mutual aid societies, insurances, distinct, and it was, in strictness, possible to belong to technical schools, and possessing very great weight in a brotherhood without being a member of a trade all economical questions, in consequence of the underGuild, and, consequently, without being subject to its standing which they establish between the employers rules or participating in its privileges.

of labour (chefs d'industrie), or the labourers, less often So far, then, the resemblance to the ancient Corpora. between the two classes on the questions of wages. tions of England, such as the Fishmongers, Goldsmiths, hours of labour, &c. Mercers, &c., in their present condition, is very remote. The law recently discussed in the Chamber will give

A closer analogy probably existed in the special cir- to the professional syndicates, until now merely tolecumstances called forth by the exigencies of the times rated, proper legal sanction. The report, with its in some of our old Corporations, that of the Grande

appendices, of the discussion which is to be found in the Boucherie de Paris ” in particular. By the end of the * Journal Official,” is a very interesting document, in 15th century the free butchers (“maîtres bouchers”), spite of some errors which have crept in, thanks to proprietors of the stalls of the Grande-Boucherie, haci, the insufficiency of the historical and economic studies most of them, ceased to follow the tradle, and were of some of our honourable representatives, whose silence generally wealthy citizens, who let their stalls at a very wouid have been pardoned. high rent to single young men exercising the butchers'

iii. The journeymen's societies (les sociétés de Com. trade, but not constituting a Corporation. At a later pagnonnage), the origin of which takes us back to the date these tenant butchers (“' bouchers locataires ") Middle Ages, but which have never been authorised by obtained statutes and formed themselves into a trade the State. Their influence declines more and more, in Corporation, but the old butchers, the freeholders

proportion to the numerical increase of the working (" bouchers proprietaires"), still continued to exist as men's syndical chambers. an independent Corporation, calling themselves the V.—T'he ancient Corporations had each its own place butchers of the “Grande-Boucherie," although they no in official processions and ceremonies, whether municipal longer carried on the trade. This title, and the pro- or even royal, as at the entrance of the Kings and Queens prietary rights attached thereto were descended by into Paris or Reims. It cannot be so at the present day patrimony from father to son, but females were excluded with the journeymen's societies which have never been iv. Traité de la Police de Dalamare, vol. II.).

recognised, but keep the festivals of their patron Saints, The functions of the porters at the corn market which, however, are quite peculiar to the society,and have (“ de la halle aux blé's "), and the unloaders and carriers no official character, nor with the professional syndicates of wine, were not for the most part discharged by the of more recent origin, which, until the final decision on actual bearers of the title ; they were office holders, the law, only exist by the tolerance of the administration. regular salaried officials, like those in the judicial and As for those Corporations which may still be considered financial departments. The systom was entirely privileged bodies, the porters of the “halle," for example, different to that of the Corporations, although or the dischargers at the port of Marseilles, their preoriginally the future officers of the “halles” and ports sence at public or religious ceremonies is neither com. formed Corporations like the rest.

pulsory nor official. Processions, moreover, are of very III.—The Corporations still existing in France, rare occurrence except in the interior of the Church, and which have nothing in common with the ancient com- our municipal or even national rejoicings have no

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longer the character they used formerly to have, and which in England they still preserve. Processions and pageants are no longer in fashion.

VI.—The Corporations, communities of arts and trades, associations and brotherhoods, were suppressed for the first time under Louis XVI. by the edict of Turgot of 9 February 1776.

Re-established by the State, with some important modifications, in the month of August 1776, the Corporations were finally abolished by the " Assemblée Constituante on February 16, 1791.

Some of them had during the Middle Ages been very wealthy. Besides the common fund, increased by the admission fees, assessments, fines, and gifts or legacies, they owned property consisting chiefly of houses, which served as meeting places, and, so to speak, as the social head-quarters of the Corporation, in shops and in the chapels, where the “ Confréries” met for public worship, In the 18th century, however, they fell into decay, and their debts, the liquidation of which, though begun in 1716, was not completed in 1789, absorbed the whole of their income, and when the sentence of suppression was pronounced upon them the State charged itself with their debts and their goods became national property.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Original documents which have been published. 1. Livre des Métiers d'Etienne Boileau, published by Lespinasse et Boumardot, Paris, 1879. 1 vol. 4to.

