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ties of any commodity that were forced into domestic consumption by decline in exports during such period, current trends in domestic consumption and exports of particular commodities, and the quantities of substitutes available for domestic consumption within any general class of food commodities. In carrying out the purposes of this chapter it shall be the duty of the Secretary to give due regard to the maintenance of a continuous and stable supply of agricultural commodities from domestic production adequate to meet consumer demand at prices fair to both producers and consumers. (Feb. 16, 1938, 3 p. m., ch. 30, title III, § 304, 52 Stat. 45.)

B. MARKETING QUOTAS

PART 1.—MARKETING QUOTAS-TOBACCO § 1311. Legislative finding of effect on interstate and foreign commerce and necessity of regulation.-(a) The marketing of tobacco constitutes one of the great basic industries of the United States with ramifying activities which directly affect interstate and foreign commerce at every point, and stable conditions therein are necessary to the general welfare. Tobacco produced for market is sold on a Nation-wide market and, with its products, moves almost wholly in interstate and foreign commerce from the producer to the ultimate consumer. The farmers producing such commodity are subject in their operations to uncontrollable natural causes, are widely scattered throughout the Nation, in many cases such farmers carry on their farming operations on borrowed money or leased lands, and are not so situated as to be able to organize effectively, as can labor and industry through unions and corporations enjoying Government protection and sanction. For these reasons, among others, the farmers are unable without Federal assistance to control effectively the orderly marketing of such commodity with the result that abnormally excessive supplies thereof are produced and dumped indiscriminately on the Nation-wide market.

(b) The disorderly marketing of such abnormally excessive supplies affects, burdens, and obstructs interstate and foreign commerce by (1) materially affecting the volume of such commodity marketed therein, (2) disrupting the orderly marketing of such commodity therein, (3) reducing the price for such commodity with consequent injury and destruction of interstate and foreign commerce in such commodity, and (4) causing a disparity between the prices for such commodity in interstate and foreign commerce and industrial products therein, with a consequent diminution of the volume of interstate and foreign commerce in industrial products.

(c) Whenever an abnormally excessive supply of tobacco exists the marketing of such commodity by the producers thereof directly and substantially affects interstate and foreign commerce in such commodity and its products, and the operation of the provisions of sections 1311-1314 of this title becomes necessary and appropriate in order to promote, foster, and maintain an orderly flow of such supply in interstate and foreign commerce. (Feb. 16, 1938, 3 p. m., ch. 30, title III, $ 311, 52 Stat. 45.)

CROSS REFERENCE
Supplemental provisions, see section 1330 (10) of this title.

§ 1312. National marketing quota—Proclamation of quota.(a) Whenever the Secretary finds that the total supply of tobacco as of the beginning of the marketing year then current exceeds the reserve supply level therefor, the Secretary shall proclaim the amount of such total supply, and, beginning on the first day of the marketing year next following and continuing throughout such year, a national marketing quota shall be in effect for the tobacco marketed during such marketing year. The Secretary shall also determine and specify in such proclamation the amount of the national marketing quota in terms of the total quantity of tobacco which may be marketed, which will make available during such marketing year a supply of tobacco equal to the reserve supply level. Such proclamation shall be made not later than the 1st day of December in such year. The amount of the national marketing quota so proclaimed may, not later than the following March 1, be increased by not more than 20 per centum if the Secretary determines that such increase is necessary in order to meet market demands, or to avoid undue restriction of marketings in adjusting the total supply to the reserve supply level. (As amended Feb. 28, 1942, ch. 123, 56 Stat. 121.)

