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refrained from voting for any particular person, or having come to the polls or remained away from the polls at such election;

2. To give, offer, or promise any office, place, or employ. ment, or to promise to procure, or endeavor to procure, any office, place, or employment to or for any voter, or to or for any other person, in order to induce such voter to vote or refrain from voting at any election, or to induce any voter to vote or refrain from voting at such election for any particular person or persons;

3. To make any gift, loan, promise, offer, procurement, or agreement, as aforesaid, to, for, or with any person, in order to induce such person to procure, or endeavor to procure, the election of any person, or the vote of any voter at any elcction;

4. To procure, engage, promise, or endeavor to procure, in consequence of any such gift, loan, offer, promise, procurement, or agreement, the election of any person, or the vote of any voter at such election;

5. To advance or pay, or cause to be paid, any money or other valuable thing to or for the use of any other person, with the intent that the same, or any part thereof, shall be used in bribery at any election; or to knowingly pay, or cause to be paid, any money or other valuable thing to any person in discharge or repayment of any money, wholly or in part, expended in bribery at any election;

6. To advance or pay, or cause to be paid, any money or other valuable thing to or for the use of any other person, with the intent that the same, or any part thereof, shall be used for boarding, lodging, or maintaining a person at any place or domicile in any election precinct, ward, or district, with intent to secure the vote of such person, or to induce such person to vote for any particular person or persons at any election;

7. To advance or pay, or cause to be paid, any money or other valuable thing to or for the use of any other person, with the intent that the same, or any part thereof, shall be used to aid or assist any person to evade arrest, who is charged with the commission of a crime against the elective franchise, for which, if the person were convicted, the punishment would be imprisonment in the state prison;

8. To advance or pay, or cause to be paid, any money or other valuable thing to or for the use of any other person, in consideration of being selected or indorsed as the candidate of any convention, organized assemblage of delegates, or other body, representing, or claiming to represent, a political party or principle, or any club, society, or association, for a public office, or in consideration of the selection or indorsement of any other person as a candidate for a public office, or in consideration of any member of a convention, club, society, or association having voted to select or indorse any person as a candidate for a public office, except that a candidate for nomination to a public office may con tribute such proportion of the cost and expense of holding a primary election as is authorized by the Political Code of this state, and no more;

9. To advance or pay, or cause to be paid, any money or other valuable thing to or for the use of any other person, in consideration of a person withdrawing as a candidate for a public office.

Every person who commits any of the offenses mentioned in this section is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison for not less than one year nor more than seven years. En. Stats. 1905, 642. Section 19 of the Purity of Elections Act (Stats. 1893, P. 12) is here codified. Code Commissioner's Note.

$ 55. Officers to procure ofices for electors. Every person who, being a candidate at any election, offers or agrees to appoint or procure the appointment of any particular person to office, as an inducement or consideration to any person to vote for, or procure or aid in procuring the election of such candidate, is guilty of a misdemeanor. En. February 14, 1872.

Cal. Rep. Cit. 99, 289.

§ 55a. Soliciting or demanding that a candidate vote for or against any measure or bill. Any person, either individually or as an officer or member of any committee or association, who solicits or demands of any candidate for tbe legislature, supervisor, school director, or for any legislative body, that he shall vote for or against any particular bill or measure which may come before such body to which he may be elected, and any candidate for any of such offices who signs or gives any pledge that he will vote for or against any particular bill or measure that may be brought before any such body, is guilty of a misdemeanor; and any candidato convicted under the provisions of this section is, in addi

tion, disqualified from holding the office to which he may have been elected. The provisions of this section do not apply to any pledge or promise that any such candidate may give to a convention by which he may be nominated for any such office, or to those who sign a certificate for his nomination. En. Stats. 1905, 643. This is a codification of the statute of 1897 to protect candidates for public office (Stats. 1897, p. 53). -Code Commissioner's Note.

§ 56. Communicating such offer.. . Every person, not being a candidate, who communicates any offer, made in violation of the last section, to any person, with intent to induce him to vote for or to procure or aid in procuring the election of the candidate making the offer, is guilty of a misdemeanor. En. February 14, 1872.

§ 57. Giving or offering bribes to members of legislative caucus, etc.

Every person who gives or offers a bribe to any officer or member of any legislative caucus, political convention, committee, primary election, or political gathering of any kind, held for the purpose of nominating candidates for offices of honor, trust, or profit, in this state, with intent to influence the person to whom such bribe is given or offered to be more favorable to one candidate than another, and every person, member of either of the bodies in this section mentioned, who receives or offers to receive any such bribe, is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not less than one nor more than seven years.