2. The same published hy Depping in the “ Collection des documents inédits de l'Histoire de France.” 1 vol. 4to, 1837. (See the Introduction.)

3. Administrative and legislative archives of Reims (“' Collection des documents inédits. 1839–1852. 4to. 8 vols.

4. Recueil des Monuments inédits del'Histoire du Tiers Etat (the same collection). 4 vols. 4to. 1850-1870.

5. Documents relatifs à l'histoire des corporations d'arts et métiers du diocese du Mans, published by the Abbé Lochet. 12mo. 1860.

6. Recueil de documents pour servir à l'histoire des commerces et de l'industrie en Angoumois par Babinet de Ramogen. 8vo. 164 pp. Angoulême.

7. Registre des déliberations des marchands merciers de Paris. (1596-1696), published by St. Joanny.

8. Histoire generale de Paris. Les Armoires de Paris, 1874. 4to, published by M. Tisserand.

9. Forgeais Numismatique des Corporations Parisiennes. 8vo. 1874.

10. Ch. Desmaze, Les Métiers de Paris d'après les ordonnances du Châtelet. 1 vol. 8vo. 1873.

11. Delamare, Traite de la Police. 4 vols. fol. 17221738. (There is besides in the National Library an important collection of unpublished documents on the arts and trades collected by Delamare.

12. Merg et Guinulon, Histoire des Actes et déliberations du corps et du conseil de la municipalité de Marseilles du Xme siècles à nos jours. Aix. 8 vols. in 8vo.

13. Cambier, Documents inédits pour servir àl 'histoire des communantés d'arts et métiers du Vermandois Caen. Brochure of 63 pp. 8vo.

14. Germani, Histoire du Commerce de Montpellier. vol. ii. Pièces justificatives. Statuts des Corporations. (8vo. 1861. Montpellier.)

15. L'Abbé Hananer, Etudes Economiques, &c. 1878. 2 vols. 8vo. (A very important work.)

16. Documents inédits de l'histoire de France. Mélanges historiques. Vol. iv.

17. P. Clement, Lettres et instructions de Colbert. Vol. ii.

18. Ordonnances des rois de France. (Collection du Louvre. 22 vols. fol.) See the Index to each vol. and the Chronological Table.

19. Hambert, Ordonnances des rois de France. 28 rols. in 8vo. (for the period from Francis I. to the Revolution. See in the Index, Arts et métiers).

20. Procès verbaux de l'Assemblée Constituante, 1791.

21. Statistique de la France. 1861 to 1865 Industry. 1873. Industry, Consult the vols. of the new series since 1871.

Compilations.

The Ancient Corporations. 1. E. Levasseur, Histoire des Classes ouvrières en France depuis la conquête de Jules César jusqu'à la revolution. Paris. 2 vols. 8vo. 1859.

2. Leon Gautier, Histoire des corporations. 32mo. 1874.

3. Fagnier, Etudes sur l'industrie et la classe indus. trielle au XIIIe et au XIVe Siècles. Paris. 8vo. 1878.

4. P. L. and F. Séré, Le Livre d'ordes métiers. 8vo. 1849.

5. Monteil, Histoire des Français des divers Etats. 10 vols. 8vo. 1828.

6. Toussaint Gautier, Dictionnaire des Confréries et Corporations d'Arts et Métiers. 8vo. 1855. (Encyclopédie de Migne. Vol. L.)

7. P. Lacroix, Histoire de l'orfévrerie joaillerie en France et en Belgique. 8vo. 1850.

8. Bouillet, Histoire des Communautés d'arts et métiers d'Auvergne. 1857. 8vo.

9. Quin-Lacroix, Histoire des anciennes Corporations d'arts et métiers et des Confréries religieuses de la capitale de la Normandie Rouen. 1850. 8vo.

