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In March 1881 another change was proposed. A Bill after a certain date be allowed to take apprentices at was laid before the Reichstag confirming the “Gewerbe all. The concluding clause gave power for the formaOrdnung” so far that guilds were not to be made com- tion of unions of guilds. pulsory, yet allowing them expressly to extend their The Bill gave rise to a long and interesting debate. influence. Power was given to create industrial schools, T'he only clause which the Reichstag refused to accept make rules for advancing the industrial and technical was that enacting that masters who did not belong to a instruction of masters and journeymen; establish a guild should be prohibited from taking apprentices. system of examinations for testing their capacity ; form On the 18th of July the Bill became law.

It now associations of workmen connected with each trade; remains to be seen whether guilds will or will not create Tontines and sick and invalid funds, and appoint revive in Germany under this new impulse, seeing that tribunals of arbitration. It was set forth that much of they are not compulsory institutions, and that masters the old power of the guilds should be restored ; power not belonging to them may still train apprentices. be given to determine the form and duration of appren.

(Signed) J. A. CROWE, ticeships, to hold masters to their duty of sending

Commercial Attaché. apprentices to technical schools, to regulate the time of Berlin, July 7, 1882. apprenticeship, the registry of apprentices and the dis. tribution of letters of apprenticeship, to appoint the authorities and forms to be established for settling

CIRCULAR. claims and quarrels, to decide as to the admission, resignation, or exclusion of members, their rights and The following questions were submitted to the foreign their contributions to the guild, to determine and authorities : impose fines, to alter the statutes, and dispose of the 1. There were, it is presumed, a number of craft guilds corporate receipts.

in

during the Middle Ages. What has become As to the latter point, it was required that statutes of them ? Do many of them survive ? or alterations of the same should be submitted to the 2. Can you state whether the right of membership or higher administrative authority for confirmation. the freedom, as it is called in English, deseended in In respect of unpaid contributions and fines, the

from father to child by patrimony, or whether money was made recoverable at once through the usual it depended upon following the trade the name of which channels of the law.

the guild bore ? In England, owing to patrimony, the The decisions of the guild courts of arbitration were guilds must always have contained many non-craftsmen. ordered to be final and without appeal. Persons entitled 3. Can you state whether the present guild of to be members of a guild were to be either employers are large owners of lands or houses or other property, or foremen in large works. Others might be honorary and whether they are trustees of many charities, or of members only.

any charities, and of what kind ? A strong part of the Bill was that which empowered 4. Can you say whether the present guilds of guilds to settle disputes between masters and appren- still exercise control of any and what description over tices, when neither were members of the guild. An- the trades the names of which they bear ? other strong clause was one imposing guild rules on 5. Can you say whether the present guilds of apprentices of other than guild masters. Equally take part in any municipal or ecclesiastical processions favourable to the guilds, further, was the right to or pageants ? superintend the examination of apprentices, even when 6. If the guilds of have been suppressed, when they were under indenture to masters not members of did this occur, had they much property and of what a guild.

kind, and how was it dealt with ? The heart of the Bill, however, was a clause enacting (This refers to the following papers.

In the blank that no master who did not belong to a guild should space the name of the county in question was inserted.)

Information relating to the Continental Guilds received from

Foreign Authorities.

GUILDS OF GERMANY AND

AUSTRIA.

IV.-By the new law it was not exactly the Zünfte but their

Innungen” that were restored, and they exercise a trade control over their members, so far as the (in Germany optional, in Austria obligatory,) test system (Prufungswesen) has been re-established.

V.-In festival processions, of which during the last 20 years there have been in Germany and Austria many splendid examples, the artizans as members of the Cor. poration have always taken a part even at a time when the “ Zünfte ” were non-existent.

VI.--As was observed in the answer to question 1, at the commencement of the year 1860 there was but little property left to the abolished “ Zünfte," so that the acquirement of property in the above-mentioned (answer to question 1) manner rarely attracted attention.

MAX WIRTH.

THE GUILDS OF NORWAY.

VII. Zollergasse 17,

Vienna, Jan. 30, 1884. 1.- The “ Zünfte” and “Innunger. ” in Germany and Austria were abolished in 1859–60, having long been in a precarious condition and their original objects more or less impracticable.

Austria led the way in 1859, followed during 1860-61 by the other German States, the North German Confederation in 1869 issued a code of laws for the purpose of founding liberty of trade, and a few years later trade liberty passed into the legal system of the German Kingdom.

