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lity proposed to withdraw the country from the supremacy of Poland, and to put it under that of Russia. The principal members of the grand council made a faint opposition to this alteration, by observing, that, before they proceeded to a resolution, it would be expedient to wait the return of the duke. The Oberburgraff Hoven rose up, and spoke a long time in favour of Russia. Some counsellors expressed themselves of his opinion, and others reproached them with treason. The dispute grew warm on both sides; challenges were reciprocally given, and swords were about to be drawn, when the Russian general, Paklen, appeared in the assembly. His presence restored tranquillity. No one presumed to raise his voice against Russia; and the proposal of the nobles was adopted. The next day the act was drawn up, by which Courland, Semigallia, and the circle of Pilten, made a formal surrender of themselves to the empress of Russia; and it was carried to Petersburgh, where the duke of Cour land learnt, from the mouth of his own subjects, that they themselves had deprived him of his dominions. The empress inmediately sent a governor thither.

However, some discontent remained in Courland: discontent brought on proscription; and the possessions of the proscribed were given to the courtiers of Catharine. The favourite, Plato Zuboff, and his brother, Valerian, obtained a great part of those rich and shameful spoils.

The acquisition of Courland to Russia, was of great importance. It produces much corn, as well as timber: in both of which articles it carries on a great commerce; and it has several ports advantageously

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situated on the Baltic, among which are Libau and Vindau: the first a flourishing and commercial city; the second, likely to become one day the station of the Russian fleets. The port of Vindau, which is never obstructed by ice, by a little improvement, might be rendered capable of containing a hundred ships of the line.

At the same time that she quietly usurped the sovereignty of Courland, she sent out her arms against Persia. Under pretence of defending Lof-Ali-Khan, of the race of the Sophis, she aimed at the possession of the Persian provinces, which border on the Caspian. Valerian Zuboff, at the head of a nume rous army, penetrated into the province of Daghestan, and advanced to lay siege to Derbent. His first attack was directed against a high tower, which defended the place; and, after having made himself master of it, and put the whole garrison to the sword, he was preparing to make an assault upon the town. The Persians, intimidated by former successes, and the impetuosity of the Russians, cried out for quarter; and the commandant, a venerable old man, of the amazing age of one hundred and twenty years, and the same who, at the commencement of the present century, had surrendered Derbent to Peter I. came now to deliver the keys to Valerian Zuboff.

Aga Mahmed with succours to the relief of Derwas advancing bent, when he heard that the place was already in the hands of the Russians. Valerian Zuboff came forth from the place to offer him battle, in which victory declared for the Persians, who forced their enemies to return into Derbent. Catharine,

Catharine, being informed of this, successful in all her regulations, immediately gave orders for a body for the internal government of her of troops, which she had in the K- mighty empire, there appeared that ban, to go and reinforce the army benevolence, which, for the honour of Valerian Zuboff, not doubting of human nature, is usually found that her general would very soon in conjunétion with sublimity of give a total defeat to Aga Mah- genius. She wished, soon after her med. She also flattered herself with accession to the throne, to introthe hopes of obtaining a greater tri- duce civil liberty among the great umph. The new treaty, which she mass of the people, by the emanbad just concluded with Great Bri- cipation of the peasantry. It was tain, and with Austria, secured to found impracticable to emancipate her the assistance of those two pow. their bodies without enlightening ers against Turkey. In a word, she their minds. To this object she now reckoned on the full accom- bent the powers of her inventive, plishment of her darling project, though prudent, genius. Schools of driving the Ottomans out of Eu- were instituted in all parts of her rope, and of reigning in Constan- dominions, and a way was opened tinople. But she suddenly finished, for the lowest of her subjects to by an easy death, the career of a liberty, by certain privileges, within splendid life, in the sixty-seventh the scope of industry and merit. year of her age, and thirty-sixth of The code of laws, drawn up by her reign. She died at Petersburgh, her own hand, was never exceeded, of an apoplexy, on the tenth of in point either of sagacity or goodNovember; on which her son, the ness: for, we are always to bear in great duke, Paul Petrowitz, was mind, that even Solon found it proclaimed emperor. expedient not to dctate the best laws, but the best that the people, for whom he dictated, were capable of bearing. Her military plans partook of the strength of simplicitys She did not feed the flame of war to no purpose, by throwing in, as it were, faggot after faggot, nor waste time in tedious detours, but, with a mighty and irresistible concentrated force, proceeded directly to her object. She had not the art of appearing affable, generous, and magnanimous, but the merit of really being so. She was not only a patroness, but a great proficient, in literature; and, had not her life been spent in great actions, it would, probably, have been employed, though with somewhat less glory, in celebrating the illustrious achievements of others. It is an invidious


