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(59) This Indian was not a Sachem. He was merely an orator, and actually in the pay of the French, who called him Grande Gueule. De Meule (Col. Doc. ix. 247) calls him a “sycophant who seeks merely a good dinner and a real buffoon.” His real Indian name, as given by the French, was Hotreouati, Hateouati, or Oureouati. La Hontan, or his editor, ignorant of this, and wishing to give his name an Indian turn, transformed Grande Gueule into Grangula, or, as he afterwards wrote it, Garangula. No such Indian name occurs. Morgan, in his list of Onondaga fachem names, gives Hosahaho, Large Mouth, but this differs too much from Hotrewati for us to suppose them identical. Charlevoix, i. 527, strangely confounds him with Tegannehout, the Seneca. De la Barre says that fifteen deputies met him.

sansforards wrot Moreauhahiom

(60) La Hontan, i. 48. De la Barre's speech, as originally reported, is in the Documentary History.

(61) This well-known speech, as given here, is taken from La Hontan, Nouveaux Voyages, I. 5155. The speech of Hotreouati, with the replies of Father Bruyas on behalf of De la Barre, will be found as given by the latter in O’Callaghan's Documentary History, i. 77. La Hontan's is evidently dressed up for his own purposes.

(62) Carachkondie is the Garakontie of the French. The one here alluded to, though confounded by Charlevoix with the great Daniel Garakontie, the far-seeing and enlightened chief of Onondaga, was his brother and successor, and in every way an inferior man. Daniel Garakontie died in 1677. (Rela

tion de la Nouvelle France, 1673-9, Mission du Canada, ii. 202.

(62 bis, p. 92) This direct aid to the Iroquois in their attacks on the French posts, with that afforded them in the massacre of the French at Lachine, opened the terrible border wars which form such a bloody page in our Colonial history. The French, accepting the alternative, welcomed the remnants of the New England Indians, burning with all the sense of wrongs endured, and used them so effectually that we may well doubt the wisdom of what Colden here applauds.

(63) The Outagamies are the Foxes, the Kickabous, the Kickapoos: the Maskoutuh or Maskutick-properly Maskoutench, have now disappeared as a tribe, but were evidently part of or closely allied to the Kickapoo nation, into which they seem to have been absorbed. They were all Algonquin tribes, as were the Malhominies and Putewatemies mentioned subsequently. The Puans, so called from their having come from the sea, or Fetid Water, are the Winnebagoes, a Dacotah tribe, who style themselves Otchagra.

(64) As to the bad faith of the Ottawas on this occasion, see Charlevoix, i. 513.

(65) McGregory's expedition was, under the circumstances, bold enough, and was based on a strange notion of French forbearance. The French officer sent to arrest him was Mr. de la Durantaye (Charlevoix, i. 515). For a sketch of McGregory, who was killed by Leifler, see Col. Doc. iii. 395 n.

· (66) (66) The Chief in French interest was Nansouakouet. (De la Potherie, ii. 201.)

(67) This account is from De la Potherie, ii. 203.

(68) De la Potherie, ii. 205. La Hontan, i. 96, ascribes this capture to de Luth.

(69) Charlevoix (vol. i. p. 516) attributes the final action of the Ottawas and Hurons to the influence of Father Anjelran, and says that but for him Michilimackinac would have been in the hands of the English and Iroquois.

(70) Rev. John de Lamberville, S. J. It is extraordinary that Colden omits all mention of the seizure of the chiefs at Fort Frontenac, and of the noble conduct of Garacontie in obtaining for the millionary leave to depart. Charlevoix, i. 504, 510.

(1) By his confession, the English now furnished the Iroquois, their subjects, with material of war to attack the French colonies in the West, after making the furnishing of ammunition to their Indians, by the French, an illegal act. Dongan in fact began war with France.

(72) Colden does not inform us when the English authorities, or the officers sent with the Indian parties, prevented similar acts.

(73) Misprinted Trondequat in the English editions.

(74) For Denonville's expedition see Charlevoix, i. 516; De la Potherie, ii. 207; La Hontan, i. 78;

Col.

Col. Doc., ix. 358–369. The Indian reports to the authorities at Albany are in O’Callaghan's Documentary History, i. 151-4. According to O. H. Marshall, Esq., whose investigation of this action is given in the Proceedings of the N. Y. Historical Society, the battle was fought at Boughton Hill, in the town of Victor, Ontario county, where the railroad crosses the road. The subsequent proceedings of the Onondagas, Cayugas and Oneidas are given in the Col. Doc. ix. 384.

(75) Ohswego lake is Erie, and Cadarackui Ontario.

(76) The seizure of Iroquois chiefs, lured to Fort Frontenac, is one of the most striking events of Canadian history.

(77) The assumption of sovereignty is a step due to Dongan, and the further assumption that all territory between the Mohawk and the most remote part of an Iroquois raid a conquest for England, delightfally absurd.

(78) The first act of hostility was the plundering of Frenchmen going to Illinois, a French colony, by men whom Dongan recognized as English subjects.

(79) Lispenard, whose name is still preserved in one of the streets of New York city, made a report, which is in N. Y. Doc. History, i. 155.

(80) The English occupation of New York being so recent, and so unjust, it is not easy to see how

the the English claims could become such a gaudy hawkmoth out of the modest Dutch caterpillar.

(81) It is not easy to explain who these terrible North Indians and Mohegans were, but apparently some band of Mohegans driven out by the Iroquois and become in French hands a scourge of the English.

(82) The proposal of Dongan to plant these Indians at Saratoga was doubtless sincere, though he did not pretend that he would protect them against their pagan countrymen, whose violence had driven them into exile. He certainly sent to England for Jesuits to direct them, and we know that Father Charles Gage, Father Thomas Harvey and Father Henry Harrison actually came to New York for the purpose. (N. Y. Col. Doc. iii. 73.)

Jesuitses Gage, Fatually cam

. 73.)

(83) Misprinted Tames in English editions.

(84) De Nonville does not lose by comparison here.

(85) For this account of Adario or Kondiaronk's treachery, see La Hontan, i. 192. Charlevoix, i. 535, adopts it as true.

(86) La Hontan, i. 193. Charlevoix gives loss of French at 200. (See De la Potherie, ii. 229.)

(87) For this abandonment of Fort Frontenac see La Hontan, i. 195, Charlevoix, i. 550. Smith, in his History of New York, makes it a territorial conquest of the Mohawks, and consequently of Great Britain !

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