A re-action was caused in Germany and Austria by the fact that from the removal of the old abuse new evils sprang, for, owing to the establishment of liberty of trade, a large number of young men, to enable them. selves to marry, established themselves in business, with neither the requisite technical knowledge nor a rufficiency of capital, and consequently were soon obliged to go into liquidation, the result being that their families fell into want. The adherents of the old system and their leaders made use of the stagnation of trade caused by the crisis of 1873 as a ground for demanding a revision of the statntes relating to trade. In consequence of this, in the year 1881, a change was made in the commercial laws of Germany, by which the system of the “ Innungen” and masterpieces (Lehrlingsprufung) became again operative, though not compulsory. Owing to this change, by the spring of 1883, 450 Innungen were refounded and their statutes registered in the Courts. Of these statutes 216 were approved in May 1883. These Innungen consist exclusively of artizans and include no manufacturers.

In Austria, in the summer of 1883, a revision of the trade statutes was undertaken, and the Apprentices' Masterpiece (die Prufung der Lehrlinge) and association into “Innungen was thereby again made compulsory, but only in a small number of crafts, so that female labour, which by the law of 1859 had been made perfectly free, was not prejudicially affected to any great extent.

The old “ Zünfte" and "6 Innungen abolished in 1859–64 were not in general wealthy. The common property was either shared under the last master or with the other possessions handed over to the sick fund (Krankenkassen). Some companies became facturing co-operative societies ”—the “Innung” of the Clothworkers in Breslau, for instance, which has erected a plant, the common property of all the members.

The Clothworkers at Bielitz, in Schlesien, have not divided their property, and still possess a hall (Zunfthaus), and apply their revenues to corporate purposes. In this company the right to a share in the corporate property descends from father to son so long as the manufacture of cloth is continued in the family.

II.--The right of membership was not hereditary in Germany, but was acquired by fulfilling the necessary conditions which were the now disused apprentice test (Lehrlingsprufuog), the three years “Wanderzeit,' which is still in force, and the masterpiece (Meister. stück).

In Germany and Austria the “ Zünfte” had no property which did not belong to the trades concerned.

The Zünfte of Berne, in Switzerland, which appear to have a purely municipal burgerlichen) character, bear a close analogy to those of England.

III.-As already mentioned it is only in exceptional cases in Germany and Austria that “Innungen” are found owning real property. Many, however, have applied a share of their revenues to the poor-box and sick fund (Unterstutzungs und Krankenkassen).

25, Ullevoldsveien,

Christiana, 17th July 1883. 1.-Craft-guilds were instituted in very early times in this as in other countries on the ground that in the towns by means of organisation the industries should be kept to themselves. The Members were required to be thoroughly trained in all manual skill and dexterity belonging to their trade. On the one side were exclusive privileges connected with the pursuit of their industry, and on the other all approach to an alliance with the other organised trades (bundne Næringer) was forbidden. No connexion, that is to say between commercial and industrial freedom, was permitted.

In the country industries were, as a rule, only free in the case of the most necessary crafts such as the tailors (Skrædere), the shoemakers (Skomagere), the blacksmiths (Grosmede), and carpenters (Tömmermænd). Certain other industries could be practised with the Royal sanction. Handicraftsmen might not send the fruits of their labour to the towns nor export it abroad.

In the towns the manual industries were, as a rule, affiliated to a particular Guild (bestemte Laug) composed of Freemen (Mestere), Journeymen (Svende), and Apprentices (Læredrenge), and to pass from one grade to another it was necessary after a certain period of service in the subordinate position to produce a masterpiece" (Pröve).

The Guilds (Langene) first received settled rules and their legally defined privileges (bestemte Reglen og sine Rettigheder lovbestemte) after the establishment of the sovereign power.

The first Guild ordinances (Laugsartikler) are dated Nov. 4, 1682, and the privileges therein granted were fixed by order of the King.

The first endeavours to break these chains which early legislation had laid on manual labour were made in the year 1839. By a subsequent law of July 15, 1839, it was decreed that no new craft Guild (Haandværkslaug) might be established and that every Guild should be abolished when all the Masters or freemen admitted to the Guilds before 1840 (samtlige inden 1840 i Laugene optagne Mestere) were dead, or the survivors (tilbageværende) were agreed to dissolve the Guild (Lauget).

