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527 wards, has been corally absorbed "narchical government; t. and that in the studies and practice of their this defect in: che constitution can profession, and this must be the be palliated only by the general case with all eminent lawyers, who · venality of individuals; we need alone can afford'a seat in parlia. not be at a loss to account for the ment. But it we also consider, that degeneracy of parliament of late years the highest honours and Hence it is evident that our the most lucrative offices of state, . author is an advocate for reform, are prizes which every lawyer, whó but on principles very different from can join parliamentary, consequence : those on which reform has bitherto to protessional eminence, is sure to been defended; he would first reform obtain; we cannot be surprized if the manners of the electors, as the lawyers have, in general, proved best means of securing political-in. themselves the most zealous parci. tegrity in the elected: he would then sans of faction, the most subsęr. : introduce a grcater portion of the vient tools of government.' landed interest into parliament,

The constitution is also in dan. and considerably lessen the number ger, he says, from the admission of of professional men and merchants too many military men; since such who should be admitted to sit-in meinbers, in his opinion, for she is and he would: extend the pow. most part consider their seat in pare er of the serown, at the same time liament as a step subservient to, that he would diminish that of the perhaps necessary for, their pro- House of Commona, by making the fessional advancement, and there..prinee · less dependent on it :--but fore betray their duties as senators. ;; it is for the lower:bouse alone, ac, He then adds the following ob- cording to Mr. M; that calls for re. servacion:

form; the Liouse of Lards, in his opi. If, in addition to this change pion, stands in as much need of it. in the character of the peinbers, • A moment's reflection (says he) we also fake into consideration the will serve to convince us, that the great increase of power thai the political power vessed in the lords, senate has necessarily arrogated to enables them so perform but. a itself, since the crown was render. small part of what is required of ed entirely dependent on its good them and unless this power, their will; when we recollect that ex titles of honour, and their insignia cessive power corrupts the best dis. of rank, are unised to grat per spositions; that thic actual exercise sonal authority, derived from ample

of what the House of Cormons hereditany possessions, and to che . possess, is incompatible with a mo.. tespect which is, always paid to

• Those who are advocates for the present system of government, yet:allow that it is supported by influence, scem noi aware that iheir arguments lead to an absyre 2 dity. The power of iallacncing a preponderating part of the people vested in the crowu, is augatory, unless there is also a disposition in the people to be influenced. Such a disposition implies a proporcional annihilation of political in. tegrity. But where political integrity is in general eşinct, the Asation must de. Glina



honourable birth, their power peer, can safely be entrusted only would be nugatory, their insignia to one who is altogether indepenridiculous. Luxury, that bane to dent of the smiles of the prince, or national prosperity, by causing the the minister, as to his fortune ; and extinction of old families, incurably if the house of lords is, as it always vitiates, to a certain degree, the has been esteemed, the firmest sup. constiturion of the house of lords. port to royalty, and a necessary A new.created peer will never be refuge to the constitution against respected as much as one who de. the fickleness and violence of the rives his honours from a long line people, it is the interest both of the of ancestors. This evil would not, people and of the crown to unite, however, be very considerable, if as formerly, political power and the vacancies were supplied as they honorary splendour to hereditary ought to be ; but of late years, in. opulence and personal authority. stead of selecting those commoners Whatever may be his abilities and who are most distinguished by their merits, however splendid his ser. family and fortune, peerages have vices, a new man (nivus bomo), been lavished on professional men, particuarly if he has his fortune to qften of the most obscure birth, make, is not competent to fulfil all and who sometimes have not even that is required of a peer.' attained an independence, but are Then, criticising the famous pas. compelled still to follow their pro. sage in Goldsmith, fessions, or trust to places and pen. sions for a maintenance. This

" Princes and peers may Aourisb practice partly arises from the indolence and effeminate frivo.

or may fade,

A breach can make them, as a lity of those who are born to opu.

breath has made ; lence, and who desert the service of the public, or at least consider

But a bolu peasantry, their counit as subordirate to their pleasures

try's pride, and amusements; they iherefore

When orice destroy'd, can never not only have no claims to any re.

