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dames of every artist emloyed, the Ben die hengale, for the coun: way's they receive i, and the price ties of Cairoridge, Huntingdon, of every article usou, as far as the N riw, and Suffolk. account continucs. The amount of the wages dur. Jure 4 h, 1363, according to Ry.
Aga:n in ihe 37th Edward III,
: ing the whole time of this account, mer, Willian de Walsingham was was 35ol. 125. o. d.; and of the appointed to take a srácient nom. materiais used in the building, ber of painters and workmen, to 1581. 45. 4 d.; making together be einployed at the charge of the 5081. 165. 5 d. These wurks were not completed within the royal palace. Unfo:
king, in the chapel of Si. Stephen, for several years after the iermi. turately the accounts of these nation of this accouni; but on
workmen have not come to our the 6!h oi August 1348, in the
view. 22d year of buward III. ibat kios,
King Edward III. erected for by his royal charter, recited that the use of thi college, at soine disa spacious chapel, situate within
twice west, in ihe Little Sanctuary, the pulace of Westminsier, in ho- out of the pz'ace court, a strong nur of St. Stephen, protomartyr, ciuchard, or lil towet, of sione had been nobly begun by his pro- ard ringer, covered with lead; genitors, and had been completed and placed therein the great bells, at his own expence, which, to the which were fierwards usually rung honour of Almighty God, and es
at coronations, triumphs, and fune. pecially of the blessed May his
... of prirces, which gave such mother, and of the said martyr,
e sound,:ha: it was commonly he orjained, constituted and ap- sai: they soured all the drink in pointed to be collegiate.
Howell's Londinopo. Notwithstanding this constitu
is, p. 378. tion of the college, yet it is evident
This college of St. Stephen was that the chapei was not then finished;
valued for on the isih ot March, 135C, worth 108 ;1. 105.5d. and was sor
at the suppression to be in the 24th Edward lil, the king ndered in the first year of king appointed Hugh de Gi. Albans, Divad VI. A list of the deans Theo master of the painters for the and casens of this college may be works within ihe chapel, 10 lake and
seen in Newcourt's Repertorium. checse as many painiers, and other
Tb chapel of St. Stephen was workmen, as should be necessary
soon aterwards fitted op for the for carrying on the works in the meeting of the house of commons, chapel, as he should find in the which had before usually assembled counties of Kent, Middlesex, Essex, in the chapter house of the abbey Sorry, and Sussex ; such workmen of Westminster, and has since con. 10 be employed and paid at the tinued to be appropriated to the expence of the king. Rymer's same use; 10 the present time. Federa, tom. 5, p. 670.
A like appointment was made of John Atheard, for the counties of ancierit Spain and its original
Inhabitants. From Mannert's Nor. of Linco.n, Northampton, Oxford
thern Geography of the Greeks Warwick, and Leicester; and of
THE name of Spain is probably cient se:tel inhabitants of the Phænician origin.
The Ro. country in the western parts, the ans borrowed it from the Cartha. Kyoeiæ; and on the suurhern inians, through whom they first b.. cuist, The Turtessians beyond the ime acquainted with the country. iberius within the Piilars of HerThe Gre, ks every where call cules. Part ut' che latter, between beria, . wainuut attaching always the Pyreneus and the Euro, were he same idea to the denoinination. known by the name of 'Igleta. The eider Greeks, tiid the period Herodotus learned these of the Achæan league and of their from the Piroca:ns ; so that our loser acquaintance with Roman first notices of the country reach affairs, understood by it the whole back to the lines of the early Per. sea-coast from the columns of Her. sian kings. I pass over the table cules to the mouth of the Rhine : of Luscus and Pan, Generals of because throughout this district, Bacchus, said to have given their the Iberi were to be found, some- names to Lusitania and Hispania. times
apart, sometimes mingled Hierodotus also notices some in. with Ligurians. The river Ebro truded tribes, the Phænicians who has its naine trom them.
had colonized the coasis, and the The sea coast beyond the pillars Celis who had wandered into, the they cailed i artessis. The interior interior. These dwell less west. of the country went long without ward than the Kynetæ, and pro. a name among the inhabitants, be
bably in the same regions in which cause each nation considered itself we find them at a later period; and as a whole, and lived ncarly un. these were probably the only Celts connected with its neighbours,
its neighbours. or Kelts of whom the Phænicians Among the Greeks, it obtained had experimental knowledge; which the vague name of Kelrica ; which occasionis Herodotus to piace crro. was aiso applied to the whole neously among a city, Pyrene, near north-west of Europe. Time al.