10. Deville, Recueils de documents relatifis à la corporation des tapissiers de 1258 à 1875. 8vo.

11. Régis de la Colombiere, Feter patronales et usages des Corporations de Marseilles avant 1789. 8vo. 1804.

12. P. Toigneaux, Histoire anecdotique des Professions en France depuis le XIII. siècle. "Les barbiers. perruquiers. livraison. 1843.

13. Leroux de Lincy, Histoire de l'Hotel de ville de Paris. 4to.

14. Coutant, De la Corporation des drapiers-chaussetiers. 8vo. 1858.

15. de Ribbe, Les Corporations ouvrières de l'ancien regime en Provence. 1865. 8vo.

16. Mautellier, Histoire de la communauté des marchands frequentant la rivière du Loire, &c. 1869. 3 vols. 8vo. Orléans.

17. F. de la Vigne, Recherches historiques sur les costumes civilset militaires des Gildes Corporations, &c. 1847. 8vo.

18. F. de la Vigne, Moeurs et usages des Corporations de Belgique et du Nord de la France. 1857.

19. Tonqué, Recherches historiques sur les corporations des archers, arbalstriers, arque busiers, &c. 1852. 8vo.

20. G. Simon, Etude historique et morale sur le Compagnonnage. 1860. 8vo.

21. Encyclopédie Méthodique arts et métiers.

22. Guillaumin, Collection des Economistes du XVIIIe siècle.

I am about to publish the 1st vol. of a Histoire du commerce français in which I touch incidentally on the history of a certain number of the commercial bodies of the Middle Ages.

History. Since 1789.
Chaptol, De l'industrie Française. 3 vols. 8vo.

E. Levasseur, Les classes ouvrières en France depuis 1789. 2 vols. 8vo.

De Mettais, Les populations ouvrières et les industries de la France. 1860. 2 vols. 8vo.

Godoffre, Des associations syndicales. 1872. 8vo. Gh. Palangié, Des associations syndicales. 1872. 8 vo Havard, Les icales professionels. 1874. 8vo.

Agricole Pesdiquier, Le livre du compagnonnage. Paris. 1841.

Le Play, Les ouvriers Européens. 8vo. 1855.
Le Play, La Reforme sociale. 2 vols. 8vo. 1864.

Dictionnaire de l'economie politique Guillaumin. 2 vols. 8vo.

See also the numerous articles published during the last 10 years in the Journal des Economistes," the Economiste français, the Revue deux-Mondes, &c.

H. PIGEONNEAU,

Professeur à la Sorbonne,

THE GUILDS OF SPAIN.

Madrid, July 13, 1880. 1.-The craft guilds (corporaciones de artes) were founded in Spain after the Middle Ages, and have entirely disappeared.

2.- Each Corporation was ruled by its own byelaws, and as a general rule patrimony (herencia) had no place in their ordinances.

5.-There is no record of any part having been taken in public functions by these Corporations.

6.-The companies generally had no property of their own, and those rightly styled craft guilds (artisticos) were absorbed by the Academy of San Fernando and others in the last century. The trade guilds and associations (los gremios y asociaciones mercantiles) were abolished by the disentailing Acts (las leyes desamortiradores) of the years '33 to 40, and particularly that of May 1st, 1855. Their property was sold by public auction, and the money realised by the sale distributed amongst the surviving Corporations which have since disappeared.

S. MOREL.

Art. ii.-- The municipal authorities (us camaras muni

cipaes) are hereby instructed to take such steps as, in their opinion, are best calculated to give effect to the order contained in Art. i. without incon. veniencing the public, and if such measures shall exceed their powers let them consult me, that I may give the matters the consideration which they

deserve. Art. iii. - All laws to the contrary are hereby

revoked. Executed by the Minister and Secretary of State.

D. PEDRO, DUKE OF BRAGANÇA,

BENTO PEREIRA DA CARMA. Palace of Ramacha),

May 7, 1834. Doc. No. 2 (Extract from “ A Officina”). -THE HOUSE

OF THE TWENTY-FOUR. Free industry did not exist under the old regime. To be at liberty to follow a trade it was necessary to pass an examination and obtain a certificate.