be supplied :" compense from government, but, from the degradation of their per. he says—The sentiment is false, for sonal characier, are of little im. it would be still more difficult to portance in the eye of the mini. re-establish a peerage than a pea. ster. It proceeds, however, still Santry; and he is certainly right, more from the necessity the mini. if it be true that hereditary nobles ster lies under, of attaching to him. are useful inasmuch as they are self as many men of professional venerated by the public, and that espinence as possible, who, knowantiquity of descent is one of the ing their own importance, inake causes, if not the principalone, of the their own terins; and also of sc. veneration in which they are held curing a devoted majority in the by the people. He then proceeds upper as well as in the lower house: to shew that, notwithstanding the

• It behoves all parties ar pre. many additions made to the line sent to recollect themselves. Pow. of peers, the power of the asistos er, such as is vested in an English cracy is rather on the wane, and


that the influence of the democracy which the hunters pursue him, and has long been gaining ground in submits to be maimed in order to our constitution. He insists that save his life. The upper rank cannot the monarchs, deprived as it is of long retain an exclusive right to the legal power necessary to its de. the lucrative cffices of the state. fence, cannot maintain itself with. : The greedy multitude will at firse out influence : but at the same insist on having a share : they will time he admits that a government then take the whole, and the pri. of influence is banciul in its nature; vate possessions of the rich will soon and that the resources of no state follow. Before it is too late, all whatever can for a continuance salaries and profits arising from ofá support it: he is therefore an ad. fices of state should be infinitely vocate for a reforin, though, as we reduced, and neither the populace have already said, on principes nor their leaders will then be very different from any yet recommended keen in the pursuit of barren ho. to the public.

nour and unprofitable labour.' • Unless (says lie) a radical aire. After the last chapter, are given lioration of legisla:ive policy takes 101 pages of notes, illustrating place, anarchy will triunph, or des. various propositions laid down in potism will crush every remnant of the body of the work; to which is liberty. This horrid alternative can subjoined an Appendix of 31 pages, be prevented only by active and stre. containing many very judicious obnuous exercions of the advocates for servations on agriculture, enclo. order and rational freedom. Whoever sures, &c. values his property and his honours, Such is the outline of a work, Taust owe their preservation to him. which, we are convinced, cannot be self; he can no longer enjoy them read without benefit by any class in indolence under the protection of or description of thinking men. laws, or a constitution, for which It contains undoubtedly much that the contending parties feel no reve. will be condemned, or at least dis. rence, which the one endeavours to puted, by many, on the suivjects destroy, and ihe other to abuse.' of the army, militia, religion, gar.

A great blessing attending our risons, royal prerogative, commerce, government, he observes, is, that and reform : but the parts which we need not disorganize in order may be condemned by some; will to regenerate ; and that a com. be infinitely overbalanced by those plete reformation may be obtained that must be praised by allo by adhering to the spirit, without departing from the forms, of our

The History and Antiquities of the present constitution :--but, in or. der to proceed with effect, be thinks

County of Leicester, compiled from

the best and most ancient Historians, the legislature ought to begin in tine. To those who have proporty,

Ec. In luling als), Mr. Burion's and to those who have hitherto

Disiplin of the Court, published posses:ed a kind of monopoly of

in :622 ; and the later Collections

of Mr. te wkley, Mr. Carte, Mr. places, he gives very wholesome advice in the following words :

Puck, and Sir Thomas Crve. By • The rich would do well to imi.

John Nich Is, F.S.A. Edinburgh tate the fabled policy of the beaves,

and Perth. In 4 vols. folio. who is said to bite off the part for Vol. 1. Part 1. Containing Inirea VOL. XXXVIII.



dutory Records, Illustrations, &c. Leicester in 1220, a rotula of the and the Early History of the Town churches of Leicestershire in 1344, of Leicester.

and other tables relating to eccle. Vol. 2. Part 1. Containing Framland siastical matters, come next. These Hundred.

are followed by a variety of papers, Common Paper, 31. 55. Royal Paper, .containing taxations, lists of free.

