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By evaporating this solution to in the same manner, he combined dryness, a white tenacious mass is the neutral salt of tartar with quick obtained, which has such an acrid lime. (See Menoirs of the Aca. and burning taste, as to affect the demy of Paris, 1773, page 191.) congue like caustic alkalies.
6. Alcohol, or very highly rec. 3. By exposing a solution of tified spirit of wine, precipitates lime and sugar to the air, after the lime from the forementioned having been filtered into an open solution. .vessel, the surface becomes gradu. 7. Mild alkalies, by the aerial ally covered with a great number acid they contain, produce the of small crystals; these are
same effect. ceeded by others whenever, by 8. Caustic alkalies do not cause
shaking the liquor, the first form. the smallest alteration in the solu. ed ones are made to fall to the tion. bottom of the vessel. This forma. IX. From what I have said it tion of crystals at the surface con- follows, that the union which ex. tinues till the liquor contains no ists between the saccharine part
of more lime; then the sugar again honey and the oily part is much acquires its proper taste.
weaker than the union between 4. The sinali crystals, of which the same parts in sugar. This last I have just spoken, very readily lose cannot be decomposed, in the their water of crystalization, by be. humid way, except by creating it ing exposed to the open air ; ac. with nitrous acid; while honey cording to my experiments, I should and the sugar it contains, may be consider them only as an aerated decomposed, not only by that acid, calcareous earth crystallized, but also by mild alkalies, and by
s. One of the most remarkable lime. properties of the filtered solution Upon the whole, there appears of lime and sugar is, that by being very little reason to hope that we made to boil, it soon grows turbid shall ever be able to obtain honey and thick ; the lime then falls to in the form of sugar ; to bring it the bottom of the vessel, and this into that form, something more precipitate is of a milk white colour; than a mere separation of its he. but as soon as the solution grows terogeneous parts seems necessary. cold, the lime again dissolves It is indeed said, that, in some in it spontaneously, and the solu- kinds of honey, especially in that tion becomes once more as limpid fro'n Narbonne, crystals of sugar, and transparent as it was at first, completely formed, have been obe This phænomenon (which it is ra. served ; admitting the fact, I con. ther difficult to explain) was ob. sider it only as an accidental cir. served by M. de Lassone, when, cumstance.
irst R-port from the Select Committee custodes rotulorum and sheriffs de.
appointed to take into considera- pure in England and Scotland, de. tion i be present high price of Corn. siring them to obtain meetings of
the magistrates for the purpose of THE select committee appointed procuring an account of the state o take into consideration the prea of the fate crop: but these returns ene high price of corn, and to are not as yet sufficiently numerous Colleet evidence relative thereto, or complete to lead to any precise and to report the same, from time conclusion. co time, as it shall appear to them,
On the whole, however, the gea o the house, with their observa neral inforination derived from the tions thereupon, proceeded, in the sources above-mentioned satisfied first instance, to consider such in your committee, that the crop of formation as had been already col. other sorts of grain than wheat has lected concerning the same.
the whole abundant, They examined, for this purpose, but that the produce of wheat has the minutes of the evidence taken proved so far deficient as to require before the lords of his majesty's the adoption of the speediest and privy council, upon this subject. must effectual measures for the re. They received from sis John Sin- medy or alleviation of so great an clair, one of the members of the evil. They woke therefore of opi. committee, the substance of such nion, that they should best perform accounts of the state of the late their duty by directing their imme. crop of grain, as the correspondence diate attention to the consideration of the Board of Agriculture had en- of such measures; and have, on abled them, at the present period, that account, deferred for the pre. to collect. They had further the sent pursuing a detailed inquiry opportunity of receiving from ma. into the exact amount of such ny of their inembers a statement deliciency; but they propose to of facts within their own knowledge, report the same more particular. or communicated by respectible ly to the house, when they shall authorities from their different have received such further infor. counties.