Nearly all the trades were organised as societies (embandeirados). Under one flag and with one patron Saint (com a invocaçao de um santo) were united several trades. Each band chose one or more representatives, amounting in all to 24, who were elected annually and forming together the Corporation known as house of the 24” (casa dos vinte e quatro) they chose from amongst themselves the Judge of the people (o Juiz do povo*), their notary (escrivao), and the trades (os mesteres), which in Lisbon were four in number. These last formed part of the Council and assisted at its deliberations, though their vote was not of equal weight with that of the members of the Municipality (vereadores). The following is a curious piece of information respecting the organisation of the trades (officios) in the city of Lisbon in the year 1830. List of the freemen of the trades (mestres dos officios)

of the city of Lisbon who elect the casa dos vinte e quatro.

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THE GUILDS OF PORTUGAL.
Badenbei Zürich (Hargovie), Switzerland,

September 10, 1883. I.-The Trades Companies (corporações dos mesteres) were suppressed in Portugal by virtue of the Royal Decree dated May 7, 1834 (Doc. No. 1). None of the said Companies escaped that measure.

II.-Membership or “freedom” did not depend on patrimony; right of succession was unknown." Every member of a Portuguese trades-company was expected to follow the calling which gave its name to the Corporation,

There is scarcely any ground for an answer to queries 3rd and 4th, as no trades-companies exist now-adays, except as voluntary associations for the purpose of aid and protection to members : they are private organisations, the statutes of which, or byelaws, are drawn up by the respective members. But in order that the association may obtain a legal status, its statutes must be submitted for sanction by decree. There is no law or general rule regarding the authority exercised by the governing body of any such "association," as they are termed in Portugal, corresponding more or less to the English “ trades-unions." The directing members are elective, and their authority depends on the limits set down in the statutes, which often vary, but are always sanctioned provided they contain nothing contrary to the Constitution and general laws of the Realm. The property of such associations is merely in the nature of a fund based on contributions paid by the members, which being usually of small sums, the respective fund rarely attains any considerable amount; so that investment of surplus funds cannot, I imagine, even in exceptional cases, be considered as representing financial power. This may change in the course of time, as the bias of tradesunions increases and acquires greater development.

V.-These modern Corporations do participate in civic processions ; indeed they constitute the principal feature of such demonstrations, which however are much less frequent than in Great Britain or the United States. They can also join in ecclesiastical processions (it is free for anyone to do so); but, as a body, this is now seldom, if ever, the case, at least in large towns. The spirit of the age is not religious, as we all know ; and in Portugal it does not prevail to a less extent than in most other countries.

VI.-The 1st clause is met by the statement under my answer to query 1st. As to the 2nd clause, I may say that the extinct companies had funds of their own for various purposes, and perhaps real property to some extent, although their wealth was not to be compared with that of the London Companies. But I cannot give as yet any positive information in this respect. I send

you

herewith (Doc. No. 2) a copy of the Newspaper “ A Officina,” of August 2nd last, containing an interesting account of the “Casa dos vinte e quatro, which was the name borne by the governing body of the extinct trades companies, composed of 24 Deputies.

VICOMTE DE FIGANIERE.

Doc. No. 1.-DECREE. Seeing that the institutions or offices of Judge and Representative of the people (Juize Procurador do Povo) the trades* and the various associated “gremios ” so many hindrances to National Industry, which to enable it to thrive demands freedom rather than display, protection rather than defence, seeing, I say, that these institutions are no longer in unity with the Constitutional Charter of the Monarchy, which is the basis on which all Legislative dispositions should be founded, I have decided to decree in the name of the Queen as follows: Art. i.-The offices of Judge and Representative of the people,

Mesteres,

" " Casa dos Vinte equatro, and the Guilds of the different trades (os gremios dos differente officios) are hereby abolished.

"Os mesteres,” the Corporations of tradesmen presided over by the „Juiz do povo."

