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AMIHOUIS is probably meant for Amikoues, the Beaver
Indians; but it is an error to make the French call the Tionontates by the name. They called them at first Petun or Tobacco Indians, and after their great defeat and fight Hurons. They now go by the name of Wyandots, although they are a distinct tribe from them.-(See
Historical Magazine, vol. v. p. 262.) ANIEZ Colden here makes a kind of bull. The
word Aniez, though given as the name which the Five Nations did not give the Mohawks, is really the name they did give-Gagniegue haga or Gagniegueronon, the termination meaning people. Mohawk is from Maqua, the Mohegan name for bear, the name of the tribe as
a body, HURONS. The name Quatoghie occurs very rarely
except in Colden. In the whole course of the Colonial Documents Dr. O'Ca). laghan gives but two references to this name in his index. The tribe called themselves Wendat (Relation de la Nouv. France, 1639, p. 50 ; 1640, p. 35), whence the more common English name Wyandot was formed. Huron was
merely a French nickname, LOUPS is a French translation of the Algic word
Maikan or Mohegan, a wolf. The Mohawks called them, and still call the
Stockbridge Indians, Agotsagenens. MASCOUTENS, Odistagheks. The Hurons called
them AMiftague or Fire Indians. ONNONTIO, YONNONDIO, means Great Moun
tain, and is fimply an Indian translation of the name of Montmagny (Mons
Magnus), the second Governor of
Colden makes to be the Quaksies of the
rently the Sacs. OTTAWAS. The French give Ontwagannha and
Twakanna as the Iroquois name of
this tribe. TATERAS, TODERIKS, are the Catawbas. TONGORIAS appears on one of De Lille's maps as
the name of a tribe on the Tennessee; I find no other French allusion to the name. The Toteros, who have given the name of Totteroy to Great Sandy Creek, may be the same. (N. Y. Coi. Doc. 111, 194, n.) Colden's English seems to make them the Erié, e of the Hurons, the Eriégue, Erique of the Iroquois.
(9) This statement, supported by later authorities, is omitted in the English edition.—(See Morgan's League of the Iroquois, p. 96.)
(10) The whole question of the families or tribes is discussed in Morgan's League of the Iroquois (Rochester, 1851, 8vo), chapter iv. The Mohawks and Oneidas had but these three tribes, as all writers, French and English, declare, but the other nations, according to Morgan, had generally eight.
(11) The Sachems, fifty in all, were the heads of the families, and used the mark of the animal whose name they bore in figning treaties. The rank was not hereditary from father to son-indeed, a Sachem's son could scarcely be a Sachem. A man could not marry in his own family, and the children belonged to the mother's, not to the father's, family. When a Sachem died, the family chose as his successor, or tacitly admitted, the succession of a uterine brother, or a litter's son, or some more distant relative of the fame family, and consequently related only in the female line to the deceased. This explains how some have asserted it to be hereditary, while others denied it. Colden, in fuppofing the rank merely a tribute to worth, was in error.
(12) The war chiefs had no rank but what preftige of their own courage and ability gave them.
(13) English and French alike failed in endeavoring to induce them to remove the place of the great council fire.
(14) The Tuscaroras having risen on the people of Carolina in 1710, were finally defeated and retreated north. Lawson, killed in the war, had preserved in his Carolina a vocabulary of the tribe. They settled in New York from 1712 to 1717.
(15) The opening sentence here giving the Iroquois for the name of the league is replaced in the London edition by another falsely charging the Dutch with having preserved nothing relating to the Indians. The name Rodinunchsionni is given as
Hotinnonchiendi Hotinnonchiendi in the Rel. de la N. F., 1654 (Queb. ed.), p. II, and there faid to mean a complete cabin. This is, doubtless, a Huron form. Bruyas, in his Racines Agnières, gives the name in Mohawk Hotinnonfionni, and it is apparently the third person plural of Gennonsonnisk, “I make a cabin,” composed of ganonsa, cabin, and konnis, I make. The modern Mohawk form is Rotinonfionni. Morgan gives the Seneca name as Hodenosaunee, “the people of the long cabin,” but this is apparently somewhat free, the term “people” not being in the word. The form Aquanushioni is only a corruption, and the translation “ cabin builders”. an error arising from ignorance of the Indian thought.
(16) De la Potherie (i. p. 288) took this account, as he did much more of his book, from the manuscript Moeurs, Coustumes et Relligion des Sauvages of Nicholas Perrot, just published in Paris. (See p. 9 of Tailhan's edition.) Perrot is more explicit than his copiers, and more correct. “The country of the Irroquois was formerly Montreal and Three Rivers. They had as neighbors the Algonquins dwelling along the Ottawa, at Nipissing, French River, and between it and Toronto.” Cartier certainly found an Iroquois tribe at Montreal, or Hochelaga. (Hist. Mag. ix. 144 ; Faillon, Histoire de la Colonie Française i. p. 524.)
(17) The French settled at Three Rivers within the remains of a palisaded (and therefore Huron or Iroquois) town, the charred ends still remaining in the ground, and the cleared fields of the occupants discernible. (Rel. 1635, p. 15.)
Ontara the nameplied by the
(18) Perrot does not name Montreal.
(19) Lake Ontario. The French for a time called it Lake Frontenac. Ontara means lake, Ontario, beautiful lake. Cadarackui, the name here given by Colden to Lake Ontario, was applied by the French to a fort where Kingston now is, and called also Fort Frontenac. Cataraqui is said to mean potter's clay in water.
(20) Corlar's Lake was the old New York name for Lake Champlain, and came from Arendt Van Curler, a Dutch agent high in repute with the Mohawks, who was lost here, while on his way to Canada on the invitation of the French Governor. The Indians gave his name not only to this Lake but to all Governors at New York.
(21) Champlain's battle with the Mohawks on Lake Champlain was fought in the summer of 1609. (See Champlain's account in N. Y. Documentary History, iii. 9.)
(22) Colden here omits all account of the war with the Hurons, a more powerful nation than the Adirondacks, and of the same race as the Five Nations. They resided in Upper Canada, near Lake Huron. Joining the Adirondacks, or Algonquins, against the Iroquois, they induced Champlain, in 1615, to accompany them on an expedition into Western New York against a canton called Entwohonoron, perhaps the Wenro, on whom the Senecas afterwards turned.
(23) Simon Piescaret was chief of the “ Algon