mation as may e::able them to col. They have received also from his lect more fully the general opinion, majesty's principal secretary of state upon a point which they are sensi. for the home department, such ble it is impossible at any time to returns as had been hitherto made ascertain with any great degree of to the circular letter written by him accuracy. by his majesty's command, to the The first and most obvious mode
of suplving this deficiency is, the (as soon as such declaration shall importation of grain from foreign be practicable) of the quanrity parts—and for the purpose of form. whilh they may then have at their ing an opinion as to wat may disposal in consequence of former be the prospect of supply dum ord rs, and of their intention 10 thence, and the most expeji nt give no further ord ss for the pur. means to be adopted for procuring chase of corn, an? to sell what it, your committee proceeded in may have been procured in limit. examire such persons, froin whose ed quantities, and at the market lanowlege and experience in the price. It appeared to your com. . trade of corn they could expect the mittee to be the preponderant opi. best information. It appeared from niin arongst those persons to their concurrent testimony, that, whom this alternative was stated, though the crop of wheat in the that, upon the whole, the restora. United States of America, and in tion of the trade in corn to its nathe countries bordering upon the, tural channel, with the additional Mediterranean, was r presented as encouragement of a bounty, was abundant; and in die northern the most eligible mode of endea. and eastern parts of Europe as rotvouring to procure from foreign materially deficient ; yet, as the parts such supplies as those mark. old stock was much exhausted, and ets might be found able to furnish. the demand great, the price, ac- Your cmmittee were further con. cording to the las: advice's, was eve- firmed in his opinion by the iniorty where uncommorly hiş h. But, mation they received from some of though there was upon this point their members, that there were mera some difference of opinion, it ap- chants who had stated to them peared upon the whole very doubt their readiness, under those, cir. ful, whether a supply to any consi. cumstances, to engage in specula. derable extent could be d perded tions to a large extent. After a upon froin foreign parts, whatever full consideration and discussion of measures might be adopted. Your this important poi:t, your commit. committee next proceeded to in. tee were of opinion, “ that it wa quire what measures, in the judg- expedient for the executive go. ment of these person!', afforded ihe vernment to desist from making best probability of obtaining sech any further purchases of corn; and a supply. They therght it right that a bounty should be granted to bring distinctiy under their con. upon the importation of certain sideration the alternative oí leaving sorts of grain into this country, for the hole care of such purchases the encouragement of private spe. to iha executive government, who culation." would (it was conceived) be in Your committee next proceeded such case the only purchasers, and to the consideration of the amount be publicly known to be so; and distribution of such bounty. of leaving the same to the specula. They had been informed that, from tion ct individual merchants, en. the abundance of the crop of wheat couraged by a liberal bounty on in the countries bordering upon importation, and by a public decla. the Mediterranean, there might be ration on the part of government a considerable disposeable surplus
in those markets; but that, from fore the 31st day of August 1796; che high price of freight and insur- until the quantity of such wheat ance from those ports, and from and four, taken together, shall the difficulty of procuring shipping equal 500,000 quarters. Yous to go thither in haliast, a larger comitice were also of opinion, kounty would be required to encou. that a bounty viitteen shillings per r.ge private seculation in that quarter, and a proportional bounty quarter than in any other; they per barrel, should be given on Weie therefore ot opinion, that a any number of quarters of wheat bounty of twenty 'shilings for weighing not less than 44olb. a. qurter, and a proportional bounty voirdupois, or on 2.21 number of per barrel, should be given on any barrels of flour, weighing not less number of quarrers of wheat, than gölb. ayo ropuis, which weighing not less than 440 pounds shall be iinporied iron any of his avoirdapois, or on any number of majes.y's colonies in America, or barreis of four, weighing noč less from the United States, before the than 196 pounds avoirdupois, which 31st of August, 1796 ; until the shall be imported into Great Britain quantity of such wheat and flour, from any part of Europe south of taken together, shall equal 500,000 Cape Finisterre, or from any port grs.
