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quins of the Illand," a small tribe on the Ottawa, not a general fachem of all the tribes. His course might easily be followed through the French accounts.

(24) This is a very inaccurate summary; the Iroquois attacked and carried one after another the towns of the Wyandots and Tionontates (Hurons and Petuns) in Upper Canada : and a petty remnant of the former fled to Quebec, and of the latter to Wisconsin. A surprise of a party of the Wyandot refugees on Ile Orleans in 1657 is the incident referred to by Colden, who overlooks entirely the war in Upper Canada, which swept away the Wyandot, Tionontate, Attiwandaronk, Wenro and other minor tribes from their ancient seats.

(25) De la Potherie.

(26) De la Potherie, i. 152. The Nepiciriniens, or Nipissings, never removed to any great distance. A remnant of the tribe still exists at the Lake of the Two Mountains, and their language for a time prevailed at that mission.

(27) The Dinondadies Aled first to islands in Lake Huron, then to the southern shore of Lake Superior, next inland to Black River. Returning then to Mackinaw, they proceeded to Detroit, when a post was established there, and finally crossed to Sanduiky, which they named Outsandouke, meaning “There is pure water there.” Here they became known to us as Wyandots--the Hurons of Lorette being, however, the original Wyandots. The island of the Ottawas is Manitouline, but the name is older than Colden supposes.

(28) (28) De la Potherie, i. 303. Pieskaret's death occurred in 1647. (Relation de la Nouvelle France, 1647, p. 47.)

(29) There was but one Algonquin village near Quebec, that of Sillery, which eventually fiìled up with Abnakis, and was removed to St. Francis.

(30) This is the assertion of de la Potherie (ii. 296), but is devoid of all probability or authority.

(31) De la Potherie, ii. 54.

(32) Colden's ignorance as to Arendt Van Curler is strange enough. As to him fee O'Callaghan's New Netherland.

(33) De la Potherie, ii. 85. Agariata boasted of having murdered M. de Chazy, the nephew of the Marquis de Tracy. The French Governor was de Courcelle.

(34) The Dutch had one breach with the Mohawks in 1625, when Van Krieekebeck, the Commandant at Albany, joined the Mohegans against them and was killed.

(35) De la Potherie, Histoire de l'Amérique Sept. ii, 87-111. Nicholas Perrot, Moeurs, Coustumes, &c.

(36) 1679.

(37) Lake Erie.

(38) This account of the loss of the Griffin is from De la Potherie ii. 35-40.



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133 (39) They had been supplied with them nearly fifty years before. Rel. N. F. 1643, p. 62.

(40) See New York Colonial Documents III. p. 256, ix. 227.

(41) They were Piscattaways, the Susquehannas had just been conquered by the Iroquois. (See N.Y. Col. Doc. iii. 323, Historical Magazine II. 294.)

(42) New York Colonial Doc. iii. 277. Campbell's Virginia.

(43) These are the Canagesse of p. 31, and the name is preserved under the form of Kanhawa.

(44) Dongan brought out English Jesuits to replace the French, in order to bind the Five Nations to the English interest. (N. Y. Doc. Hist. iii.) The French naturally endeavored to turn the war parties away from themselves.

(45) A treaty between the Five Nations and Maryland in August, 1682, will be found in N.Y. Col. Doc. iii. 321–328.

(46) Affarigoa means Cutlass or Big Knife, and the Dutch word Hower having this fignification, the Dutch interpreter gave it as the meaning of Howard! (N. Y. Col. Doc, v. 670.)

(47) An account of the origin of the Laprarie and Caughnawaga missions will be found in a History of the Catholic Millions among the Indian Tribes of the United States, New York, 1855, p. 296.

(43) Father Lamberville was the only French mi:Eonary at the time in New York, and that he was able to infuence the five different tribes in oppofition to all the errorts of the authority of New York is not very probable.

(49) Vilet was taken prisoner by the Oneidas at Fort Frontenac in 1690, after Denonville entrapped the Iroquois Sachems, and was long in great danger; but his knowledge of the language and long acquaintance with the tribe saved him. After he was adopeed and regarded as a Sachem, his influence was much dreaded by the English, and a long correspondence ensued, his friends ieeking to prolong his captivity and his enemies to release him. An account of his captivity is printed in the Cramoisy series. He there lays that he was adopted as “ Otafseté, which is the ancient name of one of the first founders of the Iroquois Republic," p. 38. Vorgan, p. 64, gives as the first Oneida Sachem, Hodathateh, “a man bearing a burden.”

(50) Colden is here in error. A Huron tribe of the town of Scanonaenrat, or St. Michael's, containing many Christians, joined the Senecas, and several missionaries, Garnier, Fremin, Rafeix, Pierron, labored in the Seneca country.

(51) The Sieur de Salvave. See his Instructions in N. Y. Documentary History, i. 70.

(52) Charlevoix, Histoire de la Nouvelle France, i. 490, says 700 militia, 130 regulars, 200 Indians, chiefly Iroquois of Sault St. Louis, and Hurons or Lorette. The official return of the troops taken at

Fort Fort Frontenac, August 14, 1684, including regulars, militia and Indians, was 34 officers, 782 men. De Meules, the Intendant, says goo men and 300 Indians.

(53) Supposed to be Salmon river, Oswego county, N. Y. It is said, on p. 79, to be “thirty miles from Onondaga.” De la Barre, however, says “ four leagues," Charlevoix “ four or five leagues from the mouth of their river.” i. 493.

(54) Arnold Cornelison Viele was a citizen of Albany and a well known Indian interpreter. For his services in the latter capacity he obtained a grant of land from the Mohawks, September, 1683, a little above Schenectady. The tract was called Wachkeerhoha. (O'Callaghan.)

(55) Charles Le Moyne, the founder of one of the illustrious houses of Canada, to which Iberville, Bienville and the Barons Longueuil belonged.

(56) Father John de Lamberville. His Iroquois name of Taorhensere, incorrectly given Twirhaersira on p. 80, means “the man that looks up at the sky.” The names given to Missionaries were retained for successors, and the late Mr. Marcoux, missionary at Sault St. Louis, Canada, bore this same name.

(57) Father James de Lamberville.

(58) Called Tegannehout by the French. He was a Seneca ambassador arrested at Quebec by De la Barre. (N. Y. Col. Doc. ix. 239.) He was at the conference at La Famine, or Hungry Bay.

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