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St. George
St. Michael
St. Crispin
Our Lady of the Conception'.
Our Lady of the Incarnation
Our Lady of Mercy
St. Joseph
St. Gonçalo
Our Lady of Oliveira
Our Lady das Candeias
SS. Justa and Rufina -
Trades without a Guild

1 1 2 1 1 2 1 7

1,026

485 1,513 207 406 354 538 220 327 563

197 1,272

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List of the trades represented in the “ casa dos vinte e quatro.” Class i.--Barbers (barbeiros de barbear), sword

cutlers (barbeiros de quarnece espadas), farriers (ferraors), gold beaters (bate folhas), blacksmiths (ferreiros), coppersmiths (fundidores de cobre), gilders (douradores), locksmiths (serralheiros),

cutlers (cutileires), gunsmiths (espingardeiros). Class ii.-Booksellers (livreiros), glovers (luveiros),

silk knitters (serigueiros de agulha), hatband makers (scrigueiros de chapeus) bead makers (conteiros), comb makers (penteeiros), saddlers (albardeiros), brass founders (latoeiros de fun

diçãe. Class iii.--Shoemakers (sapateiros), tanners (curti

dores), curriers (surradores), wine skin makers

(odreiros). Class iv.-Workers in leather (correeiros), saddlers

(selleiros), bit makers (freeiros). Class v.- Cabinet makers (carpinteiros de moveis),

wood engravers (entalhadores), gunstock makers

(coronheiros). * An official appointed to protect the rights of the people from the encroachments of the Government.

+ Independent trades (officios independentes), Coopers (tanceiros), Wax-chandlers (cereeiros), Goldsmiths (ourives de ouro), Silversmiths and Engravers tourives de prata e laurantes), Lapidaries (lapidadores), Makers of hempen ropes (cordæiaos de linho), Makers of ropes from "piassa” (a black rush brought from the Brazils) and esparto (cordoeiros d'esparto e de piassa), Mat makers (esparteiros), and Hatters sombreiros),

as

Class vi.-Pastry cooks (pasteleiros), workers in training, preparatory to becoming masters, but with

white metal (latoeiros de folha branca), workers in the need for any considerable mediation, this prospect yellow metals (latoeiros de folha amarella), oven diminishes, and masters and men must of necessity keepers (torneiros, those who bake other people's remain distinct. bread, &c.)

In those industries which were first constituted on a Class vii.-Masons and stonecutters (pedreiros e can- large scale, the wool trade in particular, there existed

teiros), carpenters (carpinteiros), brick-makers at the time when the Corporations flourished this (ladrilheiros), violin makers (violeiros).

separation, which resulted in the famous risings of the Class viii.-Curriers (surradores), dyers (tintureiros), woolmen (ciompi) at Florence, and of the silkmen

weavers (tecelões), mat sellers (esteireiros), glaziers (straccioni) at Lucca. (vidraceiros).

As soon a craft had at its disposal not only Class ix.-Confectioners (confeiteiros), coach harness labour, but also considerable sums of money, the

makers (carpinteiros de jogos de carragens), coach desire at once became prevalent among the members makers (carpinteiros de caixa de carruagens), fish- of making a profit out of the expenditnre incurred mongers (peixeleiros).

in the administration, whereas in earlier times they had Class x.—Tailors (alfaiater), ready made clothes sought only mutual assistance, the credit of the trade. sellers (algibebes), sheath makers (bainheiros).

There ensued in consequence those results which Class xi.-Potters (oleiros), chocolate sellers (choco- always overtake an institution when it comes under lateiros).

conditions differing from those in which it had its JOAQUIM MARTINS DE CARVALHO. origin, and the inconveniences attendant on the long

decadence of the Guilds suggested their abolition, in order to make way for freedom of labour in those industries which they had so long protected.