It appeared from a list that was made in 1841 that there were at that time in Norway in all 44 Guilds, viz. :--

Hattemagere (Hatters).
Guldsmede (Goldsmiths).

Smede (Smiths).
In Christiania, 6

Snedkere (Carpenters).
Skræddere (Tailors).
Skomagere (Shoemakers).

Smede.
In Drammen, 4

Snedkere. In Skien, 4

Skræddere. In Arendel, 4 Skomagere.

manu

.

was

Guldsmede.

person who may not have been apprenticed, but has Smede.

acquired in some other manner the requisite skill. In Christiansand, 5 Snedkere.

II.-The rights of citizenship and trade never passed Skræddere.

by inheritance. Town or Guild rights (Borger eller Skomagere.

Laugsretten) could only be enjoyed by those who fol. Bagere (Bakers).

lowed the trade, the name of which was borne by the Blok-og-Stolemagere (Cabinet- Guild (Lauget). Nothing resembling the various Guilds makers).

in England in this respect, has ever existed in Norway. Bödkere (Coopers).

Even the bakers' privileges (Bagerrettighederne) in Glarmestere (Glaziers).

the mining districts, which were limited to certain Guldsmede.

buildings, did not pass by descent. The buildirgs were Kæbbersmede (Coppersmiths). inherited, but not the privileges, which consequently Malere (Painters).

could only be enjoyed by the heir if he was a baker. In In Bergen, 15- Muurmestere (Masons).

the event of a sale the oldest journeyman baker had Parykmagere (Wigmakers). and has still a right of pre-emption (Forkjöbsret) of the Reebslagere (Ropemakers). buildings at a valuation. So soon as the last of the Skomagere.

mountain bakers living in 1839 and their widows are Skræddere.

dead the trade will be free (vil denne Næring blive fri). Snedkere.

III.—No, not in Norway. Every Guild had no doubt Smede.

its Guild chest (Laugskasse), but this held merely og Uhrmagere (and Watch

inconsiderable receipt and a small capital which was makers.

never broken into. The money received by the Guilds Bagere.

was applied towards the support of sick and needy Guldsmede.

.members (til Understöttelse for syge og trængende Skomagere. In Throndhjem, 6

Medlemmer), but the Guild never acted as trustee Smede.

(Laugene optraadte aldrig som Curator) of other Snedkere.

people's charities. The insignia, plate, cash, and furni. Skræddere.

ture owned by the Guilds has some of it, been given to The total number of freemen of the Guilds (Laugs. the public museums and the remainder sold. mestere) amounts to 1,331.

IV.-The Guilds exercised no particular control over During the gradual abolition of these Guilds in the their members, but they permitted no encroachment merchant towns where they were established Guild on their rights. restrictions (Laugstvangen) would necessarily exist, and V.-Voluntary associations of craftsmen (frivi llige in these crafts, the execution of a masterpiece was Forenir ger af Haandværkere) even now appear in demanded of the journeymen and freemen (opre- religious processions with banners, and the emblems of tholdtes da fremdeles Svendepröven og Mesterpröven). their craft displayed. In industries and market towns where no Guild existed, VI.-See answers to questions 1 and 3. no journeyman's masterpiece was required, and, instead of the "Master's," a certificate of his ability in the in

DR. O. J. BROCK, dustry in question from two trustworthy men accepted.

In the country districts the trades were left untouched by the above-mentioned law of July 15, 1839, but it was

GUILDS OF HOLLAND. provided that within a radius of 1 Norsk mile (7 English miles) from a market town no industry might be

Huize de Toll (Gelochand), July 13, 1883. carried on in opposition to the townspeople. The im- I.-In former times there existed in the various porting of manufactures, moreover, into the towns was towns of the United provinces (the Netherlands) Guilds, permitted with the exception of coopers' work and con- the administration of which was regulated by special fectionery to the mines. Shipments from the towns ordinances, for each town had its own code of laws, remained as before prohibited.

resembling each other, however, in very many points. By law of April 14, 1866, the above-named surviving They were abolished throughout the country by Article limitations to the right to practise an industry are re

