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volume.* The preceding varied extracts will provė, that this great man was never deceived respecting the subtlety of the church with which he was treating, and that he stood completely
* The numerous conversions to Popery during the Interregnum created much alarm, especially to those who felt a due concern for the iuterests of Protestantism. The laws against the Papists were in consequence put in ex. ecution, though, it will afterwards be seen, their operation was in several instances mitigated by Oliver the Lord Protector. The difficulties to be encountered by "an hopest-hearted Papist, who might be desirous of rece ding from the communion of the Romish Church, are judiciously displayed in the following paragraph, which was published in those days of confusion, and which forcibly reminds one of a similar bold passage in Bishop SANDERSON's celebrated Preface of 1657 :
"The disadvantages of the reformed religion are now so palpable, and the danger of the people of this nation is so obvious in their returning to that Egypt and Babylon again which is not the Church of Rome, but its disease and oppression; that I know not in ordinary providence any means can be used or is left, to stop the daily prevalencies of Popery and the great apostacy of England to the Romish superstition and subjection in after times, unless God stir up such wisdom, zeal, and care in those that have honest hearts joined with public power and influence, not so much to fleece and depress Popish recusants by pecuniary exactions, but rather duly to restore and speedily to assert the honor, order, succession, unity, authority and majesty of this reformed church and its catholic ministry: from which when the Papists see ourselves to be such profound revolters, with what face can we expect they should ever come into our Reformation, which they now hehold with joyful and disdainful eyes, so maugled, so deformed, so massacred by our own hauds ? How cau'we with justice, honour, or humanity, inflict severe penalties upon Papists, as refusing to conform to our church and religion, when they protest, with so much truth to our faces, they cannot see any church, any religion among us, as uniform, public, authentic, constant. "What, they say, ' formerly bad the goodliest figure and fairest presence of a christian church, and the best reformes of any, is now deformed, ruined, demolished, nothing but scattered rafters and pieces of that ship-wrecked vessel now appear floating up and down in a restless and foaming sea of faction, opposition and confusion, between Bishops, Ministers and People: some are Episcopal, others Presbyterian, a third sort Independent: all are disparate or opposite in discipline, some are heterodox in doctrine: the Anabaptists rise against all, and the Quakers soar above all. To which of all these, with many other sects, shalf an honest-hearted Papist apply himself, to be safe and settled in religion ?-If to the poor and depressed remains of BISHOPS AND THE EPISCOPAL CLERGY, who yet adhere to the Church of England, alas, they are weak and exhausted, coniemned by many, pitied hy some, but asseried by few or pone according to their true merit in former ages, or their present worth, courage, constancy and patience in this.-If the Romanists go to the PRESBYTERIAN PARTY, which, like small shoots, sprang up so thick in England upon the cutting down of Episcopacy, to which they all formerly submitted; these, besides their levity, parity, and inconstancy as to their former stations, opinions, and oaths, seem so unseasonably insoleut and magisterially domineering, before they had got a full and just dominion, that all sober men thiuk them rather popular, plebeian, and impertinent in their heats, transports, and passions, ihan so modest, wise, and grave as becomes those who will undertake to wrest government out of the hands of their superiors and betters every way, and to impose a novelty of_untried and undesired discipline upon such a great and stout nation as England is; which, disdaining the insolency of Popes, and offended at the indiscretion of some Bishops, will hardly ever bear the pertuess of petty Presbyters, who cannot want vanity, impudence and arrogancy, when they favcy themselves in a supremacy of power above people, parliaments and princes; for they affect no less, as Christ's due and theirs too.-If the tossed Romanists run to the spruce and self-conceited INDEPENDENTS for shelter, because these fine new masters eem to bave patents for christian liberty, and urge a Magna Charta from
on his guard against all their artful machinations. Though the Papists themselves viewed his endeavours, if successful, as completely subversive of their intolerant system within this kingdom, yet, after their ungrateful returns of cursing for his intended blessing, he could accost them and other grumblers, in the language of the Divine Pacificator, “ Is your eye evil
, because I am good ?” His sentiments on this point were similar to those of Grotius, he did not think it proper to relax in his attempts, or to despair of success, merely because he encountered opposition or was repaid with ingratitude.
