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was now the fifth campaign, during of Piedmont to the frontiers of which their toils and sufferings were France, that the French soldiers had not less remarkable than their ex. occasion to exhibit their patience ploits. Hunger and nakedness had under hard fare. The coarse and frequently been their portion, in the disgusting food, on which they submidst of their most splendid suc. sisted, was compared to the Lacecesses. Had not the incredibly hard demonian broth of old, and none, it living they were used to in their was said, but Frenchmen, Greenown country, under the severity of landers, or Scotch Highlanders, the old government, joured iheir could have sed on such messes. bodies to go through much fatigue It was by their perseverance, in with a slender sustenance, and few these extremities, that they main. comforts, they would not have tained the posts they occupied, and proved adequate to the labours and afforded time to Buonaparte in join scanty support to which they sub- them, at the bead of those rein. mitted, with such admirable pa- forcements, united with which they tience, in the course of their war. marched to the conquest of Italy. fare. This part of their character This and their other achieve. attracted the notice of foreign na- ments were incessantly held out to tions as much as of their own ; and the French armies, as incentives to it was often a matter of surprise, adhere faithfully to a cause which how they could perform the duties they had hitherto supported with so of a military life with so stinted and much glory. One more campaign wretched a fare, and under so many would probably, put an end to their discouragements.

toils; and, by procuring a glorious The army of Italy, in particular, peace, enable them to return to bad exbibited astonishing examples their country, and spend their future of fortitude in the most trying situa. lives with honour and ease, in the tions ; that their enemies had con. enjoyment of those remunerations cluded, from the reports of the promised them for their services. difficulties to which they were re- Such were the arguments and exduced, in procuring the means of pectations that animated the armies existence, that nothing else would of France at this period, especially be needed to compel ihem to aban. that which had performed such great don their position, and withdraw to things in Italy, and now hoped to France. It was previously, how- close the year by the capture of ever, to the present campaign, and Mantua, the total fall of the while they were stationed among Austrian empire in Italy. the rocks, extending along the south

CHAP. CHAP. IX.

Campaign in Germany. Opposite Designs of the French and Austrians.-

Successes of the French.-- They invest Ehrenbritstein.--Driven back, by the Archduke Charles, to Dusscldorf:The Division of the French Army under Moreau tokes Post at Strasburg.--The Plan of Operations proposed by this General.-Crosses the'Rhine.- Reduces the fortress of Kehl.- Defeals the Austrians, under Marshal Wurmser, near Philipsburg:-And in various and successive Engagements. The Austrians retire, in order to wait for Reinforcements, into the interior of Germany. - Junction of the French Troops under Jourdan and Kleber.These united reduce Frankfort.Successes of Moreau in Swabia.Cessation of Hostilities between the French and the Princes of Wirtemberg and Baden.- Conduct of Prussia.- A Prvevan Army takes Possession of Nuremberg.--Impolicy of the French in the Mode of raising Contributions.-Cause of this ---Depredations of the French in Germany.-Operutions of the French Armies under Asoreuu and Jourdan. --Disasters of the Austrians.The Emperor represents the Situation of Germany, and his own Situation, in an Appeal to his Bohemian and liungarian Subjects.Dict of the Empire. Partakes of the general Consternation of Germany.Determination to open a Negociation for Peace with France.

-The Tide of Success turned against the French, by the Germans, under the Archduke Charles.-Obstinate Engagements.-Masterly Retreat of the French Armies.--- Particularly of that under Moreau.---Consequences.The dustrians occupied in the Siege of Kehl.-Sally of the Garrison there. Vari'us Actions.-Armistice between the French and dustrians.The Dict of the Empire re-unimated by the enterprizing Spirit and Success of the Archduke Charles, solicitous to regain the l'atour of the Imperial Court.

