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all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors, shall he the Vice-President*. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them, by ballot, the Vice-President.

The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they sh 11 give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United Sta es.'

No person, except a natural born citizen, or citizen of the United States at the time of the ad ption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the nffice of President. Neither shall any person be eligible to that office, who shall bot have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.

In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President ; and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, or inability, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a Président shall be elected.

The' President sh11, at stated times, receive for his services, a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall haşe been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them,

Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation:

“I do solemnly swear (or affirm] that I will faithfully execute the office of Pres cient of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States."


The President shall be Commander in Chief of the army and navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when called into the actual service of the United States. He may require the opinion in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive des pertinents, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective of. fices; and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.

He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, oiler public ministers and consuls, judges of the supreme court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be estahlished by law. But the Congress' may, by law, vest the appointment of such interior officers as they think proper, in the President alne, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.

The President shall have power to fill up aid vacancies that may hap; pen dwing the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session.

He shall, from time to time, give to the Congress information of thie state of the union, and recommend to their consideration, such measures


* This mode of election is changed by the last amendment to the Constitution,

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as he shall judge necessary and expedient. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in case of disa greement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn theni to' such time as he shalt think proper. He shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the Upited States.

The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of trear son, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors,




The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme court, and in such inferior c arts as the Congress may, from time to time, ordain and establish. The judges both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behaviour ; anı! shall, at stated times, receive for their services a c mpensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office,


· The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties mado, or which shall be marie, under their authority ; to all cases affecting am-. bassadors, other public ministers and consulsz to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdictions to controversies to which the United States shall be a party ; to controversies between two or more States, between a State and citizens of another State, between citizens of different States, between citizens of the same State claiming lands under grants of the different States, and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens or subjects,

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and tnose in which a State shall be party, the supreme court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with sucly exceptions, and under such regulations, as the Congress shall make.

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have been committed ; but when not committed within any State, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.

SECTION III, Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies

, giving them aid and on fort. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainied.




Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, rer çords, and judicial proceedings of crery other state. And the Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.


The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States.

A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall fee from justice, and be found in another state, shull, on demand of the executive authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the criine.

No person held to service or labour in one State, under the laws there. of, escaping into another, shall in consequence of any law or regulation. therein, be discharged from such service or labour, but shall be delivered ap on claim of the

party to wlrom such service or labor may be due.


But no

New States may be admitted by the Congress into this union. new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State, nor any State he formed by the junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the consent of the legislatures of the States concerned, as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have power to dispose of, and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory, or other property belonging to the United States. And this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular State.


The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union, a Republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and, on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.

ARTICLE V. The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the appliçation of the legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call a Convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states, or by Conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress. Provided, that no amendment, which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first Article ; and that no state, without its consent, shali be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.


ARTICLE VI. All debts contracted, and engagements entered into, before the adop tion of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitutiot, as under the confederation.

This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby; any thing in the Constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial offi- cers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution. But no religious test

shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.

ARTICLE VII. The ratification of tlie Conventions of rtine states, shall be sufficient for the establishřent of this Constitution between the states so ratifying the


Done in Convention, by the unanimous consent of the States present,

the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the Independence of the United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names.


and Deputy from Virginia.

Nicholas Gilman.

Rufus King

John Langdon,

Nathaniel Gorham,

William Samuel Johnson,

Alerander Hamilton.

Roger Sherman,


William Livingston,

William Pattersong David Breareley,

Jonathan Dayton.

Benjamin Franklin,

Thomas Fitzsimons,
Thomas Mifflin,

Jared Ingersol',
Robert Morris,

James Wilson,
George Ciymer,

Governeur Morris,

George Read,

John Dickinson,
Gunning Bedford, Juin.

Richard Bassett, Jacob Broom.

MARYLAND. fames M'Henry,

Dan. of St. Thos. Jenifer, Dan. Carroll.

John Blair,

James Madison, Jun.

William Blount, Richaril Dobbs Spaight, Hugh Williamsoni.

J. Rutledge,

Charles Pinckney,
Charles Cotesworth Pincknell,

Pierce Bretler:

William Feru,

Abraham Baluzin,


IN CONVENTION : Monday, September 17, 1767.. Present-The States of New-Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connectí*

çut, Mr. Hamiltou from New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania; Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina

and Georgia. Resolved, That the preceding Constitution be laid before the United States in Congress assembled, and that it is the opinion of this Convention that it should afterwards be submitted to 'a Convention of Delegates, chi sen in each State by the people thereof under the recommendation of its Legislature, for their assent and ratification ; and that each Convention assenting to, and ratifying the same, should give notice thereof to the United States, in Congress assembled:

Resolved, That it is the opinion of this Convention, that as soon as the Conventions of niue States shall have ratified this Constitution, the United States in Congress assembled should fix a day on ivkich electors should be appointed by the States which shall have ratified the same, and a day on which the electors should assemble to vote for the President, and the time and place for commencing proceedings under this Constitution.---. That after such publication, the electors should be appointed, and the Sea nators and Representatives elected. That the electors should meet on the day fixed for the election of the President, an I should transmit their votes certified, signed, sealed and directed, as the Constitution requires, to the Secretary of the United States, in Congress assembled. That the Sena tors and Representatives should convene at the time and place assigned, That the Senators should appoint a President of the Senate, for the sole purpose of receiving, opening, and counting the votes for President. And, that after he shall be chosen, the Congress, together with the President, should, without delay, proceed to execute this Constitution. By the unanimous order of the Convention.

GEORGE WASHINGTON, President. W. JACKSON, Secretary.

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In CONVENTION : September 17, 17377

We have now the honour to submit to the consideration of the United States in Congress assembled, that Constitution which has appeared to us the most advisable.

The friends of our country hare long seen and desired that the power' of making war, peace; and treaties, that çf levying money, and regulating commerce, ancé ihe correspondent executive and judicial authorities, should be fully and effectually vester in the general governinent of the Union. But the impropriety of delegating such extensive trust to cne "body of men, is evident. Ilince results the necessity of a different organization.

It is obviously impracticable in the Federal Government of these States, to secure all rights of independent isovereignty to eich, and yet provide for the interest and safety of all. Indiviiluals entering into society, must Site up a share of liberty to preserve the rest. The magnitude of the Sicrifice nust' depend as well on situation and circumstance, as on the obféct to be obtaires. It is at all times difficult to draw, with precisio!l,

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