ito which he supposes the Danube tered these ideas, and the latter to rise. Greeks appropriate the name Iberia Whether the Phænicians or the to the saine country which the Kelts were the earlier intruders Romais called Hispania. Even cannot be ascertained. Both their this last name the Greeks occa. emigrations precede the beginning sionally use, but understand by it
of authentic history. The build. the region between the Pyrenées ing of Gadeir, their chief sea-porr, and Iber or Ebro. Not till the by the Phænicians, is placed soon second or third century was the after the Trojan war. The in, Lacin name fully received into the trusion of the Kelts loses itself in Greek tongue, although earlier in the midst of antiquity. Later his. stances occur. Hesperia, or the tory mentions them to have come west country, is a common name from beyond the Pyrenées, to have among the Greek poets both for waged long wars with the Iberi, Italy and Spain; for the latter, and finally to have melted into one with che occasional epithet ultima. nacion; which under the name of History mentions as the most an. Keltiberi, possessed a considerable
tract of land in the south, and was Bastitani, of the south. The lannoted for its bravery, during the guage, manners, and weapons of wars between the Carthaginians these people are alike: they are one and the Romans. The union was people in many subdivisions. not general; only the inhabitants The mixed tribes may be again of the south became one nation divided into the Keltiberi and the with the Kelts; the other Iberi re. people of the south.coast. The mained unmixed. From the great former comprehend in a manner Keltic army some tribes separated, all the inland inhabitants of the who established themselves near to south. The Kelts chiefly strugthe mouth of the river Anas (Gua. gled with the Iberi in the neigh. diana). Another portion occu- bourhood of the river so called ; pied ihe north-west extremity un. but after the incorporation they der the name of Artabri. The jointly occupied the mountainous former preserved the general name country on the west of the Iber, as of Kelts.
far as the source of the Durius and The Greeks established some co. Tagus. This was Keltiberia in its lonies along the coast of Iberi narrowest import: but the nations within the columns : but, except having multiplied greatly, dispos, the Saguntum of the Lakyntihans sessed or reduced to slavery several and the Emporium of the Massili. tribes, as the Vakkæi, Karpetain, ans or Phocæans, they were of Oretani, &c. who are thence incor: little importance.
rectly reckoned as a part of it. All the numerous tribes, there. The people of the coast beyond fore, which are afterwards found in the pillars are a mixture of the neSpain, may be divided, 1. into the tives with Phænicians; and, with. unirixed aboriginal inhabitants, in the pillars, a mixture of the na. and II. into the tribes wholly or tives with Greeks, Romans, and partialiy composed of intruders. Carthaginians. Their commerce The former occupied the east and with strangers destroyed all pecu. west coast of the ocean, the Pyre. liarity of character. At first, they. nées, and great part of the coun). learned the Punic, afterward the try east of the Iber. It cannot be Roman language and manness. proved that the north-west inbabi. The commerce to which they were tants are the same with the pro. devoted, habituated them to assume per Iberi of the south-east: but I every form. For this reason, the find no obstacle to this opinion. inlanders despised them, made in,To these belong the Lusitani, Kar. roads on them, and forced them to petani, Kallaiki, and Vakkæi, of recur for defence to foreign prothe west; the Asturian, Canta. tection. The Keltiberians, on the brian and Vask, of the north; contrary, prided themselves on rethe inhabitants of the Pyrénées, taining their native savageness of through whose territory many dress, weapons, language, and hordes passed without staying, and manners. some tribes dwelling along the More will be said of the pecu, Iber, of the east; finally, the in. liarities of each people, when the habitants of the highlands, of Or. description of their boundaries is sospeda, the Oretani Olkadi, and undertaken. Thus puch was ne,
essary to prepare a clear survey of tinguish the Pæonians from the he remainder.
other Illyrians. Herodotus, who
knew them experimentally, does Df the Illyrians and Pannonians,
not indeed expressly reckon them From the same.