53 of the Constitution of 1798, which is to the following pealed as from 1868, and any man who has attained the effect:--" At the adoption of the Constitution all Guilds, age of 21 years, and fulfils the conditions respecting the Corporations, or Brotherhoods of trade, industries, or freedom of a market town (Kjöbstadborgerskab), which manufactures were declared abolished. Any citizen, are set out in full, can demand the town freedom (Borger- moreover, is at liberty to establish in the town, in brev) for industrial purposes, as this can now be combined “ which he resides, any such manufacture or business, or with trade freedom, except the retail trade (that is, under any such honest trade as he may desire. The repre40 litres) in spirits (Broendevin). By law of April 28, “sentative body provides for and assures to the 1874, the above-referred to radius round market towns “ citizens the quiet and peaceable enjoyment of such was finally abolished as from 1876, and thus industrial " establishments.” The right therefore to practise a enterprise (Haandværksdriften) is now free throughout certain trade is not dependent upon membership of a the country. All masterpieces tests of capability Guild, and in this sense it may be said that the Guilds (enhver Pröve eller Dygtighedsbevis) are abolished, and no longer exist. The influence, too, formerly exercised from the end of 1869 all Guilds are abolished likewise. by the Guilds in political matters has been taken from

These two laws, however, had no effect on the regu- them entirely. After their suppression, however, in a lations by which, in the mining towns, and in the few instances, the funds, which were not very large, vicinity of the silver mines the inhabitants were for- were allowed to remain in their possession, and were bidden to have any connexion with the workers in silver administered for charitable purposes by a committee, and gold, the purpose of which prohibition is to put a under the inspection of the local authorities. The stop to the stealing of silver from the mines, nor on the administration of these funds was regulated in accorbakers' trade in the mines, which was still limited to a dance with a royal decree of July 26, 1820, No. 74. By few privileged bakehouses. The real privilege, granted Article 4 of this decree it was directed that the money originally as a means of ensuring immunity from fire, should be employed for the support in the first place of the baking of fine bread—the baking of coarse is free, necessitous ex-members (hulpbehoevende gewezen but such bread is but little used in the mines—was by leden) of the former Guilds, and their widows and the law of 1839 to cease with the death of the freemen, children, and in the next place of other indigent craftsthen members of the Guild, or of their widows (samt- men (ambachtsgezelen). lige den Tid i Lauget værende Mestere eller disser II.-The right of membership was not hereditary Enker), provided that they took over the business on qua talis, but was dependent upon the actual practice of their husband's death, were dead or had left the Guild. the craft or trade (verbanden aan de uitoefening van

A law of June 15th, 1881, gives permission to three of het handwerk of beroep). the Municipal Council to abolish the journeyman's The freedom of a town (burgerrecht) was also a conmasterpiece. Craft masters are compelled to enter into dition precedent to admission to a Guild. The children a written contract to teach any apprentice they may take, born in lawful wedlock to a free citizen (burger) were which contract must not last more than five years, and from the moment of their birth free citizens likewise. to provide at the same time for his perfecting himself in “ Burgerrecht,” however, was obtainable in more ways the trade (Uddannelse i Faget), so that at the end of his than one, and he who had it not by birthright might petiapprenticeship (Læretiden) he can exhibit the above- tion the magistrate of the town to be pleased to grant him named voluntary masterpiece or test work. Such a the freedom, when by act of favour certain rights (jura) piece of test work may also be exhibited by any other were granted. Citizens thus created were called

now

no

“cooked burgers" (gekochte burgers). "Burgerrecht " can also be acquired by gift of the magistrate. It is worthy of note that it not unfrequently happened that persons holding the “burgerrecht,” but following no fixed trade or profession, obtained admission into one or other of the Guilds that they might be thus enabled to exercise some political influence.

III. The first part of this question must be answered in the negative; and in reply to the second part, there are some few charitable institutions under the management of the former Guilds, but the regulations differ in every town. There is one at Arnhem called Dortmond's widows' home (het Dortmondsche Wedu. wenhuis) founded in 1744 by Arent van Dortmond and Anneke van Gelders his wife, and managed in conformity with the directions contained in his will, by the two Commissioners of the sometime Guild of St. Joseph (the Carpenters' Guild).

IV.-No sort of control.
V.-No.
VI.-Already answered in reply to Question I.
BARON SCHIMMELPENNINCK VAN

DER OIJE.