The Italian economists of the XVIII. century, and THE GUILDS OF ITALY.

particularly Mengotti, Beccaria, Filangen, Verri, and

Vasco frankly pronounced themselves opposed to the Rome, August 29, 1883.

regime of Corporations of Arts and Misteries, which The craft Guilds (Corpi d' arte) in Italy are of great

were finally abolished in Piedmont in 1844, in Tuscany antiquity, and in addition to their original purpose,

in 1847, in Naples in 1821, in Lombardo, Venetia, and

Parma in 1813. more especially during the mediæval period, they

But, although legally abolished, acquired a purely political character. The system of

several of them still survived, especially at the ports trade associations was in substance nothing more than

and frontier towns (dogane); at Genoa for instance, a distribution of the people made for political reasons

there survived the Corporation of the “ cadrai” or bumat Rome, for instance, to remove the diversities of boat men (vivandieri), in whom was vested the right of origin existing among the citizens, and in the Middle selling eatables to the ships in the port; of the linguists Ages to counterbalance the power of the nobles. In

with that of the interpreters and purveyors to foreign course of time, however, owing to reforms effected by

ships ; of the porters of the bridges and steps ; the the State, this became less necessary, and the associa

“ calafati ” (calkers) of the canal, whose duty it was to tions (sodaligi) in question devoted themselves to the remove and stow in the warehouses all merchandise. regulation of their crafts, and the performance of

The packers (imballatori), barrel porters (barillari), and friendly offices to their members.

box carriers cassari) who were employed to arrange the Their constitution was the natural outcome of the

boxes and packing them in heaps, and to take the feudal times in which they attained their greatest

patterns and samples: finally, the porters at custom influence. Each craft had its own statutes, byelaws,

houses or free ports. and ordinances (statuti, capitoli, leggi) or as it was

In 1864 there were still 5,000 people in Italy, whose called at Venice “Mariegola” (chief law), which were

names were on the register as members of Corporaformed with more or less freedem according to the

tions. times by vote of the members themselves, and were

At Mantua the Company of the "wine measurers from time to time reconsidered.

(brentatori), with its uncouth livery, still subsists, and At the court or assembly (capitolo ossia assemblea)

is governed by byelaws adopted in the 2nd half of the they held consultations and elected officers to whom last century; it possesses no real property, but has a with their chief called at Venice the Steward (gastaldo),

fund for the relief of sick or impotent at Milan the Abbot, and at Florence the Prior was

memwers. granted exemption from the statutes and ordinances. At Novara the Corporation of the shoemakers In addition to the proportion due to the State the

(calzolai) still exists, and retains the right to take part members were required to pay a contribution to the

in the administration of the hospital of San Guiliano, craft which was apportioned by officials appointed for

the wants of which during several centuries it has, the purpose and known at Venice as “i tansadori” (the

out of its own funds, liberally supplied. taxers). All disputes were decided by special magis

In several Italian provinces the Corporations of Arts trates.

and Misteries have never existed; they flourished prinOriginally the Italian crafts could not be called ex

cipally at Florence, Milan, and Venice, and Genoa, clusive in the sense that entrance was prohibited, but

where in the Middle Ages industry and commerce were only in the sense that they could not be entered except

developed to a very remarkable extent. on fulfilment of the prescribed conditions.

They very rarely held real property, and when they The right of entry into a Corporation was not here.

were suppressed their estate devolved on those charitable ditary, but was conferred on any one actually following

institutions which in Italy are called pious works (le the trade, provided that he was of good reputation and

opere pie). character.

Many of them were transformed into “friendly Sometimes the craftsmen were divided into appren

societies (societa di mutuo soccorso), still preserving tices and masters, with occasionally the intermediate

however some of their ancient usages, such as the kindly grade of journeyman. Before passing from one grade

one of attending the funeral of deceased members or to another, a period of service at least was necessary,

that of observing the feast of their patron Saint. and more commonly the production of a masterpiece

In treating of an institution which has long since diswas also required.

appeared, but which nevertheless has left traces of its The superintendents (sopraetanti) made from time to

existence on other institutions of an altogether different time visits of inspection for the purpose of ascertaining

nature, it is by no means easy to recognise these traces if any fraud was being practised. The hours of labour

and decide whether the 'trades unions' (societa were for the most part determined by the Statutes,

operaie) which have sprung up, and in which are some and a bell called in Venice “the journeyman (ma

analogies to the old Corporations, are to be considered rangona) announced the beginning and the end of the as entirely new bodies or as descendants and successors day's work. On a festival day all labour was for

of the old Misteries. bidden.