(b) Referendum on quotas.—Within thirty days after the date of the issuance of the proclamation specified in subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall conduct a referendum of farmers who were engaged in production of the crop of tobacco harvested prior to the holding of the referendum to determine whether such farmers are in favor of or opposed to such quota. If more than one-third of the farmers voting in the referendum oppose such quota, the Secretary shall, prior to the 1st day of January, proclaim the result of the referendum and such quota shall not be effective thereafter. In the same referendum the Secretary shall also submit to such farmers the question of whether they favor tobacco marketing quotas for a period of three years, beginning with the marketing year next following. If two-thirds of the farmers voting on this question favor marketing quotas for a three-year period, the Secretary shall proclaim marketing quotas for such period, and, beginning on the first day of the marketing year next following and continuing throughout the period 40 proclaimed, a national marketing quota shall be in effect for the tobacco marketed during each marketing year in said period unless amendments are made in the provisions for determining farm allotments so as to cause material revision of such allotments before the end of such period. If more than one-third of the farmers voting on this question oppose marketing quotas for the three-year period, such results shall be proclaimed by the Secretary and quotas for a longer period than one year shall not be in effect, but such result shall in no wise affect or limit the proclamation and submission to a referendum, as otherwise provided in this section, of a national marketing quota for any marketing year thereafter. (Feb. 16, 1938, 3 p. m., ch. 30, title III, § 312, 52 Stat. 46; Mar. 26, 1938, ch. 54, 52 Stat. 120; Aug. 7, 1939, ch. 562, 563, 53 Stat. 1261; June 13, 1940, ch. 360, SS 2, 3, 54 Stat. 392; Nov. 22, 1940, ch. 914, SS 2, 5, 54 Stat. 1209, 1210.)

PROCLAMATION AFFIRMED Act April 7, 1938, ch. 107, § 19, 52 Stat. 205, provided as follows “The proclamations heretofore issued by the Secretary of Agriculture under sections 312 (a), 327, 328, and 345 of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 shall be effective as provided in said sections, and no provision of any amendment made by this act shall be construed as requiring any further action under section 312 (c) or 347 of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 with respect to marketing years beginning in 1938." QUOTAS FOR BURLEY AND FLUE-CURED TOBACCO FOR MARKETING

YEAR 1944-45
Res. July 7, 1943, ch. 195, 57 Stat. 387, provided :

"That notwithstanding the provisions of section 312 (a) of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, as amended, [section 1312 of this title] relating to the finding of the total supply of tobacco, the reserve supply level and the amount of the national marketing quota, and the provisions of section 313 of said Act (section 1313 of this title) relating to the apportionment of the national marketing quota for tobacco among the States and farms, national marketing quotas for burley and flue-cured tobacco for the marketing year 1944-45 shall be proclaimed and the national marketing quotas and State and farm acreage allotments shall be the same as for the preceding year: Provided, however, That an additional acreage not in excess of 2 per centum of the total acreage allotted to all farms in each State in 1940 shall be allotted in accordance with the applicable provisions of subsection (a) of section 313 (section 1313 of this title) and an additional acreage equal to not more than 5 per centum of the national marketing quota shall be allotted to farms on which no tobacco was produced in the last five years in accordance with the provisions of subsection (g) of section 313 (section 1313 of this title). This joint resolution shall not have the effect of modifying or repealing any other provision of said Act (sections 1281-1407 of this title, and sections 590h and 5900 of Title 16).”

CROSS REFERENCE Delegation of regulatory functions of Secretary of Agriculture, see section 516a et seq. of Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees.

Supplemental provisions relating to marketing quotas, see section 1330 (10) of this title.

§ 1313. Apportionment of national marketing quota.-(a) Apportionment among States.—The national marketing quota for tobacco established pursuant to the provisions of section 1312 of this title, less the amount to be allotted under subsection (c) of this section, shall be apportioned by the Secretary among the several States on the basis of the total production of tobacco in each State during the five calendar years immediately preceding the calendar year in which the quota is proclaimed (plus, in applicable years, the normal production on the acreage diverted under previous agricultural adjustment and conservation programs), with such adjustments as are determined to be necessary to make correction for abnormal conditions of production, for small farms, and for trends in production, giving due consideration to seed bed and other plant diseases during such fiveyear period. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section and section 1312 of this title, except the provisions in subsection (g) of this section relating to reduction of allotments, for any of the three marketing years, 1941-1942 to 1943-1944, in which a national marketing quota is in effect for Burley or flue-cured tobacco, such national marketing quota shall not be reduced below the 1940-1941 national market quota by more than 10 per centum and the farm-acreage allotments (other than allotments established in each year under subsection (g) of this section for farms on which no tobacco was produced in the last five years) shall be determined by increasing or decreasing the farm-acreage allotments established in the last preceding year in which marketing quotas were in effect in the same ratio as such national quota is increased or decreased above or below the last preceding national marketing quota: Provided, That in the case of fluecured tobacco no allotment shall be decreased below the 1940 allotment if such allotment was two acres or less, and in the case of Burley tobacco no allotment shall be decreased below the 1939 allotment if such allotment was one-half acre or less, or below the 1940 allotment if such allotment was over one-half acre and not over one acre: And provided further, That an additional acreage not in excess of 2 per centum of the total acreage allotted to all farms in each State in 1940 shall be allotted by the local committees, without regard to the ratio aforesaid, among farms in the State in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary so as to establish allotments which the committees find will be fair and equitable in relation to the past acreage of tobacco (harvested and diverted); land, labor, and equipment available for the production of tobacco; and crop-rotation practices: And provided further, That the Burley tobacco acreage allotment which would otherwise be established for any farm having a Burley acreage allotment in 1942 shall not be less than one-half acre, and the acreage required for apportionment under this proviso shall be in addition to the National and State acreage allotments.