Gravenhage, June 22, 1883. I.-In the several provinces which now constitute the Kingdom of the Netherlands there were from a very early period Guilds and Corporations; these associations, however, were almost exclusively confined to the towns, more especially the large towns. In Amsterdam in particular the Guilds were subject to very minute and circumstantial ordinances framed by the municipal authorities. Under the old régime (den alouden Staatsvorm) the towns in the different provinces and departments were to a very considerable extent autonomous. Hence in every town the Guilds, like all other local interests, were administered under the immediate inspection of the municipality (der locale gemeente), and the only difference between the Guilds lay in the different regulations. It should be mentioned, however, that in the main the regulations bore a strong resemblance to each other.

This state of affairs, which took its rise far back in the Middle Ages (waarvan de oorsprong hoog in de middeleeuwen opklimt), so that a knowledge of the early history of the Guilds in this country can with difficulty be attained, continued until the end of the 18th or beginning of the 19th century.

The first interference with the system we have just described was caused by the revolution in 1795, which transformed the old Republic of the United Provinces into the one and indivisible Batavian Republic (een en ondeelbaar Bataafsche gemeenebest). The first public act of the Batavian Republic was passed in 1798, and in Art. 53 of the general principles (Algemeene Beginselen) it was ordained that:

At the adoption of the Constitution all Guilds, Corporations, or brotherhoods of trades, industries, or manufactures were declared abolished. Any citizen moreover is at liberty to establish in the town in which he resides any such manufacture or business or any such honest trade as he may desire.”

This act was brought into operation by publication on the 5th October 1798, and a provisional commission was appointed in each municipality charged with the enforcement of its provisions. These commissioners were instructed to demand accounts and particulars relating to the funds of the Guilds and to take over the goods and effects which had belonged to the suppressed Corporations with respect to which they were to receive further instructions.

In consequence of the continuance of the revolution during the years 1798-1806 the liquidation was only partially carried out (slechtsgebrekkig geschied). After the foundation, however, in 1806 of the Kingdom of Holland by King Louis Napoleon a law was passed in 1808 by which the old Corporations and Guilds were re-established throughout the Kingdom on a new basis. But owing to the incorporation of the Netherlands into the French Kingdom in 1810 this law never took effect. The French legal code was declared to be in force and the Guilds were thereby permanently abolished and after the restoration of independence in 1813 they were not re-introduced.

There still, however, survive in some towns a few working men's associations (vereenigingen van werklieden) which somewhat resemble the old Guilds. Of this, nature are the weigh-house, porters' associations (waagdragers-veemen) at Amsterdam, the societies of the cornmeters (korenmeters), corn-porters (korendragers), turf-porters (turtdragers), children of the crane or kraan

kinderen (who were employed in the loading and unloading of ships), and others in different towns. It was shortly afterwards ordered, by royal decrees of 1815 and 1827, that these labourers should be appointed, and an oath administered to them by the municipal authorities, to the intent that there might be always a supply of capable and trustworthy men for the trade to select from, without, however, binding the trade to make exclusive use of their services. The appointment and swearing in (die aans tellingen béöediging) however are longer continued, and in substitution the workmen in some towns form mutual associations (zich onderling associëeren) in order to establish a uniform rate of payment for their labour. They admit into their associations only men of honest and upright character, and they have an office in common (gemeenschappelijk kantoor), where applications for workmen are received. The work is distributed, and the earnings divided, amongst them according to certain fixed rules ; they have also a reserve fund (spaarkassen en fondsen) for the support of invalid members of the association. These voluntary associations, however, have no official character, and no privileges or monopolies, every employer of labour being free to choose whether he shall make use of their services or not. They recommend themselves only by a moral guarantee for good and faithful service.

II.-The right of membership of the Guilds was anciently joined to certain conditions, the first, which was universal, being the possession by the participant (deelgenoot) of the right of citizenship or freedom of a town (poorter of burgerrecht) but in most communities it was not a difficult matter to obtain this right. Hence it naturally followed that the sons of Guildbrothers (Gildebroeders), as sons of citizens, had tho right to claim admission to the Guilds; provided they fulfilled the other conditions, which were a certain period of service as apprentice and journeyman (leerling en gezel) and the presentation of a masterpiece (de levering van proefwerk). In this sense the right of membership of a Guild (deelgenootschap aan het Gild) was hereditary, passing from the father to those of his sons who were brought up to his business; but a son who did not pursue the occupation was not received into the Guild. and thus the custom bere differs materially from that which obtains in England.