as a branch of the Thracian stem, The Illyrians are probably of the because he says that the quantity same stem with the Thracians; at of single tribes is too great to be least, the elder writers, who had enumerated: but he knows only of visited the country or conversed Thracians on the south side of the with natives of it, confound them Danube; he describes them as cotogether : whereas the Kelts are vering many districts, and places always contradistinguished from among them the Pæonians by the them, even when resident among Strymon and the Drino, without them, Of all the European na- distinguishing them from Thra. tions, the Illyrians and Thracians cians;
and as he deduces the only had the practice of tattooing Pæonians from the Teucri of Asia, their bodies. Their original lan. he fartier corroborates the opinion guage is probably preserved in the of their being of Thracian race, Epirotic dialect of the present whose Asiatic origin, is certain. times : but in Illyria itself, the If the Thracians be one race with Slavonian tribes have wholly ex. the Pæonians and Illyrians, the tinguished every other tongue. Kelts must not be derived from the The eastern continuation of ihe Thracians ; for the Romans conAlps comprised the ancient dwel. stantly discriminate between the lings of the Illyrian nations. From language and warfare of Kelts and the Julian Alps, the high iards Illyrians.' Thucydides also notices spread uninterrupted between the the Pæcnians in this site. Save and the Adriatic to the Perhaps, in clder periods, they Häinus and go Macedon. Of this had exiended their seats farther mountainous district, the Illyrians north unto the Danube, and were occupied the southern declivity, compressed in the southern mountogether with the sea-coast, from rains by the Kelts; who, as I shall about Aquileia to the modern shew, overflowed at one period the Epirus.
whole south of Hungary,' Certain On these very mountains, down it is that the Romans found towns the southern declivity towards the of the Panonians only about the Save, were the oldest seats of the Save :---but, when the Kelts were Peonians, as the Greeks styled repulsed, and the plains emoticd, them : of the Panrcnians, as the thie Pannonians began to migrate Latins called them. They es- from cheir mountains into the cham. tended from the Ukraine ro Mace- paign, and to exiend their habitadonia. Thus Strabo specifies their cious to ihe Danube. At this pe. station, and he flourished wlileriod, probably under Claudius, Augustus and Tiberius wcre in con, Pannonia obtained its constitution dict with thev; his account is and boundary as a Roman proconfirmed by Velleius Paterculus, vince; although fortresses had long and Appian, from the commentaa before been raised along the river. ries St Augustus. :
The original district of the Panno. Strabo does not in any thing dis- nians materially differs, it should VOL. XXXVIII.
be remembered, from the Roman Mouot Thaguron (in Ox780) province of Pannonia.
stretches from south to north at the Dion Cassius, himself a gover. 'eastern end of the Kasian mounnor of Upper Pannonia, blames the tains, and must be that part of the Greeks for confounding the Pæo. Mongolian chain which meets the nians near Macedon with the Pan. river Hoang-ho. Next lie the nonians near the Danube : but as Emodian mountains, which extend he supports his opinions on slight from the north of Thibet towards grounds, and would derive the the province Shiensi; of which the name Pannonia from pannis, (the Otrorokorras, (50 OTTOFDA33ga;,) on material of their large sleeves), which many rivèrs rise that fall it seems more rational to reject his into the Yellow river, is a portion. notion;---trusting rather to Strabo, Two great rivers water the md. -Velleius, and Appian, who place .jor part of Serica. First, the the Pæonians and Pannonians all Dichardes, of which the northem along these' mountains. His error source is to be sought in the mouth. is natural enough to one who first tains of Aszak. A second stream of knew the Pannonians in modern it coines from the Asmiræan moun. Hungary, in a tutored agricultural tains of the south-east in the 47 ,
* state, and had only heard of the degree of latitude. Farther west, rude Pæonians of Macedon; be. where the main stream inclines totween which nations, much of wards the Emodian mountains, a Illyria and Musia seemed to inter. third tributary river arises, underpose.
the 44th degree of latitude, but more in the north than the Bauti.
This latter arm is undoubt. China, as known to the Aucionts.
edly the Erzineh, which loses itself Frim tke same.
in the desert of Sohuk, or in che Serica is bourded on the west by
The eastern stream Scythia, on the north-cast by an can hardly be any other than the unknown country, on the south by river Onghen; which, like the India berond she Ganges, and also Erzineh, never mingles with the by the Sinæ in a latitude of about main stream, but in a amner ap35. This comprehends Koshotey, proaches it. Prolemus, it should
' the Chinese province of Shiensie seem,
accounts before Mongolia, and part of Siberii. him : on intervening district was The people are cailed Sères. unknown to both his travellers :- it
The southern part of ihe country was only from probability that has many mountains, which are lie conducted their sereral river's continuations of those in Scythia; into the great vné. The nuin such as the Aszak mountains in the strean, Oichardes; then, mast be Russian province Nerthink ; and the Selenga ; which, according to consequently they have been already the geographer, takes a southerly mentioned.Suilltariher sourb,occur direction. the Asmirean mountains (Aopięcesor Secondly, the Bautisus (or, if. een) which form the northern linis cording to the edition of Erasmuig of the desert of Kobi. To these the Bautes) has its source is the north adjoin the Kasian mountains, which by the kasian mountains on the boré stretch alorg the Chinese wall der of serieg in the 4.30 degree of