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V
HILE Buonaparte was em-

which important fortress, at the ployed in a contest with ihe opening of the campaign, would Austrian aims and authority in Ita- have given great reputation to the ly, Jourdan and Moreau were en- Austrian arms, and opened, gaged in a conflict with the same same time, a passage for the reformidable enemy on the Rhine ; covery of the Netherlands. which the French had long proposed The French were no less desirous to make the boundary of the re- of obtaining possession of Mentz, in public, on the side of Germany. their altempts on which they had

The object to which the Austrians lost such numbers, and experienced were thought to direct their motions so many disappointments; but the was Luxembourg ; the recovery of fortifications of this city had been

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so considerably increased, and the with the greater part of their forces,

, Garrison so much strengthened, that, to the defence of the German side upless the French could attack it on of the Rhine. the German, as well as on their The archduke Charles, who was own, side of the Rhine, the com. at the head of the Imperial army, munication with Germany would crossed that river accordingly, about furnish it with continual supplies of the eight of June, in such force as men and provisions, and frustraie tendered the Austrians considerably all their endeavours to reduce ii. superior in strength to the French,

The opening of the campaign who, by this motion, were arrested was auspicious to the French. in their progress towards Mentz, dioving from Dusseldorf, that divj. which they had nearly approached : sion which had wintered there, and general Lefebre, one of their marched, under general Kleber, on best officers, was, after a most brave the rigbe side of the Rhine, towards and skilful defence, defeated on the a bidy of Austrians, encamped at fifteenth, near Wetzlaar, and comthe river Sieg, to guard its passage pelled to repass the Lahn, and retire against the French ; but these de- towards the Sieg, in his way back to fealed them on the first of June, Dusseldorf. and, following their successes, en- General Jourdan, who commandcountered and routed another body, ed the French army, opposed to the commanded by the prince of Wirs archduke, after raising the siege of temberg on the fourth, at Alten- Ehrenbritstein, near S:«ghurg, took kirchen, a place lying on the road a position where be hiped to make to Meniz, whither the French in- a stand, until the reinforcements he tended to force their way, in order expected bad joined him : but the to intercept its communication with archduke, contiding in the goodness Germany. In the first of these en- of his troops, as well as the supegagements, the Austrians lost about riority of their numbers, attacked Iwo thousand men ; in the second, the division under Kleber, on the Dear three thousand,

twentieth, at Kirper, and after a They had now crossed the Sieg, well-disputed action, compelled him and the Lahn, and were in pursuit to retire, and abandon all the counof the troops they had defeated at try he had reduced in his march the passage of these rivers ; they from Dusseldorf; to which place had, at the same time, invested the he found it necessary to make a recelebrated fortress of Ehrenbrilstein, treat, with that part of the army the capture of which would have under his command, while the other given them the command of all the recrossed the Rhine at Neuwied neighbouring country.

with Jourdan, and repossessed their Happily for the Austrians, this was former positions, in order to prea place of extraordinary strength, vent the Austrians from deriving and not to be subdued but by the any farther advantages from their greatest efforts and perseverance : in order, however, to secure it effec. Manheim and Mentz seemed now tually, togeiber with the adjacent to lie open to the attacks of the parts, it was judged adviseable by French ; but as the protection they the Austrian commanders, to move, would receive from the Austrian

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armies, on the right side of the entrance to the French into that Rhine, would render such an ai- circle. tempt extremely bazardous, they He had proposed to attempt a determined to besiege neither, but passage in different places; and, in to leave their future reduction to order the more easily to effect bis the consequence of a plan of opera- design, to take possession of some of tions, which, if it succeeded ac- the islands in that river, but most of cording to their expectations, would these happened to be overflowed, not fail to put them in possession of and the others were possessed by the ihose iwo cities, without the neces. Austrians, who were to be dislodged sity of a siege.

before he could make good his When the archduke crossed to landing. To conceal his motions, the right of the Rhine, he left a he atiаcked them in the night of strong division of his forces in the the twenty-fourth of June, in such Hundsdruck, the country lying on force, and with so much resolution, the left of that river, between that the Austrians were soon obliged Mentz, on the north, and Manheim, to retire across the bridges comon the south. This division, toge-municating with the German side, ther with the garrisons of those iwo and which they had not time to cities, was reputed sufficient to destroy. Over these the French watch and repel the motions of passed to that side, but they had general Moreau, who commanded neither sufficient artillery nor caval. the French forces in that quarter. ry to assist the infantry in case of