III.-There are no longer any Guilds. The old Guilds had some possessions and funds, but not of any great importance.

IV.--This question is superfluous, seeing that the Guilds have been suppressed.

V.--This question also for the same reason do not need an answer. Perhaps, however, it may be as well to mention that in the provinces of North Brabant and Limburg, where the Roman Catholic religion is in the ascendant, all the working men engaged in the same occupation form themselves into an association for profit or pleasure, as, for instance, musical and choral societies (muziekgezelschappen en zangvereenigingen), and that on solemn occasions and religious festivals these societies march in procession with music and banners.

VI.-The answer to this question has already been given in the reply to Question I. It is difficult to say how the property of the suppressed Guilds has every where been disposed of. In many cases the greater part was added to the Municipal chest ; a part was also originally applied to the relief of old and indigent members and their widows and children. But that is long ago, and it would not now be easy to trace more accurately the particulars of its eventual disposal.

S. VISSERING.

THE GUILDS OF BELGIUM.

Liége, July 1, 1883. The Guilds in Belgium were all suppressed at the end of the last century, and their property being “ Res nullius escheated to the Crown. Their resuscitation was at the same time prohibited.

More recently, in a suit relating to a Guild at Termonde, which had managed to escape suppression, it was held by the Belgian High Court of Justice that the existence of such a civil personage was legally impossible, and that consequently its real estate reverted to the Crown, that the members were not owners individuals (à titre individuel), and that the Guild as a body could not possess, for in the eyes of the law it was not only non-existent but even illegal.

The abuses which sprang from the existence and administration of these bodies were the causes of so stringent a measure, which was moreover in conformity with the individualising tendency of the 18th century.

as

It is perhaps necessary in Catholic countries to take other journeymen. In a small number of Corporations steps to prevent the land from passing into the hands of the sons alone, or with them the sons-in-law, and some religious associations, but it cannot be denied that such other relations, were allowed to succeed. But membermeasures are an obstacle to the creation of many useful ship of the trade Guild was always conditional on the works, and necessitate continued and increasing inter- exercise of the trade. vention by the State.

I know of no instance to the contrary. The most E. DE LAVELEYE. that was admissible was that in certain Corporations

the old freemen (anciens maîtres) after retiring from business were allowed to continue to be members of the

Corporation, but examples even of this were ruch less GUILDS OF FRANCE.

frequent in the Corporations than in the brotherhoods

(confréries). Fontainebleau, April 26, 1883. The brotherhood, a religious and charitable associaI.-In the Middle Ages, more especially after the tion, was ordinarily closely connected with the Corporaclose of the 12th century, the trades had in most of the tion, but it was not the Corporation, which was a duly large towns their organised Corporations. The first constituted body possessing the exclusive privilege to important collection of their statutes was made in the practise and control a certain industry in a town. reign of Saint Louis, by direction of Etienne Boileau, III.-There exist at the present day in France certain provost of Paris. The hundred Corporations appearing Corporations or bodies owning property, but none of therein existed previously, and the provost only caused them--so far, at least, as I know-possess any property the registration of certain customs which already dating from a period anterior to 1789, since they were flourished in Paris. A very rich Corporation, whose all dissolved at that time. existence in Paris in the 12th century is well ascer

The reply, like the question, is to be understood as tained, did not cause its statutes to be inserted in the

referring solely to the industrial and commercial Guilds, register of Etienne Boileau.

and not as including the advocates, the ministerial During the second half of the 13th and first balf of

officers, or the religious Corporations. the 14th centuries the number of these Corporations Amongst the bodies or Corporations of the economic increased proportionately to the development of trade. class which hold property may be mentioned certain The one hundred years war, owing to the ruin which it Chambers of Commerce—that of Lyons, for example, brought on a great part of the country, had a very and that of Paris—which possess several commercial disastrous effect on the Corporations, and many of them schools ; syndical chambers which, though they have no even ceased to exist in consequence of the attendant recognised legal existence, are nevertheless the owners commercial distress.

of real property, where they have erected their offices. The period from 1450 to 1550 saw the re-establishment IV.- The Chambers of Commerce do not exercise any of a large number of them. The power and especially control over trade, but some of them render certain the justice of the Sovereign had become preponderant ; services which constitute a species of control, as, for the old Corporations on their reconstitution and the

instance, the silk and woollen trades at Lyons and new on arranging their statutes appealed to the royal Paris. administration which confirmed by letters patent the At the “ Hallesof Paris there are several Corporaexistence of these privileged bodies, and this was the tions subordinate to the Prefecture of Police enjoying new system.

