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havė been employed in personal the feet of their haughty sovereign. ambition and aggrandizement; or, The moral philosopher exclaims, on
, what is wore, for the aggrandize- a review of the great qualities of ment of absolute monarchs, whose Julius Caesar, precarious smiles were preferred to the steady and dignitied regards of
• Curse on his virtues! they've undone
li: country.' true glory. A Charles of Sweden sacrifices his people to animosity, The great and good qualities of pride, and revenge. A Richelieu general Wasbingion were displaylays his countrymen in chains at ed in a great and good cause: the would that man claiın the tribute of patriotism, who should labour to subvert these great pillars of hunan happiness, these firmest props of the duties of men and citizens. The mere politician, cqually with the pious man, ought to respect and cberish them. A volume could not trace all their connections with private and public felicity: Let it simply be asked, where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths which are the instruments of investigation in the courts of justice? And let us with caution inje dolge the supposition, that national morality can subsist without religion. Whaterer may be conceded to the influence of retined education, on minds of a peculiar structure, reason, and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail, in exclusion of religious principles."
The legislature and patriot proceeded to warn his countrymen against inveterate antipathies against particular nations. On this subject he makes these remarkable observations, of which many will, no doubt, make, at this present moment, particular applications. “ The nation, prompted by ill-will and resentment, sometimes impels to war the government, contrary to the best calculations of policy. The government sometimes participates in the national propensity, and adopts, througla passion, what reason would reject; at other times, it makes the animosity of the nation subservient to projects of hostility, instigated by pride, ambition, and other sinister and pernicious motives. The peace often, sometimes, perhaps, the liberty of nations, has been the victims.” On this point, of an equal and just regard for all nations; and, on the other hand, on the insidious wiles of foreign influence, general Washington descants at a greater length than on any of the other topics on #bich he touches; and, if possible, with greater carnestness. It is not difficult, froin lience, to conjecture, what was, at the time, the principal object of his solicitude—foreign infuence, particularly that of the French republic.
The world has had many politicul testaments; some real, some counterfeit: one that breathies such pure morality, such sublime and sound policy, as the address and the example of general Washington. The style of his paternal letters and speeches, exhorting his countrymen to preserve union among themselves, and peace, good faith, and sincere good-will towards all nations, as well as the sentiments, shining forth with mild radiance, not in tiery flame, were contrasted with certain passionate persuasives to war. How much to be preferred is sound sense, simplicity, and sincerity of intention, self-command and moderation of temper, tó the most shining talents and accomplishments without them! Yet, though we cannot rank general Washington in the first class of literary geniuses, he was not deficient, but greatly above par, in the most useful kinds of knowlodge, and also in the art of writing. His thoughts are clearly arranged; he manages with great skill the march of his hearer's or reader's sentiments and spirits; his language is perfectly grammatical and pure, and altogether free from any provincial slang, and cockney or metropolitan barbarisms, which, issuing from the house of commons and newspapers, has adulterated the English tongue, and threatens, in its progress, to render it to future ages unintelligible. A like observation may be extended to the writings of Dr. Franklin, Mr. Adams, and other American writers,
cause of his country, and of the hu- mighty power of France : the geman race. He pursued the noblest neral maintained the independence ends by the noblest means: the dig, of his countrymen, in opposition to nity and happiness of mankind, by that of England: both were remarksublime genius and heroic courage. able for coolness and caution; but
The most distinguished charac- remarkable also for firmness and ters, in many instances, have been intrepidity, under every circumfound to have derived the enthu- stance of danger, and every critisiasm that prompted them to un cal moment of action. They never dertake and persevere in the exe. shunned a decisive engagement from cution of great designs from an any other motive than that of pruadmiration of other illustrious cha. dence: nor were they wiser in coun. racters, which inspired a desire of cil than brave in the field ; though imitation. Achilles emulated Bac- their final success was more owing chus : Alexander, Achilles : Julius to judicious retreat,and renewed preCæsar, Alexander; and Frederick II. parations for actions, than to daring of Prussia, with other heroes, Julius impetuosity. The character given Cæsar. So too, Charles XII. of to the pretender, in 1745, and apSweden had Quintus Curtius, in plied to general Washington in his his earliest youth, always in his familiar letters to general Mercer, hands, and had learned his stories may, with equal propriety, be apof Alexander by heart. In like plied both to king William and to manner Gustavus III. the late king of himself. They were the most cauSweden, was infamed with a love of tiqus men in the world, not to be glory, by contemplating the actions cowards : and the bravest, not to of both his paternal