Christ to be accountable to none in matters of religion but to their own little congregation or body, in which as in an ecclesiastic corporation or free borough of religion, they may hang and draw, exercise high and low justice upou men's souls as they list in their little Conventicles,) yet here the poor Papist finds so much of a rude and exotic novelty, such a gross show of schism, such variety, such an inconstancy, such a plebeian petulancy, such pitiful and ridiculous affectations, and arrogating of church power in some of the plebs, and such contempt of it in others, that he cannot think it is other than some pieces of Joseph's bloody coat, or some torn. limbs of his body, compared to that splendor, order, strength, beauty, unity, decency and majesty, in doctrine and discipline, in faith and holy duties, which was formerly to be observed, even to the envy and admiration of sober Papists, in the Church of England, how much more in the ancient and Catholic Church's grand combinations, from which these petty fractions and crumblings of christians seem most abhorrent and dissonant.",
* In several of the notes between the pages 588 and 642 I have proved, that Grotius never was deceived respecting the designs of Cardinal Richelieu and other Papists, when they talked most largely about a general religious pacification, &c. His views of Popish policy are correctly exhibited in the following lines, whichkhe addressed on the 11th of Sept. 1636, to the Chancellor Oxenstern concerning Milletiere : “ He does not perceive, that, under the word Peace, the Cardinal [Richelieu) and otber servants of the Pontiff do nothing more than this-by means of it they furnish a specious pretext to those who either through fear or hope wish to quit the ranks of the weak and afflicted party [of the Germau Protestants] and to pass over to those of the stronger" (the Papists].
The extreme solicitude which Grotius felt to engage England to act a more decided part, as a Protestant State, in the affairs of Europe, had its origin in motives of piety, as well as in those of sound policy. Well acquainted with the arts of the freuch ministry, he saw their connection with an armed Protestant Confederacy to be unnatural, and undertaken solely for temporary purposes. As soon as those purposes were accomplished, he knew that the French would display as proper a Popish spirit, as any of the States to which they were at that time opposed. While, therefore, he was desirous of deriving all possible advantages to the Protestant interest from their politic and short-lived amity, like a great Statesman he looked about for more congenial associates, whose principles and policy might co-incide with those of Sweden and of the Protestant part of Germany: The man who, in his elegant historical productions, had highly eulogized the able and opportune aid afforded by Queen Elizabeth of glorious memory to the Dutch Provinces, in their infant struggles for liberty, could have no other feeling than that of chagrine on beholding the stupidity and supineness of one of her royal successors, who, stifliug many of the powerful claims of kindred, and disregarding the true interests of his family and kingdom, employed all the arts of adulation and wasted much valuable time and money in expensive embassies to those two intolerant bigots, the Emperor of Germauy and the King of Spain, in behalf of his relative the Elector Palatiue. King Charles the First might have more effectually assisted that uufortunate Prince, at less expence, by making an armed diversion in his favour; and he would thus bave secured the affec
I now proceed briefly to advert to Archbishop Laud's “efforts for procuring peace and concord in the Church Universal.” Perhaps the following extract from Mr. Hartlib's correspon, dence with the Rev. Joseph Mede, in 1638, will be a good introduction to this subject : “ I am very confidently assured, that my Lord's Grace of Canterbury himself hath written a book in answer to some Popish points, as it were a second part of CHILLINGWORTH, composed chiefly upon the point of FUNDAMENTALS and Non-FUNDAMENTALS: which book is almost ready for the press; only, because in his quotations he hath trusted to his memory, he is revising and examining them, and then it comes forth."-Those persons who know the book will not require to be told, that this character of it is as true as it is impartial,*-which I shall afterwards prove by a few extracts. tions of his subjects by a strong manifestation of his deep concern for the prosperity and advancement of the Protestant religion. (See page ) There is scarcely any subject in the letters of Grotius to which he alludes so frequently, as to that of the re-instatement of the Elector Palatine. For, though bis father had been guilty of great imprudence iu yielding to the flattering solicitations and advice of the great body of Calvinists in Europe; yet that part of the German Protestants who bad invited him, and whom he had offended by his zeal in destroying what Scultetus deemed the remains of idolatry, (p. 254) were all of the Lutheran persuasion, and had done nothing to deserve such accumulated sufferings as they were compelled to indure by being involved in the consequences of his want of success. Twenty years of distress and disappointment had destroyed all remembrance of the King of Bohemia's early indiscretions: His subsequent exemplary conduct under reproach and misfortune, and the magnanimity, and prepossessing virtues of his Queen, who was certainly one of the best-informed and most admirable women in Europe, had rendered his causé sacred in the eyes of all the Reformed ; and it highly concerned the interests of Protestantism, as well as the honour of his family and political connections, that he should be restored at least to the whole of his paternal domains in Germany, which had been dismembered and partitioned by the Popish League.
To this ancient topic both of his regrets and wishes Grotius had referred, when he addressed the following lines to Count Muller, on Aug. 28th, 1638: “ The French feel no concern either for the Protestant religion or for the liberties of Germany, as has been rendered -apparent by the treaties which Father Joseph had concluded at Ratisbon. The Swedes are associated with Protestants both by conformity in religion, and by the defence of the Germanic liberties, which was undertaken by the King [Gustavus Adolphus) of immortal memory; they ought, therefore, to be careful not to tarnish this glory,” &c.
