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last section, who is guilty of any act therein specified, is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison for a term not exceeding ten years. En. February 14, 1872.

§ 541. Making false manifest, ctc. Every person guilty of preparing, making, or subscribing any false or fraudulent manifest, invoice, bill of lading, ship's register, or protest, with intent to defraud another, is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not exceeding three years. En. February 14, 1872.

$$ 542, 543. [No sections of these numbers.)

§ 5431/2. Wearing the badge of secret order. En. Stats. 1899, 90. Rep. 1905, 685.

See ante, § 538b, note.

CHAPTER X.

FRAUDULENTLY KEEPING POSSESSION OF WRECKED PROP

ERTY.

§ 544. Detaining wrecked property after salvage paid.

545. Unlawful taking of wrecked property.

§ 544. Detaining wrecked property after salvage paid. Every person who keeps any wrecked property, or the proceeds thereof, after the salvage and expenses chargeable thereon have been agreed to or adjusted, and the amount thereof has been paid to him, is punishable by fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, or by imprisonment in the county jail not exceeding one year, or both. En. February 14, 1872.

Wrecks and wrecked property: Pol. Code, secs. 2403-2418.

§ 545. Unlawful taking of wrecked property. Every person who takes away any goods from any stranded vessel, or any goods cast by the sea upon the land, or found in any bay or creek, or knowingly has in his possession any goods so taken or found, and does not deliver the same to the sheriff of the county where they were found, or notify him of his readiness to do so within thirty days after the same have been taken by him, or have come into his possession, is guilty of a misdemeanor. En. February 14, 1872.

Wrecks and wrecked property: Pol. Code, secs. 2403-2418.

CHAPTER XI.

FRAUDULENT DESTRUCTION

OF PROPERTY

INSURED.

§ 548.

Burning or destroying property insured. 549. Presenting false proofs upon policy of insurance.

§ 548. Burning or destroying property insured. Every person who willfully burns, or in any other manner injures or destroys any property which is at the time insured against loss or damage by fire or by any other casualty, with intent to defraud or prejudice the insurer, whether the same be the property of or in possession of

or of any other, is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not less than one nor more than ten years. En. February 14, 1872.

Cal. Rep. Cit. 120, 169; 120, 687.
Arson: See ante, sec. 447.

such person

§ 549. Presenting false proofs upon policy of insurance. Every person who presents or causes to be presented any false or fraudulent claim, or any proof in support of any such claim, upon any contract of insurance for the payment of any loss, or who prepares, makes, or subscribes any account, certificate of survey, affidavit, or proof of loss, or other book, paper, or writing with intent to present or use the same, or to allow it to be presented or used in support of any such claim, is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not exceeding three years, or by fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, or by both. En. February 14, 1872.

Notice and proof of loss: See Civ. Code, secs. 26532637.

CHAPTER XII.

FALSE WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

$ 552.

"False weight” and “measure" defined. § 553. Using false weights or measures. § 554. Stamping false weight, etc., on casks or packages. § 555. Weight by the ton or pound.

§ 552. “False weight” and “measure” defined. A false weight or measure is one which does not conform to the standard established by the laws of the United States of America. En. February 14, 1872.

Weights and measures: See Pol. Code, secs. 3209-3223.

§ 553. Using false weights or measures. Every person who uses any weight or measure, knowing it to be false, by which use another is defrauded or otherwise injured, is guilty of a misdemeanor. En. February 14, 1872.

§ 554. Stamping false weight, etc., on casks or packages. Every person who knowingly marks or stamps false or short weight or measure, or false tare, on any cask or package, or knowingly sells, or offers for sale, any cask or package so marked, is guilty of a misdemeanor. En. Feb. ruary 14, 1872.

§ 555. Weight by the ton or pound. In all sales of coal, hay, and other commodities, usually sold by the ton or fractional parts thereof, the seller must give to the pur. chaser full weight, at the rate of two thousand pounds to the ton; and in all sales of articles which are sold in commerce by avoirdupois weight, the seller must give to the purchaser full weight, at the rate of sixteen ounces to the pound; and any person violating this section is guilty of a misdemeanor. En. Stats. 1875-6, 112.

CHAPTER XIII.

FRAUDULENT INSOLVENCIES BY CORPORATIONS, AND OTHER

FRAUDS IN THEIR MANAGEMENT. 8 557. Frauds in subscriptions for stock of corporations. Š 558. Frauds in procuring organization, etc., of corporation, g 559. Unauthorized use of names in prospectus, etc. § 560. Misconduct of directors of stock corporations. § 561. Savings-bank officer overdrawing his account. § 562. Receiving deposits in insolvent banks. 8 563.