and maternal. be rash. It may be added, ihat their ancestors ; particularly of Gusta- fortitude, in the eye of true moral vus Vasa and Gustavus Adolphus, criticism, shone forth with greater and of the renowned Prussian mo, splendour, when veiled in the garb narch, who was his uncle. Ifgene- of caution, than when confessed to ral Washington was roused to any the eyes of all, and covered with dust grandeur of design, or, in bis pub- and blood in the field of battle. lic conduct, political and military, There is an active fortitude, and had any inodel of imitation, it seems there is a passive fortitude: the latter to have been king William III. not certainly less, but in some reprince of Orange, and king of spects superior to the former. In England. The ground on which the conflict and agitation of danwe hazard this conjecture is, his ger, quickly to be over, or quickly admiration frequently expressed of io spend its utmost fury, the mind that great prince, both in his of the patriot and hero is awakened letters and in private conversation, by an excitement of his spirits, and compared with the tenor of his own the attention and sympatby of all actions. The causes and circum- around him. In the calms of torpid stances in which they were both silence, nay, and under the chilling engaged were 'similar : their con- blasts of reproach, whilst be still reduct also similar. The prince main- tains his unshaken purpose, the eclat tained the independence of his of his virtue is less, but the proof countrymen, in opposition to the of its constancy greater : greater in
the inverse ratio of the magnitude soundness of their judgment, which of the difficulties and dangers to be readily discerns certain common inovercome, to the indifference with terests and passions, that tend to which they are regarded. It is the unite men in common sympathies firmness of both the heroes that and common pursuits. It was a forms the subject of this brief pa. common and striking trait in the rallel, after their retreats under in- characters of both king William III. numerable disadvantages and hard- and general Washington, that they ships, ibat, in the whole of their both possessed the happy art of recharacter, is the just object of the conciling and uniting various disgreatest admiration.
cordant parties in the prosecution of There was also a striking coin. common objects. cidence, not only between the cir. But every parallel is soon termi. cumstances and situation and the nated, by the wonderful diversity public conduct of these great men, which characterizes every individual political and military, but also, in of the human race. Washington had some points, between their natural no favourites, but was warm in his tempers and dispositions ; particu- affections to his own family and near larly in an habitual taciturnity and relatives : William was not a little reserve. A degree of taciturnity addicted to favouritism ; but cold is, indeed, inseparable from a mind and indifferent to the sincere attachintent on great and complicated de- ment and devotion of his queen: a signs. Minds deeply occupied in princess, by whose right he was the contemplation of great ends, raised to a throne, and a partner and the means necessary for their worthy any sovereign prince, for accomplishment, have as little lei- every accomplishment of mind and sure as inclination either to enter- person. tain others with their conversa- The calm, deliberate, and solid tion, or to be entertained by them. character of general Washington Most great men, when profoundly did not exclude a turn to engaged in important affairs, are re- trivance and invention. He was markably silent. Buonaparte, though judicious, not dull; ingenious, not Baturally affable, in the midst of those chimerical. In this respect, bis tacircumstances of unprecedented no- lents and turn, like his virtues, were velty, complication, and alarm, in carried to the line beyond which which it has been his destiny to be they would have ceased to be la. placed, is, on the whole, reserved lenis and virtues, and no farther. and silent. Henry IV. of France, He knew how to distinguish diffithough naturally affable, humour- culties from impossibilities and what
, ous, and facetious, became thought- was within the bounds of human ful and silent, when he found him- power, in given situations, from self involved in projects of great the extravagancies of a heated aud difficulty as well as importance. bold imagination. He was neither
It is not by a multiplicity of words terrified by danger, nor seduced by and common-place compliments that repose, from embracing the proper men attain an ascendancy over the moment for action. He was mominds of other men ; but by the dest, without diffidence; sensible to weight of their character and the the voice of fame, without vanity;
independent and dignified, without character of envoys; but, in reality, pride. He was a friend to liberty, as firebrands of discord and sedition. not licentiousness : not to the ab. The grand object of their mission stractions of philosophers, but to was, that the French republic should those ideas of well-regulated free. acquire such an infuence and asdom, which the ancestors of the cendancy in North America, as she Americans had carried with them already possessed in Venice, Genoa, from England, and confirmed by the and the Swiss cantons: to divide revolution towards the end of the the North Americans into two great eighteenth century. On those prin- political parties, or rather governciples he fought and conquered; ments; to play the northern states, conquered—but not for himself. He where the French interest prepon. was a Hannibal, as well as a Fabius; derated; against the southern ; to a Cromwell, without his ambition; weaken, and so to obtain an influa Sylla, without his crimes.
