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ence and rights of the several states as necessary elements of the political order established by the one People in the Constitution which they adopted. While, therefore, the whole civil structure, federal and state, is made to rest upon the nationality and sovereignty of the United States, the construction that is advocated guards with equal care against any tendencies towards an undue centralization of power, and upholds the sacred principle of local self-government as the very groundwork of all civil and political liberty.

The text of the present edition has been carefully revised and corrected ; and whatever errors of fact or inaccuracies of statement had been discovered have been removed. An Appendix has also been added, which contains an abstract of all the decisions involving an interpretation of the Constitution, rendered by the Supreme Court of the United States since the publication of the first edition. The Public Law of the land authoritatively declared by the highest tribunal, is thus presented as it stands at the present day. The subject matter of this Appendix is arranged in an order conforming to that pursued in the body of the work, with appropriate subdivisions and headings, so that it can be easily referred to in connection with the discussions found in the original text. The additions thus made embrace many subjects of the highest theoretical and practical importance; among others, the nature of the Federal Union and its relations with the States, the status of citizenship with the rights and immunities of citizens, the interpretation of the XIIIth, XIVth, and XVth amendments, the regulation of inter-state commerce, the extent and limits of the national and the state powers of taxation, -- and the questions thus raised and determined, equal in magnitude and in their far-reaching effect any that were ever before passed upon by the national court of ultimate resort.

J. N. P. August, 1875.

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CHAPTER II.

HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE POLITICAL MOVEMENTS WHICH TERMINATED IN

THE ADOPTION OF THE CONSTITUTION.

SECTION II.- PERIOD OF THE CONFEDERATION.

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CHAPTER III.

THE NATIONAL ATTRIBUTES INVOLVED IN THE PROVISIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION.

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SECTION II. - THE IMPORTANT AND DISTINCTIVE NATIONAL ELEMENTS IN THE

CONSTITUTION ITSELF; IN THE ATTRIBUTES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE GOV.
ERNMENT.

1. The Preamble.

Language of the Preamble

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National character of the Preamble

94

Preamble of the Confederate Constitution, compared

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SECTION

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