As has already been said the Italian Corporations of The craft Guilds formed in most casos religious Arts and Misteries cannot be said to have been inac. brotherhoods who chose for themselves a patron saint cessible, for every one who followed a craft might partiwhose effigy they bore on their standard.

cipate in the privileges of the Guild provided he was of A great change was brought about in the Italian good reputation, paid an entrance fee, and underwent Corporations by the assumption by the crafts them- a course of training in the mysteries of his craft (si selves of a different character, as when they began to sottomettesse al tirocinio del suo mestiere). undertake industrial enterprises. The old Corpora- Foreigners however were usually only admitted on tions dealt not so much with workmen as opposed to payment of a somewhat larger fee than that required of masters, as with workmen undergoing a course of the native workmen.

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It was customary for the sons or the eldest son to always prevailed in Imola, these societies began to take follow the craft of the father, but to be received into the part in public affairs in 1266, and when the Guelf Corporation of which the father had been a member it party had the upper hand in the City and Commune, was necessary to observe all the usual formalities. the crafts or corporations, societies, and colleges of arts

There still remain in Italy some examples of the old and misteries became a political body, and obtained the mysteries (maestrange) which the authorities have not supreme power, to the exclusion of the nobles or been compelled by the greed of the members to suppress. aristocracy. The Mantuan corporation of the“ brentatori ” with the The book or register (entitled “Almavirtus”) of these Novareze corporation of the “Calzolai” have already societies is still preserved in the communal archives; it been mentioned, and the following account of the Artine contains a list of the Corporations and their members Corporation of the "

Cappellai ” in the words of the to the mumber of 1,626. The societies were,Prefect of Strezzo may not be uninteresting:

1. Indicum, Plus sicorum, Notariorum (the police The Corporation of the hatters (cappellai) is one of

spies, tax gatherers, and notaries). great antiquity and is still in existence.

2. Beccariorum (butchers) ; or Pizzicagnoli The right of membership is not hereditary but in con

(pork

butchers). sequence on the practising of the trade and the payment

3. Bubulcorum or contadini (peasants). of the fine fixed by special ordinance.

4. Calzolariorum, shoemakers. It does not so far as I have been able to learn possess

5. Magistrorum muri et lignaminis, masons and carany real property, it administers no charitable works

penters. (opere di beneficenza), exercises no control whatever over

6. Capistrariorum, canepini, gargiolai, cordai (rop the craft or trade whose name it bears, and takes no

makers, &c.). part in processions or festivals whether civil or eccle

7. Jercatorum (mercers). siastical.

8. Piliariorum or cappellai (hatters). In reference to the Corporation of the “ brentatori” 9. Fabrorum (smiths). at Cuneo (Piedmont) which has recently been suppressed

This register dates from the year 1272, at the time the subjoined information has been received from the

when Anselmo Milanese discharged the office of Vicar Syndic of that commune.

General in Imola for Lucchetta de Gattilosi, Podesta of The last genuine Corporation (which lasted until

Bologna and Imola. within the last few years) was that of the “ brentatori' No citizen could aspire to the Council, Magistracy, or or measurers of wine. Their common property con

any public office unless affiliated to one or other of sisted of carts, wine, presses, vats, and all the utensils

the above-mentioned colleges.” In consequence of which are required for the making of wine. They had or rather claimed for themselves the political changes, the corporations lost their political

character, but continued to be societies recognised and sole right of measuring wine, and enjoyed a species of

favoured by the Government. It is true that by the monopoly on the market, which they exercised by means

Statutes of Imola reformed in 1834 they no longer have of brokers.

any share in the management of public affairs, but in The profits were divided amongst the members, and

these statutes there are special provisions affecting the aged and impotent received their share.