But this active general was intent an attack, which was every moment on a very different plan from that expected. In this critical situation, of annoying the Austrian division, general Moreau determined 10 or of forming the siege of either of march forwards with the few pieces these places. In order, however, of. cannon he had seized upon the 10 deceive them, by such appear. islands. With these he resolutely ances as might facilitate his designs, assaulted the fortress of Kehl, and he made a variety of motions, in- carried it. This sudden and unex. dicating an attack of several of iheir pected success greatly alarmed the posts; and while they were making Austrian army, under the archduke; arrangements to oppose him, he the rear of which was thereby put drew off, unperceived, almost the into danger, while the front was whole of his army, and, by an ex- exposed to the force under Jourdan: peditious inarch reached Strasburgh whing collecting the divisions that before the Austrians had discovered lad retreated, was preparing to join his motions.

Kleber, again advancing towards He had now attained the spot the Austrians. from whence he was lu enter upon Marshal Wurinser, who come the execution of his project, which manded the Austrian troops in the was, lo cross the Rhine opposite this Brisgaw, from which large detachcily, into Swabin, and to take the ments had been sent to Dialy, was fort of Kebi; by being master of unable to maintain his ground which, he would gain the com- against Moreau, and the archduke mand of a large extent of country was bimself compelled tv hasten to in its proximity, and secure his aid; but before he could arrive,

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Moreau fell upon the Austrians at near Coblentz. The Austrian geRenchan, a village near Philips- neral, Wariensleben, had not been burgh and totally defeated ihem, on able to oppose these various move. the twenty-eighth of June, with a ments of the French, who had considerable loss of men and can- worsted his iroops on several ocnon. He pursued them to Radstadt, casions, and taken or killed near where, having received re-inforce- two thousand of them. After disments, they made a stand; but, after persing all the various corps that an obstinate conflict, were again attempted to impede their progress, Touted on the sixth of July. Ge- They arrived, on the twelfth of July, neral Laroche had, on the second, within sight of Francfort on the defealed a large body of thein poste Main. ed on Mount Kubis, the highest of This city, with several others in those calcd the Black Mountains. its proximity, surrendered to the

They now retreated to the vile French, on capitulations that left lage of Ettlingen, a strong position them in possession of their municipal in the neighbourhood of Manbeim. laws and government. In order to Here they were joined by the quiet the ininds of the Germans, major pari of the archduke's army, and convince them that the views and appeared resolved to make a of the French did not extend to any vigorous resistance for the preser- permanent possession of the town's vation of that part of Germany. and territories they had seized, geThe battle was fought, on the ninth neial Jourdan issued a proclamation, of July, with great fury on builo by which he formally engaged to sides, but ended to the advantage protect the judicial chamber of the of the French. They were empire at Wetzlar, situated in the pulsed in four chargęs, but suc

circle of the Upper Rhine, at ceeded in the fifth, which was soine distance from Francfort. He made with the bayoner. The Aus. granted a safeguard to all its memirians lost great numbers slain in bers, and stricily forbad its proceede the field, besides fifteen hundred ings to be disturbed under any prewbo were taken.

This victory decided the superi- Among the cities that surrendered grity on the Rhine in favour of the to Jourdan was that of Wurtsburgh, French. The Austrians left totally one of the most considerable bishopuncovered the cities of Mentz and ricks and ecclesiastical principalities Manheim, and the fortresses of in Germany. Here he found inPhilipsburgh and Ehrenbretstein, nense magazines and two hundred and retired farther into Germany, pieces of cannon.

It fell into his to wait for reinforcements, before hands on the twenty-sixth of July ; they could venture to resume utfen- and shorily atier, having forced sive operations.

Wartensleben iu retire beyond the In the mean time, general Kleber Rednite, near Bamberg, on the had again proceeded from Dussel. first of August, he took possession of dorf, and advanced along the right that capital of Franconia, on the same bank of the Rhine. He was joined day : like Wurtsburgh, it was also a on the second of July by general bisbopric and principality, and posa Jourdan, who had crossed the Rhine sessed a considerable territory. Vol. XXXVIII.

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