(b) Allotment of quota among producing farms.—The Secretary shall provide, through the local committees, for the allotment of the marketing quota for any State among the farms on which tobacco is produced, on the basis of the following: Past marketing of tobacco, making due allowance for drought, flood, hail, other abnormal weather conditions, plant bed, and other diseases; land, labor, and equipment available for the production of tobacco; crop-rotation practices; and the soil and other physical factors affecting the production of tobacco: Provided, That, except for farms on which for the first time in five years tobacco is produced to be marketed in the marketing year for which the quota is effective, the marketing quota for any farm shall not be less than the smaller of either (1) three thousand two hundred pounds, in the case of flue-cured tobacco, and two thousand four hundred pounds, in the case of other kinds of tobacco, or (2) the average tobacco production for the farm during the preceding three years, plus the average normal production of any tobacco acreage diverted under agricultural adjustment and conservation programs during such preceding three years.

(c) Allotment to previous nonproducing farms and small farms. The Secretary shall provide, through local committees, for the allotment of not in excess of 5 per centum of the national marketing quota (1) to farms in any State whether it has a State quota or not on which for the first time in five years tobacco is produced to be marketed in the year for which the quota is effective and (2) for further increase of allotments to small farms pursuant to the proviso in subsection (b) of this section on the basis of the following: Land, labor, and equipment available for the production of tobacco; crop-rotation practices; and the soil and other physical factors affecting the production of tobacco : Provided, That farm marketing quotas established pursuant to this subsection for farms on which tobacco is produced for the first time in five years shall not exceed 75 per centum of the farm marketing quotas established pursuant to subsection (b) of this section for farms which are similar with respect to the following: Land, labor, and equipment available for the production of tobacco, crop-rotation practices, and the soil and other physical factors affecting the production of tobacco.

(d) Transfer of farm marketing quotas.-Farm marketing quotas may be transferred only in such manner and subject to such conditions as the Secretary may prescribe by regulations.

(e) Quota for 1938; minimum State allotments.--In case of flue-cured tobacco, the national quota for 1938 is increased by a number of pounds required to provide for each State in addition to the State poundage allotment a poundage not in excess of 4 per centum of the allotment which shall be apportioned in amounts which the Secretary determines to be fair and reasonable to farms in the State receiving allotments under this chapter which the Secretary determines are inadequate in view of past production of tobacco, and for each year by a number of pounds sufficient to assure that any State receiving a State poundage allotment of flue-cured tobacco shall receive a minimum State poundage allotment of flue-cured tobacco equal to the average national yield for the preceding five years of five hundred acres of such tobacco.

(f) Increase of 1938 quota. In the case of fire-cured and dark air-cured and burley tobacco, the national quota for 1938 is increased by a number of pounds required to provide for each State in addition to the State poundage allotment a poundage not in excess of 2 per centum of the allotment which shall be apportioned in amounts which the Secretary determines to be fair and reasonable to farms in the State receiving allotments under this section which the Secretary determines are inadequate in view of past production of tobacco.

(g) Conversion of State marketing quota into State acreage allotment.-Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the Secretary on the basis of average yield per acre to tobacco for the State during the five years last preceding the year in which the national marketing quota is proclaimed, adjusted for abnormal conditions of production, may convert, the State marketing quota into a State acreage allotment, and allot the same through the local committees among farms on the basis of the factors set forth in subsection (b), using past acreage (harvested and diverted) in lieu of the past marketing of tobacco; and the Secretary on the basis of the national average yield during the

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