Catharine was the most illus. trious sovereign, after the exit of Frederick the great, king of Prussia, on the theatre of Europe, for comprehension of mind, lofty ambition, courage, and perseverance in her designs, and the general influence of her policy and arms, in the affairs of Europe. ambition was not directed merely to the security and extension of the empire, but to the civilization and welfare of subject tribes and nations, by the introduction of arts, liberal and mechanical, and the improvement of manufactures and commerce: and all this, by means more gentle and gradual than many of those employed by Peter the great; and, consequently, more effectual. In all her wars, she was

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invidious thing to pry, with too much curiosity, into the frailties of such a character. The severest critic has not been able to charge her with any thing unnatural, or, in her predicament and situation, not easily to be forgiven. As to the obscure event that led her to the throne, if this had not taken place, an event of another kind must have led her first to imprisonment, and then, most assuredly, to death.

The last of her grand designs was to curb the power and insolence of the French republic. It was the policy of the empress, who detested the French republic, with out loving the Austrians, to let both parties exhaust themselves: determined, however, whatever might be the fate of their arms, to prevent either from acquiring an uncontrolled sway in Germany. Orders were issued for a levy of a hundred and fifty thousand troops, destined to act, in some shape or order, for the relief of the emperor of Germany. It has been questioned, whether it would not have been wiser policy, in her Imperial majesty, to have moved for the assistance of the confederates sooner? She, perhaps, entertained a persuasion, that the allies would stand firm together, and make a more successtul opposition to the republic. She was, no doubt, well enough pleased to see almost all the other powers of Europe weaken themselves by war; whilst, at the same time, it must have been her intention, as has since appeared, to interfere, more and more, in the general conflict, in proportion as the party she detested gained ground on a sovereign prince; who, though a neighbour, and ancient enemy, yet possessed a hereditary throne,


and had ceased to be a formidable rival. It is to be considered, farther, that had she moved sooner, the Turks, on the other side, instigated by French intrigues, might have moved also. The Czarina waited, too, until she should secure peace, on the most formidable frontier, by a marriage between her grand daughter and the young king of Sweden; an object which she had much at heart, though it was found impossible to accomplish it.

Catherine II. has left a name that will ever be memorable, and remembered by future generations, to whom the benefits of her institutions will extend, with grateful admiration. Yet, it was the love of glory that was her predominant passion; and the humane will regret that she pursued this through seas of blood: so that she will take her station in the temple of fame, among the great, not the good princes; and in this speculative age, add to the odium of absolute monarchy, by displaying the miseries that flow from unbounded power, united with unbounded ambition.

This year also, general Washington, the greatest of cotemporary men, as Catharine was of cotemporary sovereigns, resigned the presidency of the United States. These illustrious characters were both respectively at the head of the twe latest, greatest, and most rising empires in the world'; both nearly of the same age; both of equal celebrity; though not of true glory: pure and disinterested patriotism being the ruling principle in the mind of Washington; the patriotism of Catharine only secondary to her ambition, and subservient to the love of fame. General Washington having rescued his country from the oppression

oppression of the English government, and restored it, by a commercial treaty, in spite of France, and almost in spite of itself, to an amicable connection with the English nation, voluntarily retired from power, after giving the most profound instruction and advice respecting union, virtue, liberty, and happiness: between all of which there was a close connection, with the

most ardent prayers for the prospe-
rity and peace of America.
is nothing in profane history to which
his parting address to the states can
be compared. In our sacred Scrip-
tures alone we find a parallel in that
recapitulation of divine instructions
and commands which the legislator
of the Jews made in the hearing
of Israel, when they were about to
pass the Jordan.*


* In his address to congress, on the seventh of December, 1796, having given an account of the situation of the United States, in relation to foreign powers, and strongly recommended the creation of a navy, he directs the attention of congress to the encouragement of manufactures, agriculture, a national university, and also a military academy. His sentiments, on these subjects, are those of an enlightened and philosophical statesman.

"I have heretofore proposed to the consideration of congress, the expediency of The desirableness establishing a national university, and also a military academy.

of both these institutions, has so constantly increased with every new view I have taken of the subject, that I cannot omit the opportunity of, once for all, recalling your attention to them.

"The assembly to which I address myself, is too enlightened not to be fully sensible how much a flourishing state of the arts and sciences contributes to national prosperity and reputation. True it is, that our country, much to its honour, contains many seminariesof learning, highly respectable and useful; but the funds upon which they rest are too narrow to command the ablest professors in the different departments of liberal knowledge, for the institution contemplated, though they would be excellent auxiliaries.

