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Treaty between France and Prussia. HIS majesty the king of Prussia and the French republic having deemed it proper to modify, in a manner agreeable to existing circumstances, the stipulations rela. tive to the neutrality of the northern part of Germany agreed upon by the treaty of Basle, the 5th of April, 1795, and by the convention of the 17th of May; they named, to concert on that subject, viz. his Prussian majesty, Sieur Chretien Henry Count de Haugwiltz, his minister of state for the war department; and the French republic, citizen Antoine Bernard Caillard, its minister plenipotentiary at Berlin, who, having mutually exchanged their powers, have agreed on the following articles:

The French republic will abstain from extending the operations of the war, and from sending troops, either by land or sea, into the states included in the following line of demarcation :

This line to begin from the part of the Duchy of Holstein, situated on the North Sea, extending down the coast of that sea, on the side of Germany, and including the territory in which the Elbe disembogues itself, together with the Weser and the Ems, as well as the islands situated in those districts, as far as Forcum, from thence to the frontiers of Holland, as far as Anholt, passing Hereuberg, and including

the Prussian possessions near Sevenaer, as far as Bair on the Ysel; it will then continue down that river to the place where it mixes its waters with the Rhine; the line will then go up the latter river as far as Wesel, and farther on, to the place where the Roer throws itself into the Rhine; it will then extend

along the left bank of the Roer to its source; after which, leaving the city of Nedebach to the left, it will take its direction towards the Eder, the course of which it will follow until that river meets the Fuld, and then it will go up that river as far as its source.

The French republic will consider as neutral states all those in the line, on condition that they observe on their side a strict neutrality; the first point of which will be to furnish, for the future, for the continuation of the war, no pecuniary contributions of any kind whatever; to order back immediately, if they had not already done so, their respective contingent troops, and that in the space of two months, from the signing of the present treaty; and not to contract any new engagement, which may authorize them to furnish troops to the powers at war with France. The states which do not act agree. ably to these conditions, shall be excluded from the benefit of the neutrality.

As for that part of the country of La Marck, which, being on the left bank of the Roer, is not included in the above line, it will nevertheless enjoy the benefits of this treaty in the fullest extent: but his Prussian majesty consents to allow the troops of the belligerent powers to pass through it, on condition that they do not there establish the theatre of war nor possess themselves of entrenched positions, &c. &c.

Given at Berlin, August 5th,
1796, old style, and the 18th
Thermidor, 4th year of the
French republic.



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Treaty of Peace between the French republic and the Infant Duke of Parma, Placentia, and Guastalla. THE French republic and his royal highness the infant duke of Parma, Placentia, and Guastalla, desiring to re-establish the ties of amity which formerly subsisted between the two states, and to put an end, as much as in their power, to the calamites of war, have accepted, with eagerness, the medi ation of his Catholic majesty, and have named for the plenipotentiaries, that is to say, the executive directory, in the name of the French republic, the citizen Charles Delacroix, minister of foreign affairs, and his royal highness the infant duke of Parma, Messieurs the count Pierre Politi and Don Louis Boll; who, after having exchanged their respective powers, have determined upon and concluded definitively the following articles, under the mediation of his Catholic majesty, exercised by the marquis del Campo, his ambassador to the French republic, who has also presented his full powers.

ART. 1. There shall be peace and amity between the French re. public and his royal highness the infant duke of Parma; the two powers shall carefully abstain from every thing that may alter the good harmony and union established between them by the present treaty.

2. Every act, engagement, or anterior convention, on the part of one or other of the two contracting powers, which might be contrary to the present treaty, shall be considered as null and void. In consequence, during the course of the present war, neither of the two powers shall furnish to the enemies

of the other any succours in troops, arms, warlike ammunition, provisions, or money, under whatever title and denomination it may be.

3. The infant duke of Parma engages not to permit the emigrants, or banished persons of the French republic, to stop or sojourn in his state.

4. The French republic and his royal highness the infant duke of Parma engage to remove the sequestration from all the effects, revenues, or goods, which may have been seized, confiscated, detained, or sold, from the citizens or subjects of the other power, relative to the present war, and to admit them to the legal exercise of the actions or rights belonging to them.

5. The contributions stipulated in the convention of armistice, signed at Placentia on the 20th of last Floreal, between general Buonaparte in the name of the French republic, and the marquises Pelleviene and Phillippo delle Rosa in the name of the infant duke of Parma, shall be fully discharged. There shall neither be levied nor exacted any other; if there have been levied any contributions in money, or required any supplies in provisions, beyond what is settled by the said convention, the contributions in money shall be reimburs ed, and the provisions paid for at the current price at the time of delivery. There shall be named on each part, if necessary, commissaries to execute the present article.

6. From the signature of the present treaty the states of his royal highness the infant duke of Parma shall be treated as those of friendly and neutral powers; if there shall be supplied any necessaries to the


troops of the republic, by his royal highness or his subjects, they shall be paid for at a price agreed upon. 7. The troops of the republic shall enjoy a free passage through the states of the infant duke of Parma.

8. One of the contracting powers shall not grant a free passage to the troops of the enemy of the other.

9. The French republic and his royal highness the infant duke of Parma desiring to establish and augment by stipulations, reciprocally advantageous, the commercial relations that existed between their citizens and respective subjects, determined as follows:

10. Silks, grain, rice, olive oil, cattle, cheese, wines, and other articles, the produce of the estates of his royal highness, shall be exported to the territories of the republic without any restrictions beyond those which the exigencies of the country may render necessary. The said restrictions shall never attach solely and especially upon the French citizen. There shall even be granted every degree of preference for the purchase of the objects (mentioned or alluded to in the present article) of which circumstances may suspend or restrain the exportation.

