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Of the Officers of the Senate.
5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.
6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside. And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.
7. Judgment, in case of impeachment, shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit, under the United States; but the party convicted shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.
Manner of Electing Members of Congress.
SECT. IV. 1. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed by each State, by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may, at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the place of choosing Senators.
Of the Meetings of Congress.
2. Congress shall assemble at least once in every year; and such meeting shall be on the first Monday of December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day,
Powers of each House.
SECT. V. 1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members; and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of the absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as cach House may provide.
2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member. [See 1 Hall's Am. Law Journal, 459.]
Journals and Yeas and Nays.
3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgement, require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of members of either House, on any question, shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.
4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than to that in which the two House shall be sitting.
Compensation, Privileges and Incapacities of Members. SECT. VI. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall, in all cases, except
treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place.
Exclusion from Office.
2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office.
SECT. VII. 1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills.
Manner of Passing Bills. &c.
2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not he shall return it, with his objections, to the House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to re-consider it. If, after such re-consideration, two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall like
wise be re-considered, and if approved by twothirds of that House, it shall become a law. But in all cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.
Orders, Resolutions and Votes.
3. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary, (except on the question of adjournment,) shall be presented to the President of the United States, and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of bills.
General Towers of Congress.
SECT. VIII. Congress shall have power:
1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence, and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises, shall be uniform throughout the United States. [See 5 Wheaton, 317.]
2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States.
3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes. [See 9 Wheaton, 1, 2. Hall's Am. L. Jour., 255, 272. Johns., 488.]
4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalizations, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies, throughout the United States. [See 4 Wheat., 122, 193, 209. 2 Wheaton, 266. 20 Johns., 93]
5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coins, and fix the standard of weights and measures.
6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States.
7. To establish post offices and post roads.
S. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. [See Wheaton's app., n. 2, p. 13. 7 Wheaton, 356.]
9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court.
10. To detine and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations. [5 Wheaton, 184, 153, 76. B Wheaton, 336.]
11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and waters. [8 Cranch, 110, 154.]
12. To raise and support armies; but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer period than two years.
13. To provide and maintain a navy. [See 1 Ma- son, 79, 81. 4 Binn., 487.]