Among the motives to such an institution, the assimilation of the principles, opinions, and manners of our countrymen, by the common education of a portion of The more homogenous our youth, from every quarter, well deserves attention.

our citizens can be made, in these particulars, the greater will be our prospect of a permanent union; and a primary object of all such a national institution should In a republic, what be the education of our youth in the science of government. species of knowledge can be equally important? and what duty more pressing on its legislature, than to patronize a plan for communicating it to those who are to be the future guardians of the liberties of the country?

"The institution of a military academy is also recommended by cogent reasons. However pacific measures may contribute to the general policy of a nation, it ought never to be without an adequate stock of military knowledge, on emergencies. That first would impair the energy of its character, and both would hazard its safety or expose it to greater evils when war could not be avoided; besides that, war might not often depend upon its own choice.

"In proportion as the observance of pacific maxims might exempt a nation from the necessity of practising the rules of the military art, these ought to be its care in preserving, and transmitting, by proper establishments, the knowledge of that art. Whatever argument may be drawn from particular examples, superficially viewed, a thorough examination of the subject will evince, that the art demands much previous study, and that the possession of it, in its most improved and perfect state, This, therefore, ought to is always of great moment to the security of a nation. be a serious care of every government; and, for this purpose, an academy, where a regular course of instruction is given, is an obvious expedient, which different nations have successfully employed."


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It has often happened, nay it the most brilliant talents and vir has most frequently happened, that tues, in politicians and warriors, have

General Washington, in September (1796), published a little piece, entitled "A Letter from General Washington, on his Resignation of the Office of President of the United States." This letter, written by the father and saviour of his country to his countrymen, on an occasion when his heart was warm, and open, and the tenor and grand object of his life in his full recollection.paints the man in juster and livelier colours than any thing we can record. He begs the people of the United States to be assured, that his resolution to resign the presidency had not been taken without a strict regard appertaining to the relations which bind a dutiful citizen to his country; and that, in withdrawing the tender of service, which silence,in his situation, might imply, he was influenced by no diminution of zeal for their future interests; no deficiency of gratitude for their past kindness; but was supported by a full couviction,that the step was compatible with both. Having mentioned the motives that induced him to accept and continue in the high office,to which their suffrages had twice called him,and those which had urged him to lay it down, he says, " In looking forward to the moment which is intended to terminate the career of my public life,my feelings do not permit me to suspend the deep acknowledgment of that debt of gratitude which I owe to my beloved country, for the manyhonours it has conferred upon me; still more,for the stedfast confidence with which it has supported me; and for the opportunities I have then enjoyed, of manifesting my inviolable attachment, by services faithful and persevering, though in usefulness unequal to my zeal. Ifbenefits have resulted to our country from these services,let it always be remembered to your praise, and as an instructive example in our anuals,that under circumstances in which thepassions,agitated in every direction, liable to mislead; amidst appearances, sometimes dubious; vicissitudes of fortune,often discouraging; in situations in which, not unfrequently, want of success has countenanced the spirit of criticism, the constancy of your support was the essential prop of the efforts,and a guarantee of the pians,by which they were effected. Profoundly penetrated with this idea, I shall carry it with me to the grave, as a strong incitement to unceasing vows, that Heaven may continue to you the choicest tokens of its beneficence; that your union and brotherly affection may he perpetual; that the free constitution, which is the work of your hands, may be sacredly maintained; that its administration,in every department,may be stamped with wisdom and virtue; that, in fine,the happiness of the people of these States,under the auspicies of liberty, may be made complete by so careful a preservation and so prudent a use of this blessing,as will acquire to them the glory of recommending it to the applause, the affection, and adoption of every nation which is yet a stranger to it.

"Here, perhaps, I ought to stop; but solicitude for your welfare, which cannot end but with my life, and the apprehension of danger, natural to that solicitude, urge me, on an occasion like the present, to offer to your solemn contemplation, and to recommend to your frequent review, some sentiments, which are the result of much reflection, of no inconsiderable observation, and which appear to me all important to the permanency of your felicity as a people. These will be offered to you with the more Freedom, as you can only see in them the disinterested warnings of a parting friend, who can possibly have no personal motives to bias his counsel. Nor can I forget, as an encouragement to it, your indulgent reception of my sentiments on a former, and not dissimilar occasion."

He recommends the love of liberty; the unity of government to which they were powerfully invited and urged by every inducement of sympathy and interest; guards them against the causes by which this union may be disturbed; all obstructions to the execution of the laws,all combinations and associations,under whatever plausible character,with the real design to direct,controul,and counteract,or awe regular deliberation and action of the constituted authorities; the spirit of party,and all encroachments of onedepartment of government on another."Ofall thedispositions and habitswhich lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensible supports. In vain


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