En. February 14, 1872. Am’d. 1905, 644. The change consists in the insertion of the word "seven" in place of

"fourteen,” conforming the section to section 25 of the Purity of Elections Act (Stats. 1893, p. 12). -Code Commissioner's Note. Cal. Rep. Cit. 126, 352.

§ 57a. Oficers of election aiding in wrongdoing. Every officer or clerk of election who aids in changing or destroying any poll-list or official ballot, or in wrongfully placing any ballots in the ballot-box, or in taking any therefrom, or adds, or attempts to add, any ballots to those legally polled at such election, either by fraudulently introducing the same into the ballot-box, before or after the ballots therein have been counted, or adds to or mixes with, or attempts to add to or mix with, the ballots polled, any other ballots, while the same are being counted or canvassed, or at any other time, with intent to change the result of such in consideration of being selected or indorsed as the candidate of any convention, organized assemblage of delegates, or other body, representing, or claiming to represent, a political party or principle, or any club, society, or association, for a public office, or in consideration of the selection or indorsement of any other person as a candidate for a public office, or in consideration of any member of a convention, club, society, or association having voted to select or indorse any person as a candidate for a public office, except that a candidate for nomination to a public office may contribute such proportion of the cost and expense of holding a primary election as is authorized by the Political Code of this state, and no more;

9. To advance or pay, or cause to be paid, any money or other valuable thing to or for the use of any other person, in consideration of a person withdrawing as a candidate for a public office.

Every person who commits any of the offenses mentioned in this section is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison for not less than one year nor more than seven years. En. Stats. 1905, 642. Section 19 of the Purity of Elections Act (Stats. 1893, p. 12) is here codified.-Code Commissioner's Note.

$ 55. Officers to procure ofices for electors. Every person who, being a candidate at any election, offers or agrees to appoint or procure the appointment of any particular person to office, as an inducement or consideration to any person to vote for, or procure or aid in procuring the election of such candidate, is guilty of a misdemeanor. En. February 14, 1872.

Cal. Rep. Cit. 99, 289.

§ 55a. Soliciting or demanding that a candidate vote for or against any measure or bill. Any person, either individually or as an officer or member of any committee or association, who solicits or demands of any candidate for tbe legislature, supervisor, school director, or for any legislative body, that he shall vote for or against any particular bill or measure which may come before such body to which he may be elected, and any candidate for any of such offices who signs or gives any pledge that he will vote for or against any particular bill or measure that may be brought before any such body, is guilty of a misdemeanor; and any candidato convicted under the provisions of this section is, in addi

tion, disqualified from holding the office to which he may have been elected. The provisions of this section do not apply to any pledge or promise that any such candidate may give to a convention by which he may be nominated for any such office, or to those who sign a certificate for his nomination. En. Stats. 1905, 643. This is a codification of the statute of 1897 to protect candidates for public office (Stats. 1897, p. 53). Code Commissioner's Note.

§ 56. Communicating such offer.. . Every person, not being a candidate, who communicates any offer, made in violation of the last section, to any person, with intent to induce him to vote for or to procure or aid in procuring the election of the candidate making the offer, is guilty of a misde

En. February 14, 1872.

meanor.

§ 57. Giving or offering bribes to members of legislativo caucus, etc. Every person who gives or offers a bribe to any officer or member of any legislative caucus, political convention, committee, primary election, or political gathering of any kind, held for the purpose of nominating candidates for offices of honor, trust, or profit, in this state, with intent to influence the person to whom such bribe is given or offered to be more favorable to one candidate than another, and every person, member of either of the bodies in this section mentioned, who receives or offers to receive any such bribe, is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not less than one nor more than seven years. En. February 14, 1872. Am’d. 1905, 644. The change consists in the insertion of the word "seven” in place of

"fourteen," conforming the section to section 25 of the Purity of Elections Act (Stats. 1893, p. 12). -Code Commissioner's Note. Cal. Rep. Cit. 126, 352.

§ 57a. Officers of election aiding in wrongdoing. Every officer or clerk of election who aids in changing or destroying any poll-list or official ballot, or in wrongfully placing any ballots in the ballot-box, or in taking any therefrom, or adds, or attempts to add, any ballots to those legally polled at such election, either by fraudulently introducing the same into the ballot-box, before or after the ballots therein have been counted, or adds to or mixes with, or attempts to add to or mix with, the ballots polled, any other ballots, while the same are being counted or canvassed, or at any other time, with intent to change the result of such

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