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14. To make rules for the government and regillation of the land and naval forces.

15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrection and repel invasion. [See 5 Wheaton, 1. 19 Johns., 7.]

16. To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the States, respectively, the appointment of officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by ('ongress. [3 S. & R., 169. 5 H'heaton, 1. 19 Johns., 7.]

17. To exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever, over such district, (not exceeding ten miles square,) as may, by cession of particular States, and the acceptance of ('ongress, become the seat of government of the United States; and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the authority of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings; and-[.See 2 Mason, 60. 5 Wherton, 217, 324. (Wheaton, 410. Jour'. of Juris., 47, 1.51. 17 Johns., 225.]

18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper, for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof. [4 Ilheal., +13. 0 Wheaton, 204.]

Limitations of the Powers of Congress. SECT. IX. 1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now existing shal

think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by ('ongress, prior to the year one thousand eight huidred and eight; but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.

2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless, when in case of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.

3. No bill of attaincier, or ex post facto law shall be passed. [Sec 3 Dallas, 387, 396. 6 Binn., 271.]

4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken. [See 5 Ilheut., ::17. 3 Dall., 171.]

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. No preference shall be given, by any regulation of commerce or revenue, to the ports of one State over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to or from one State, be obligeal to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.

(s. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the re(eipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

7. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of ('ongress, accept of any present enolunent, office or title of any kind whatever, from any king prince or foreign State.

Limitations of the powers of Individual States. SECT. X. 1. Yo State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque


and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit ; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, cx post fracto law, or law imparing the obligation of contracts; or grant any title of nobility. [See 8 Wheat., 81, 92, 256, n. 464. 5 Wheat., 420. 4 Wheat., 519, 1,209. 6 Wheat., 131. 16 Johns., 233. 13 Mass., 10. 17 Johns., Ch. R., 297. 2 Cowen, 626.]

2. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imports laid by any State on inports or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of Congress. So State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty on tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.


Of the Execntive Power. SECT. I. 1. The Executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. IIe shall holl his office during the term of four years, and together with the Vice President, chosen for The same term, be elected as follows:

Manner of Electing. 2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner ais tie Legislature thereo may direct, a number of clectors equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in ('ongress; but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.

Altered.--See Amendments, Article XII. 3. The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot, for two persons, of whom one, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certity, and transmit, sealed to the seat of government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot, one of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then, from the five highest on the list, the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be ne

essary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest

number of the votes of the electors, shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them, by ballot, the Vice President. [This clause is altogether altered and supplied by the IIIth amendment.]

4. Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes, which day shall be the same throughout the United States.

Who may be elected President. 3. No person, except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States. [See also as to the l'ice President. See with me ment, post.]

In case of removal, &c., of the President, his powers to devolve

upon the Vice President, &c.

6. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President; and ('ongress may, by law, provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

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