certain monoplies for the sale and transport of merIn 1581 an edict of King Henry III. ordered the

chandise, and in consequence exercising a certain control organisation by trade.guilds (corps de métiers) of all the over their members. There are others in other locali. urban artizans in the Kingdom, authorised those ties and at some of the seaport towns. artizans who had been admitted to the freedom (reçus maîtres) in one town to practise their trade (under

V.-The Corporations do not, as a rule, take part in certain conditions) in another, and set apart for the

processions or in festivals, whether civil or ecclesiastiroyal treasury a proportion of the fines payable on

cal. At the last fête, however, in Paris the Municipal

Council invited, I believe, delegates from the Syndical admission to the freedom (droits payés pour l'obtention

Chambers. de la maîtrise). This edict issued amid the troubles of

The journeymen's societies, which have the League never took effect. It was confirmed in the

never had a legal existence, have long been in the habit reign of Henry IV. by an edict dated 1597. During

of appearing at certain ceremonies with their insignia, the ministry of Colbert an ordinance was issued in 1673

canes, ribands, &c. The bearing of these insignia was by which all trades were formed into communities.

formerly prohibited, but is now tolerated. The number of Corporations was again increased at VI.--They were suppressed, as has already been this time, and the system of trade and craft Guilds said, by Act of 2–17 March 1791. Many of them became in the municipality the recognised mode of were owners of property consisting chiefly of the Hall industrial organisation until the revolution of 1789. (maison commune), where were the offices, and some

During Turgot's ministry, by an edict of March 1776, times beds for a few aged and indigent freemen the craft and trade Guilds (communautés d'arts et (maîtres). I do not know of any industrial Corporation métiers) were suppressed and freedom of labour was in France anterior to 1789 possessed of any considerable proclaimed. Turgot, however, soon quitted the Minis- property or estate in any way comparable to those of try, and in August 1776 was issued another edict by some of the Guilds of the City of London. Many of which the Corporations were re-established at Paris them had got into debt, and were paying interest on with certain modifications of their former organisa

loans. tion.

After the suppression of the Corporations the State, By Act of 2, 17 March 1791, passed by the Assemblée entering into possession of their real property, and reConstituante, the régime of Corporations was finally funding to the freemen a part of their freedom fine, made to give place to the system of freedom of labour. charged itself with the winding up of their affairs. II.--Admission to membership by Patrimony was

But this winding up or liquidation interrupted by poliunknown in the French Corporations. Before admis- cal events, and by the regime of Assignats was never sion it was necessary to have been received as master, brought to a conclusion. the qualifications for which were the execution of a The replies to Questions 1, 2, and 6, will be found master piece and its acceptance by a jury.

In most of more fully delveloped in the two volumes entitled the trades the Candidate before attempting the master

“Histoire des classes ouvrières en France depuis la piece was required to have served for a certain time as conquêté de J. Cèsar jusqu'à nos jours," by E. Levasjourneyman. many

trades the number of freemen seur; and the replies to Questions 3, 4, 5, and 6, will be (maîtres) was limited by statute, and, unless in excep- found partially developed in the two volumes of the tional cases, admissions to the freedom (maîtrise) could “ Histoire des classes ouvrières en France depuis la only be made when there was a vacancy. The King,

“ revolution de 1739 jusqu'à nos jours," also by E. however, would, under certain circumstances, make

Levasseur. grants of the freedom (lettres de maîtrise) of any of the

E. LEVASSEUR. Corporations, and these being sold to the highest bidders considerably augmented the Royal revenues. Although

105, Boulevard St. Michel, the sons did not necessarily succeed their fathers,

Paris, June 27, 1883. nevertheless in almost all the Corporations they en

I.-There have existed in France from a period somejoyed special privileges, such as exemption from the what difficult to determine with accuracy, but certainly masterpiece, reduction of the fines payable on admis- anterior to the 12th century, a great number of commusion to freedom (droits de maîtrise), dispensation from nities of arts and trades, mercantile corporations and the probationary course, and right of admission by transport comp:nies officially recognised by the admini. special favour on a vacanı:y arising in preference to the stration, and having each its own statutes, hierarchy,

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