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the aid of those best able to afford me trustworthy information, and to supply me with documents and tables of unquestionable authenticity.

To none am I more deeply indebted in this respect than to Mr. Farrer and others, of the Board of Trade, whose kindly promptitude I again acknowledge. For that part relating to France I have profited by the valuable aid of Mr. Michael Chevalier, who has not grudged the pains of carefully and critically revising the proofs of that portion of the work, and making many interesting additions to it.

Nor must I omit to record the readiness exhibited by Mr. R. B. Forbes, of Boston, United States, by Commodore Prebble, Commandant of the Philadelphia Dockyard, and by the Presidents of the New York and other American Chambers of Commerce, and to the United States authorities generally, in supplying me with official data with reference to the development of the maritime commerce of the United States,

To my own countrymen, whether Shipowners, Merchants, Shipbuilders, or Underwriters, my thanks are heartily due, and to the Directors and Managers of those large Shipping Companies which arose in the middle of the present century, both at home and abroad. And, in an especial manner I have to thank Mr. John Burns, of Glasgow (Cunard Company), Mr. Alfred Holt, of Liverpool, and Mr. B. Waymouth, the Secretary to 'Lloyd's Register.'

To enumerate all those who have so courteously and generously striven to forward the views of an historian whose only object has been to chronicle facts and events, would be to give an undue extension to these prefatory remarks. I have, therefore, contented myself with acknowledging the sources of my information in foot-notes throughout my work; and I trust they will accept my thanks in the sense in which they are tendered.

In conclusion, I must refer to the kind attention paid to my request by Earl Russell, in revising that portion of my work which refers to the repeal of the Navigation Laws when he was First Minister of the Crown; and to other eminent Statesmen (two of whom have gone through the whole of the sheets of both volumes, making many valuable suggestions) for the approval expressed by them of the manner in which I have compressed the debates on these Laws which have now passed into the domain of history.



18th January, 1876.


CHAPTER I. Progress of the United States of America—Their resources-Dis

criminating duties levied by France, 1820, against American shipsRapid rise of New Orleans, and of New York - Boston ships extend their trade to India and China-Stephen Girard, the rich and eccentric American shipowner, nute — Mercantile marine laws of the United States-Duties of master and mate-Provision for SeamenSpecial Acts relating to them-Power given to American consuls to deal with seamen on their ships-Superiority of native American seamen, owing to their education-Excellent schools and early training for them-Spirit and character of the “Shipping Articles " as affecting the seamen-the owners—and the master or consignee -Conditions of wages, and remedies for their non-payment; and other securities for seamen-Power of Appeal by them to the Admiralty Courts — Laws with reference to pilots—Character of American seamen, and especially of the New Englanders.

Pages 1-26

CHAPTER II. Necessity of proper elucation for merchant seamen-Practice in Den

mark-In Norway and Sweden-Russia and Prussia--FranceRemarkable care of seamen in Venice, Scuola di San NicoloCharacter of this institution, and general working - Variously modified since first creation - State since 1814 ---Qualifications of Venetian shipmasters – Present regulations of Austria Great Britain - Need of a public institution for merchant seamen - The “ Belvidere” or Royal Alfred Aged Seaman's Institution, note- Mr. Williams, observations by, on the advantage of a general Seaman's Fund, vote-Institution in Norway-Foreign Office circular of July 1, 1813-Its value, though unfair and one-sided-Replies to circularMr. Consul Booker-- Mr. Consul Baker - Mr. ('unsul Yeames, The

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