71. 75. boards. Nichols. 1796. holders, knight's fees, tenants it

We cannot sufficiently admire capite, &c. &c. Mr. Leman's trea. or applaud the extraordinary per- tise on the Roman roads and siaseverance and assiduity of research cicns in Leicestershire, with addi. which our estimable author inust tional observations by the bishop have bestowed on so dry but useful of Cork, and remarks on Roman e publication as the one now before roads by other writers, together us.

with a learned essay on a Roman We have no hesitation in placing milliary found near Leicester, by the history of Leicestershire at the the Rev. George, form the head of all the county histories succeeding set of papers. The ri. which have yet appeared, for extent vers and navigations of Leicester. of information and minuteness of shire are the subject of the next investigation, and though from its article, chicfly consisting of copies buik and locality, its meric is not of the acts obtained for the purposes likely to be suficiently appreciated of navigation, mostly of very late by the present generation, yet pos- date. Dr. Pulteney then contri. terity will consider it as an inva- butes a catalogue of rarer plants luable legacy, and be grateful to found in the neighbourhood of its disinterested author for so com. Leicester, Loughborough, and in plete a collection of ancient records, Charley forest, drawn up with the authentic documents, and original judgment and accuracy that might information,

be expected from so able a botanist. The introductory volume begins The returns made to parliament of with an account of Leicestershire chariiable donations within the extracted from Dome:day hook, coun:y, fill a large number of suc. with a translation. It is succeed. ceeding pages. All the rocainder ed by a curious and valuable disn of the volume is composed of the serration on Domesdiy bool, cload history and antiquities of the town by a tabulary description of Leices. of Leicester, with a series of its tershire as it was in the side of bisi.ops, of the kings, dukes, and William the Co:queror. Then fol- carlsof Mercia, and tbeir successors, lows an essay on the Mini at Lei. carls of Leicestes. A great pori cestershire, with views of coins. tion of this trenches deeply on The names and arms of knighis of the general history of Engiand, in the county of Leicester who served which the Montfort family, with under Edward I. are next given, others who bore the Leicester title, with other lists of persons wilo bore made so conspicuous a figure honours, &c. of the Testa The writer (an anonymous friend de Neville, as far as it relates to of Mr. Nichols) has also contrived this county, a matricuius of the to bring in the whole story of churches of the archdeacony of Thomas Becket, *ho seems to


A copy

[531 be a favourite character with this pleford, has a minute account of memorialist, who certainly displays the noble families of Rutland and an intimate acquaintance with many Harborough, the latter of which nice historical points; though few, is peculiariy rich in genealogical we imagine, will follow him through illustrations, decorated with many all bis narrations and disquisitions, fine engravings. O‘her distin. which are however little enlivened guished families, and not a few by the beauties of composition. men of letters and divines of note, An appendix of charters, deeds, are recorded in the course of the and other legal papers, concludes work.: We shall present our rea. this first part of the introductory der with the transcript of one arti. volume.

cle; as a neat model of topogra. The first part of the second vo- phical description, unattended with lume, containing an account of antiquities. It is an account of Framland Hundred, is a specimen the natural history of the parish of of what is to constitute the proper Little Dalby, communicated by matter of the work. Every town. professor Martyn. ship in the hundred is separately . This lordship is remarkably treated in an alphabetical order. hilly, being thrown about in small The author's general method is to swellings in such a manner, that in give the name, situation, and con- the greater part of it, it is difficult tents of the district; then to trace to find a piece of fat ground. The all the owners of the manor and largest portion of it is an ancient the landed property of the place, enclosure ; and none of the inha. from the carliest records, down to bitants' know when it took placea the present time : with this are I thought at first to have disco. introduced genealogies of all the vered the date of it from the age principal families, as well as anec. of the trees in the hedge-rows; dotes, biographical and literary, but none of them which I have had of all extraordinary persons con. an opportunity of examining are nected, by birth or otherwise, with more than about 120 years old; the township. Ecclesiastical mat. but if the enclosure went no fur. ter comes next, such as notices of the back than this, we should all religious and charitable foun. have learnt the date of it from tra. dations, account of the church. dition. I then searched the parish living, its nature and value, pa. register, to find whether any depo. trons, and incumbents; m.onu. pulation hat taken place since the mental inscripcions, extracts from time of Elizabe:h; but could find the parish register, population, and none, and therefore concluded that bills of mortality at different peri. th: enclosure was at least as early ods, &c. Very few details of na- as her reign. That there has been tural history or economical matter a depopulation I conclude, not only are to be found ; and, indeed, lit. froin the natural consequence of tle occurs for the amusement of a enclosing, but from the founda. common reader, except the bio- tions of buildings which are dise graphical relations, so ne of which covered in the closes near the are curious. The present volume, church. comprising Belvoir castle and Sta.

* The whole lordshipis in pasture, Mm 2


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