Frauds in keeping accounts in books of corporations. 564. Officer of corporation publishing false reports. § 563. Officer of corporation to permit an inspection. § 566. Officer of railroad company contracting debt in its behalf ex

ceeding its available means. 8 567. Debt contracted in violation of last section not invalid. § 568. Director of a corporation presumed to have knowledge of its

affairs. $ 569. Director present at meeting, when presumed to have assented

to proceedings. § 570. Director absent from meeting, when presumed to have assented

to proceedings. § 571. Foreign corporations.

"Director'' defined.

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§ 557. Frauds in subscriptions for stock of corporations. Every person who signs the name of a fictitious person to any subscription for or agreement to take stock in any corporation existing or proposed, and every person who signs to any subscription or agreement the name of any person, knowing that such person has not means or does not intend in good faith to comply with all the terms thereof, or under any understanding or agreement that the terms of such subscription or agreement are not to be complied with or enforced, is guilty of a misdemeanor. En. February 14, 1872.

Subscription to articles of incorporation: Civ. Code, sec. 292.

Subscription to capital stock: Civ. Code, sec. 293.
Oath to subscription: Civ. Code, sec. 295.

§ 558. Frauds in procuring organization, etc., of corporation. Every officer, agent, or clerk of any corporation, or of any persons proposing to organize a corporation, or to increase the capital stock of any corporation, who knowingly exhibits any false, forged, or altered book, paper, voucher, security, or other instrument of evidence to any public officer or board authorized by law to examine the organization of such corporation, or to investigate its affairs, or to be allowed an increase of its capital, with intent to deceive such officer or board in respect thereto, is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison not less tlan three nor more than ten years. En. February 14, 1872.

False certificate, report, or notice-civil liability of officers: See sec. 316, Civ. Code.

Corporations, organization of: Civ. Code, secs. 283 et seq.

Records: Civ. Code, secs. 377, 378.
Increasing stock: Civ. Code, sec. 359.

§ 559. Unauthorized use of names in prospectus, etc. Every person who, without being authorized so to do, subscribes the name of another to or inserts the name of another in any prospectus, circular, or other advertisement, or announcement of any corporation or joint-stock association, existing or intended to be formed, with intent to permit the same to be published, and thereby to lead persons to believe that the person whose name is so subscribed is an officer, agent, member or promoter of such corporation or association, is guilty of a misdemeanor. En. February 14, 1872.

See ante, sec. 558..

8 560. Misconduct of directors of stock corporations. Every director of any stock corporation who concurs in any vote or act of the directors of such corporation or any of them, by which it is intended, either

1. To make any dividend, except from the surplus profits arising from the business of the corporation, and in the cases and manner allowed by law; or,

2. To divide, withdraw, or in any manner, except as provided by law, pay to the stockholders, or any of them, any part of the capital stock of the corporation; or,

3. To discount or receive any note or other evidence of debt in payment of any installment actually called in and required to be paid, or with the intent to provide the means of making such payment; or,

4. To receive or discount any note or other evidence of debt, with the intent to enable any stockholder to withdraw any part of the money paid in by him, or his stock; or,

5. To receive from any other stock corporation, in exchange for the shares, notes, bonds, or other evidences of debt of their own corporation, shares of the capital stock of such other corporation, or notes, bonds, or other evidences of debt issued by such other corporation; —is guilty of a misdemeanor. En. February 14, 1872.

Cal. Rep. Cit. 72, 56; 72, 58; 116, 415.

Dividends to be made from surplus profits: Civ. Code, sec. 309.

Officers of bank making illegal loans or investments: See Civ. Code, sec. 581.

Officer of bank advertising or making statement as to capital stock without showing amount paid up: See Civ. Code, sec. 583a.

Persons engaged in banking guilty of misdemeanor unless true name shown: See Civ. Code, sec. 582.

§ 561. Savings-bank officer overdrawing his account. Every officer, agent, teller, or clerk of any savings bank, who knowingly overdraws his account with such bank, and thereby wrongfully obtains the money, note, or funds of such bank, is guilty of a misdemeanor. En. February 14, 1872.

$ 562. Receiving deposits in insolvent banks. Every officer, agent, teller, or clerk of any bank, and every individual banker, or agent, teller, or clerk of any individual

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