ence and authority over the whole. As the children of men, in youth As the patriotism, prudence, and or the vigour of manhood, are more firinness of general Washington had healthful and vigorous than those contributed so largely to snatch his in the decline of life, so general country from the grasp of the BriWashington, descended and formed, tish legislature, so now they conby the spirit of England, in the tributed equally to save it from a purest and most flourishing period of connection and subordination, still English freedom, possessed a juster more to be dreaded, with the French and higher spirit of liberty than republic. what might, probably, have been The magnitude of the danger, bred by an emigration in the present from which general Washington, betimes. When we reflect on the fore his resignation of the presidency, contest between monarchial power, saved his country, will sufficiently on the one hand, and the spirit of appear from the mention of one insubordination, on the other, which, circumstance, that Mr. John Adams, at the present moment, divide Eu- the vice-president of the congress, rope, we shall find reason to con- the intimate and confidential friend gratulate mankind, that the example of general Washington), and, in eveof a happy medium between both ry respect, worthy of so great an hohas been set, and is likely to be nour, was chosen his successor, by a more and more enforced, by the majority of only three votes above growing prosperity of America. In the number that appeared for Mr. this view, general Washington ap- Jefferson, who was at the bead of pears in the light of another Noab; the French party : which passed on The pilot, who, sailing in the middle, the 8th of February, 1797. It may between the dangers of Sylla and also be observed, to the same end, Charybdis, guided the ark that that the treaty for an amicable and saved the buman race from ruin.
commercial intercourse between The French agents, Adet, Fauchet, Great Britain and North America Genet, and Dupont, had been sent was ratified only by the president's out, to the Americau states, in the casting vote.
royal highness was saluted with 21
guns from Leith battery, and with 4th.
AST night the house of the like number on bis landing at in the county of Longford, was the boat by lord Adam Gordon and attacked by a numerous party of
a part of his suite, and conducted in Defenders, who demanded a sur. his lordship's carriage to an apart. render of all the arms in the house ; ment in his majesty's palace of Holybut
, on Mr. Harman's refusing 16 rood-bouse, fitted upin baste for his comply with this demand, they de- reception; and, as he entered the termined to carry their purpose by palace, his royal highness was saassault
, and with some difficultý luted with 21 guns from Edinburgh forced open the doors. Mr. llar. Castle. The Windsor Foresters and man, at the bead of his domestics, Hopetoun Fencibles were in readi. endeavouring to repel the assail- ness to line the approach to the paants
, was fired upon, and received lace, but, his royal highness chus. the contents of a blunderbuss load. ing to land in a private manner, ed with slugs in his abdomen, and and with as little ceremony as pos
consequence of his wounds, died sible, that was dispensed with. The this morning. Several of the do- noblemen in his royal highness's mestics were also severely wounde suite followed in carriages provided ed; and the defenders having effec- for that purpose,
and were lually succeeded in obtaining all ducted from the outer gate of the the arms in the house, retreated in palace, by the commander in chief, triumph. Eleven out of the twelve to their apartments.
His royal ruffians who assassinated Mr. Har highness and.suite, consisting of a man have been taken, and are in number of French noblemen and Longford gaol ; in the number is gentlemen, dined with lord Adam the person who was wounded by Mr. Gordon.
At Cariton house, between 6th.
Leith. His royal highness the nine and ten o'clock in the
count d'Artois, with his suite, 'morning, the princess of Wales was landed here from on board his ma- delivered of a princess. The duke jesty's frigate Jason: on the frigate's of Gloucester, the archbishop of
, coming to anchor in the roads, his Canterbury, the lord chancellor, , VoL, XXXVIII.