11. All articles being the produce of the republic, its colonies or fisheries, shall be imported, free of duty, into the states of his royal highness, and exported from France, subject only to such restrictions as local circumstances may render necessary.

12. All articles of French manufacture shall likewise be imported to the states of his royal highness, unless he may deem it expedient, for the prosperity of his own ma

nufactures, to impose certain re strictions or prohibitions; but these restrictions shall in no case operate against French manufactures exclu sively, to which his royal highness even undertakes to give all the preference he can consistently with the prosperity of the manufactures of his own states.

The above articles shall be exccuted with the most scrupulous reciprocity for the introduction of the manufactures of his royal highness's states into France.

13. The mutual duties on exports and imports shall be regulated by a separate convention in case that such convention should not be ratified by the republic, it is expressly agreed that the said duties shall be reciprocally ascertained and collected in the mode ob served with the countries the most favoured by the republic.

14. The produce of the lands of the republic, her colonies and fisheries, shall be conveyed freely through the states of his royal highness, or lodged in warehouses on their way to the other states of Italy, without the payment of customs, and liable only to a certain toll on their passage, for the support of the highways; which shall be regulated with all possible dispatch, and founded on a moderate footing between the contracting parties, at so much per quintal per league. The toll shall be payable at the first office for entering the goods.

The above article shall also be in force in all parts of the republic; and all goods and merchandize the produce of the states of his royal highness the infant duke of Parma shall be subject to the same regula tions as above. And,

As the right of toll above men

tioned has been retained only with a view to contribute to the support of the bridges and highways, it is expressly stipulated that the goods and merchandize conveyed by the rivers and navigable canals shall be reciprocally exempt from duties of every description.

The contracting parties respectively shall adopt the necessary measures for the due execution of the present and preceding articles.

15. In conformity to the sixth article of the treaty concluded at the Hague, the 224 Floreal, 34 year, the peace concluded by the present treaty is declared common with the Batavian Republic.

16. The present treaty shall be ratified, and the ratifications exchanged in one month at most from the present day, exclusively.

Done at Paris, in the 5th year of the French republic, one and indivisible.

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His royal highness stipulates to grant a remission of one-fourth of the rights of importation on the goods and merchandize, being the produce of the republic, her colonies, fisheries, and manufactures, destined for the home consumption of the states, and also the right of exportation on the goods and merchandise, the produce of the states, and destined for the foreign poses sions of the republic; provided the French republic agree to a recipro

cal diminution of duties,

I. On the goods and merchandise arising from the states of his royal highness, at their entry on the territory of the republic.

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AFTER so many storms and critical emergencies, inseparableconcomitants of a revolution, France enjoys at least a constitution worthy of a people who know how to value liberty.

Already under a truly republican government, the French people begin to rest from their long and arduous toil, and to enjoy the happy effects of the liberty which they have attained.

Firmly resolved to cause the con stitution to be executed, the exe. cutive directory is constantly employed in searching out means to have it established in all parts of the Republic.

The sixth article of the constition states, That the French colonies are inseparable parts of the Republic, and subjected to the same constitutional law.

It is particularly for the execution of that article, that we have received from the government the honourable mission intrusted to us; and at the same time, to let you

know all the means you ought to employ to preserve liberty and equality, which are the fundamental laws of the constitution.

Citizens rally at the voice of the delegates of the republic, since it is in her name, and for her dearest interests, that they are going to address you.

The ancient government of the colonies had distinguished three different classes the whites, the coloured people, and the slaves. To those different classes, now united and honoured with the name of French citizens, we are going to speak alternately. We shall first address that portion of the people of the colony, which has most suffered under the tyrannic order which has been abolished, and we shall say to them: By the republican constitution, which the French nation has just adopted, you have recovered your primitive rights; but you must know the proper means to preserve them without trouble, and to transmit them without interruption, to your remotest posterity. Those ships, the warriors whom they bring to you; all those formidable preparations are designed against the English, who are the inost cruel enemies of your liberty! They dare to indulge the hope of framing new chains for you. See these blood-thirsty tigers bending still your brethren under their homicidal whips. We cannot suffer any longer so dismal an object; join the forces which France sends to you, expel from the territory of the French republic those tyrants of mankind, pursue them even to their haunts, and destroy the last of them! What! is it not incumbent on you to revenge your bre.

thren, whom they keep fettered in the surrounding islands? Yes, citizens, every thing ought to im press you with an implacable hatred for those tyrants, whose most lu crative trade is, reducing you to slavery, misery, and death. What can withhold your vengeance? Rush on this impious race; make it disappear from that sacred spot, which too long has been the theatre of its crimes and depredations.

Labour and instruction, citizens, are necessary to the preservation of the people, and the constitution imposes them as a duty upon all citizens. The 15th article of the second title contains these words. Young men cannot be inscribed in the civic register, if they do not prove that they can read, write, and follow a mechanical branch of business. That clause, citizens, can and ought to take place only agreeably to the constitution, after the first day of the 12th year of the republic.

The manual operations of agriculture belong to the mechanic arts.

Yes, labour and agriculture particularly, is absolutely necessary to him who wishes to preserve his rights, and enjoy his liberty. Through labour we procure the necessary things to our existence and enjoyment; through labour only we can preserve our liberty.

Had your ancestors, the inhabitants of Africa, devoted themselves to the culture of their fruitful lands, they most assuredly would not have debased themselves by reciprocal bloody wars, of which greedy Europeaus have availed themselves to reduce them to the most intolerable and degrad

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