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An Act to define trust and to provide for criminal penal

ties and civil damages, and punishment of corporations, persons, firms, and associations, or persons connected with them, and to promote free competition in commerce and all classes of business in this State.

[Approved March 23, 1907.)

The people of the State of California, represented in Senate and

Assembly, do enact as follows:

SECTION 1. A trust is a combination of capital, skill or acts by two or more persons, firms, partnerships, corporations or associations of persons, or of any two or more of them for either, any or all of the following purposes :

1. To create or carry out restrictions in trade or commerce.

2. To limit or reduce the production, or increase or reduce the price of merchandise or of any commodity.

3. To prevent competition in manufacturing, making, transportation, sale or purchase of merchandise, produce or any commodity.

4. To fix at any standard or figure, whereby its price to the public or consumer shall be in any manner controlled or established, any article or commodity of merchandise, produce or commerce intended for sale, barter, use or consumption in this State.

5. To make or enter into or execute or carry out any contracts, obligations or agreements of any kind or description,

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by which they shall bind or have bound themselves not to sell, dispose of or transport any article or any commodity or any article of trade, use, merchandise, commerce or consumption below a common standard figure, or fixed value, or by which they shall agree in any manner to keep the price of such article, commodity or transportation at a fixed or graduated figure, or by which they shall in any manner establish or settle the price of any article, commodity or transportation between them or themselves and others, so as to directly or indirectly preclude a free and unrestricted competition among themselves, or any purchasers or consumers in the sale or transportation of any such article or commodity, or by which they shall agree to pool, combine or directly or indirectly unite any interests that they may have connected with the sale or transportation of any such article or commodity, that its price might in any manner be affected. Every such trust as is defined herein is declared to be unlawful, against public policy and void.

SEC. 2. For violation of any of the provisions of this Act by any corporation or association mentioned herein, it shall be the duty of the Attorney-General or the District Attorney of the proper county, to institute proper suits or quo warranto proceedings in any court of competent jurisdiction for the forfeiture of its charter rights, franchises or privileges and powers exercised by such corporation or association, and for the dissolution of the same under the general statutes of the State.

SEC. 3. Every foreign corporation, as well as every foreign association, exercising any of the powers, franchises or functions of a corporation in this State, violating any of the provisions of this Act, is hereby denied the right and prohibited from doing any business in this State, and it shall be the duty of the Attorney-General to enforce this provision by bringing proper proceedings by injunction or otherwise. The Secretary of State shall be authorized to revoke the license of any such corporation or association heretofore authorized by him to do business in this State.

SEC. 4. Any violation of either or all of the provisions of this Act shall be and is hereby declared à conspiracy against trade, and any person who may become engaged in any such conspiracy or take part therein, or aid or advise in its commission, or who shall as principal, manager, director, agent, servant or employé, or in any other capacity, knowingly carry

out any of the stipulations, purposes, prices, rates, or furnish any information to assist in carrying out such purposes, or orders thereunder or in pursuance thereof, shall be punished by a fine of not less than fifty ($50) dollars nor more than five thousand ($5,000) dollars, or be imprisoned not less than six months nor more than one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment. Each day's violation of this pro sion shall constitute a separate offense.

SEC. 5. In any indictment, information or complaint for any offense named in this Act, it is sufficient to state the purpose or effects of the trust or combination, and that the accused is a member of, acted with or in pursuance of it, or aided or assisted in carrying out its purposes, without giving its name or description, or how, when and where it was created.

SEC. 6. In prosecutions under this Act, it shall be sufficient to prove that a trust or combination, as defined herein, exists, and that the defendant belonged to it, or acted for or in connection with it, without proving all the members belonged to it, or proving or producing any article of agreement, or any written instrument on which it may have been based; or that it was evidenced by any written instrument at all. The character of the trust or combination alleged may be established by proof of its general reputation as such. In case any court of record, or in vacation any judge of said court in which is pending any civil, criminal or other action or proceeding brought or prosecuted by the Attorney-General or any District Attorney for the violation of any of the provisions of this Act or in any action or proceeding for the violation of the law of this State, against conspiracy or combination in restraint of trade so orders, no person so ordered shall be excused from attending, testifying or producing books, papers, schedules, contracts, agreements or any other document in obedience to the subpæna or under the order of such court or any commissioner or referee appointed by said court to take testimony or any notary public or other person or officer authorized by the laws of this State to take depositions when the order made by such court or judge thereof includes a witness whose deposition is being taken before such notary public or other officer on the ground or for the reason that the testimony or evidence required of him may tend to criminate him or subject him to any penalty; but no individual shall be prosecuted or subjected

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