these societies which kept their ground down to the In the wine season and whenever occasion required

time of Julian II., and gained new strength and vigour they engaged day labourers, the oldest of whom were when that Pontiff granted to the people of Imola a preferred when a post as measurer (brentatori) became

republican constitution under the supremacy of the vacant. The post was not hereditary as a matter of

l[oly See, by which the communal authorities became right, but as a matter of fact it did commonly descend

a sort of vicariate of the Church for the administration from father to son.

of the city, commune, and district of Imola, which comThe scale of remuneration for their services was fixed

prehended otber smaller communes. by the municipality, and the members of the Guild were

Every corporation had its own Statutes or ordinances required to afford gratuitous assistance in all cases of

(Statuto ossiano capitoli), which, however, in process fire.

of time were gradually reformed and modified, correThe Company is now abolished owing to the abuses which resulted from their monopoly, the right of

spondently with the modifications brought about in

the constitutional laws, the manners and customs, and measurement of wine and the communal contract.

institutions. Many of the old " brentatori,” however, have continued

The ordinances and any alteratiods which might be their trade under the contractor, and have formed an

needed, could not take effect until they had been association which has already obtained the contract

approved by the Communal Council, and ratified by the twice, in the name, however, of one of the members.

Pope in right of his supremacy, either by means of On the Corporation of the Shoemakers (Calzolai), at

Bulls or decree of the Apostolic legates. The Guilds Sassoferrato (Province of Ancona), reports as follows:

survived in Imola till towards the close of the last cenThat it has existed from time immemorial, and is

tury. still in existence. That by ancient custom on attaining The byelaws of all the Guilds were originally taken their 21st year acquire the right of entrance to the said

from ore model, which was in great part based on society (congregazione).

the communal Ordinances. Every corporation had That it owns real property held in trust for charitable

its chief or master (capo) il Massaro," a vice-master purposes, and for the sustenance of craftsmen who are

(Sotto Massaro") or Syndic, and two assistants sick and unable to work. That to a special commission

(Agguinti), who acted as the Syndic's Deputies. In composed of five members, a chairman and four assis.

early times they were called the servants (“ Ministants (un presidente e quattro consiglieri), is left the

trali"), and were really the officials of the Society. control of the craft.

They were elected by ballot (colmetodo d'imborsagione) And that this Corporation is in the habit of following deceased members to the cemetery.

for one year; they swore to discharge their duties A few Guilds possessed real property, and when they

faithfully and diligently; the government and adminis

tration of the society were in their hands, and they were suppressed their goods were allocated to charitable

usually acted as mediators in the differences which purposes (opere pie), or devolved on the trades unions or

arose between the members on matters relating to the benefit societies (societa operaie di mutuo soccorso).

practice of the trade.

The “ Massari” were required The Guilds of the Commune of Imola.

by the byelaws of some societies to give security.

They appointed one of the city notaries, who lent Imola, July 10, 1883.

his services as secretary and chancellor of the society. I.-It is certain that craft Guilds (le Societa o

They also elected a paid beadle (un messo salariato), Collegi* delle Arti) are institutions of great antiquity

whose duty it was to carry out the orders of the which have existed or do cxist in all civilised nations.

master, to collect the fines and pecuniary penalties Imola, a Roman colony (Forum lornelii), like the mother

incurred by non-observance of the rules. Each society country, Rome, was not without them. It is clear from

had its own standard, on which was depicted the patron documentary evidence that in the 13th century there

Saint of the association, The standard was borne at existed these so called “Schools”* (scole), which were

the head of the Guild whenever it appeared in public, organised corporations, with their own chiefs and as on the festival of St. Cassian, the patron Saint of officials; sometimes of a religious, and sometimes of a

the city, on which occasion all the societies in a civil nature, or at other times partaking of both

body marched in procession to the Cathedral to make characters. A popular form of government having

offering of wax candles, or as when the Guild men

bers attended the funeral of a deceased member. * cf. The returns of the Grocers' Company "to be a seminary of

They kept a register of the craft-premium (matri. good Citizens," Rep. Vol. ii., p. Adam Smith also (Wealth of

cola) paid by each member, the matricola Nations) generally calls the Companies “ Colleges or Universities." payable for permissio: to practise a certain trade)

(a fee

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