Your cum nittee were also of in the Mediterranean, or in Africa, opinion, that a bounty of ten shil. before the 31st day of August, 1776; ling, per quarter, and a proportio. until the quantity of such wheat and nai boaniy per barrel should be giv. flour, taken together, shall cqual ca on any number of quarters of 300,000 quarters.
whuat, weighing not less than They were further satisfied, up- 44010. avoirdupois, or on any num. on the best information they could ber of barrels of four, weighing collect, that from the other parts
not loss than 1961h, avoirdupois, of Europe, and from Anrica, a which shall be imorsed into Great bounty of 155. per quarter, upos a
Britain before the 31st day of certain quantity of wheat, and of Augusi 1796, and on which none 1os. per quarter, of all exceeding of ile before-nentioned bounties it, wou'd be sufäcient to give a fair shall have been paid. chance of procuring for the Britih Your coinmittee being convinc. markets a large proportion of what. çd, that if a considerabie quantity ever supply those countries might of Indian com could be obtained be expected to furnish beyond their (which from the abundance of that ovn consuinption : and they were crop_appears not improba' le) it therefore of opinion, that a bounty would alörda ma eriil relief, were of fifteen shillings per quarter, aici also of opinion, that a bounty of five a proportional bounty per barrel, shilling per quarter, and a proporshould be given on any number of tion ti bounty per burrel, should be quarters of wheat, weighing not given on any number of quarters of less than 440lb. avoirdupois, or on Indian corit, or on any number of any number of barrels of flour, barrels of Indian meal, wilich shall weighing not less than 1961b. avoir be im sorted into Great Britain bedupois, which shall be imported fore the 31st day of August 1796; from all other parts of Europe, be- until thu quantity of such Indian
corn and meal, taken together, recurring to every other practicable shall equal 500,coo quarters. Your and reasonable mode, by which the committee were also of opinion, present scarcity may be relieved; that a bounty of three shillings per and particularly of attending 10 quarter, and a proportional bounty strict cconomy in the consumption per barrel, should be given on any
of wheat and flour, and of promot. number of quarters of Indian corn, ing the substirution, to a certain or on any number of barrels of extent, of oilier articles of soed. Indian meal, which shall be im. They intend to proceed immedi. ported into Great Britain before ately to the consideration of these the 31st day of August, 1796; and and other parts of this extensive on which the before mentioned and important subject; and will, bounty shall not have been paid. with the permission of the house,
Your committee have some rea. report, from time to time, such son to believe, that there may ap- opinions as they may be enabled to pear such a deficiency in the crop form thereupon. of rye, as may lead to the applica. tion of similar measures for the en. Secord Report from tke Selet Committee couragement of the importation of appointed to take into consideratish that species of grain, as have been the present high price of Corn. recommended respecting wheat ;
THE select committee appointed but they do not yet consider their to take into consideration the preinformation upon that point as sofa sent high price of corn, and to col. ficient to aui horize them, at the lect evidence relative thereto, and present moment, to report any opi. to report the same from time to nion to that effect.
time, as ir shall appear to them, to Your committee have thought the house, with their observations it incumbent upon them, humbly thereupon,-have received, since to suggest such measures as have their last report, further informa. hitherto appeared, in their judg- tion respecting the denciency in ment, the most likely to facilitate the crop of rye, and the great want the procuring, without loss of time, of that article in those parts of the in the least exceptionable manner, country where it forms the princ. and on the least unreasonable terms, pal subsister:ce of the people; and the largest supply of grain from so. ihey are thereby induced to think reign parts, which, in the present thai similar measures ought to be relative state of the markers, they adopted for the encouragement of can be expected to afford. It was the importation of that species of particularly with a view to expe. grain, as have been recommended dition that they have suggested the respecting wheat. They beg leave proposed plan of arranging the therefore to submit their opinion bounty. But they feel it, at the to the house, that a bounty of ten same time, their indispensable duty shillings per quarter should be gi. expressly to state, that thev are farven for every quarter of rye, weigh. from entertaining any opinion that ing not less than fifty pounds per any supply, by importation, can be bushel, which shall be imported depended upon to such an amount into Great Britain before the zob as to remove the necessity of day of September, 1796, until the