* I subjoin the judgment of Vossius on LAUD's Conference with Fisher the Jesuit. On the 31st of August, 1640, the Archbishop addressed a letter to that learned individual, in which the following paragraph occurs : are not ignorant of the great and pernicious disturbances which the Scotch affairs have raised among us here in England. I know the point at which these furious innovators are aiming; it is God alone who knows how far they will be permitted to proceed. But I have po opportunity, neither do I feel any pleasure in writing about these men, lest a portion of gall should blacken the pages of my letter; for I perceive, that, in every direction, and graced by their virulent pens. y return, therefore, to private concerns, &c. send by Junius my book, which was published last year; but it is in the English language. I confess that I promised to transmit to you, before this time, a copy in Latin : I am not guilty of falsehood in this matter, but I have myself been deceived. For a man, who was sufficiently learned and
But that was not the first of the Archbishop's efforts in behalf of a general concord among the Protestant Churches : In
page 610, Grotius gives us the subjoined information concerning the Frankfort Convention in 1634: “ The present Primate of England is a man of the greatest learning and prudence, and kindly lends his authority and advice to promote this general christian union.” Among the “ letters of introduction from many of the English Bishops," of which Dury is there said to have been the bearer, the most important was that from his Grace of Canterbury. In a subsequent document from the Archbishop, allusion is made to “the decree” which was passed by the Protestant deputies assembled at Frankfort in 1634; I shall therefore present my readers with an extract from it, which will shew the Archbishop to have been one of the warmest and most decided friends to the Protestant interests, long before he published his Conference with Fisher the Jesuit: “After Dury had had abundance of leisure, took this business into his own hands, and, to tell you fraukly, he completed his labour. But when I had bestowed upon it a little deeper scrutiny, I discovered not a few passages in which he bad not caught and transfused the sense, and several others in which he had not followed the style. I accounted it, therefore, much better to suppress a transJation, which would neither express me nor my sentiments, than to publish such a one as this, in which all those foreigners who have only an imperfect acquaintance with the English language, would behold me indeed, but it would be like the representation of my form in an unfaithful mirror. If this translation be capable of correction, you may still expect to see it; but my fears are greater concerning the carelessness than the pen of the translator. With this book of mine, I forward you a copy of the Canons which were framed and confirmed in the last Convocation; by which you may see, that I have neither deserted the Church nor the beaten track of ecclesiastical antiquity.-With regard to other things, I commend you to God and his grace; and I earnestly intreat, that, in these times, when our affairs are assailed in all quarters as well by secret deceit as by open violeuce, you will unite with me in incessant and importunate prayers to God and our Saviour, that he may be pleased to preserve in safety, “ Your servant, and one whose affection for youb, most learned man, is of the most friendly description,
60 WILLIAM CANTERBURY." To this calm and judicious letter Vossius returned an answer, of which the subjoined is an extract: “ Most reverend Father in Christ and very illustrious Lord, I received, by Junius my relation, your two presents, which are worth their weight in gold, because [the contents of] both are entirely golden,-not only the book of the Constitutions and Canons of the Convocation of Canterbury aud York,--but likewise the other, respecting the Conference between you, at that time Bishop of St. David's, and Fisher the Jesuit. According to my judgment, each of them is, or at least ought to be, sufficient to refute the calúmnies which are disseminated against the Church of England
and its dignitaries, and particularly against your most reverend Lordship, hy ill-disposed persons, who are principally intent on one objectto render those men odious who are tenacious of the doctrines and the constitutions of the Primitive Church, and quickly to appoint as their successors those who ineasure all things by the decisions of the moderns. I shall always hold both these productions among my choicest treasures; and, during the short period I have had them in possession, their services have not been inconsiderable, by restraining the more malignant, and by confirming those who evince greater modesty : Indeed, the rumours in circulation were far different from those in which, by these books, we are now instructed.”.
recited, in a full session of all the Confederated States, the opinia ons of the most eminent Divines and Universities of both parties, [Lutherans and Calvinists] not only in Germany, but likewise in France, England and Transylvania, concerning the best method of obtaining this truly christian object of Union, which is most praiseworthy in itself, by which each party may acquire a greater concord and amity of spirit, and by which the faction of the Roman Catholics may be deprived of the advantage they have ħitherto reaped from the schism which they observe among the Evangelicals.”. Such was the grand Protestant Union of which Archbishop Laud was the distingnished patron upwards of ten years, and even at the period when he was falsely accused of betraying the Church of England into the hands of her Popish enemies ! Grotius imputes the partial failure of this noble design to “ the harsh and intolerant conduct of Dr. Hoe towards those whom he called Calvinians." That able Lutheran divine*
* His name.
as appended to the official account of the Leipsic Conference, was Matthias Hoe van Henegg. He was chaplain to the Elector of Saxony, who deputed him to attend that pacific Assembly of Protestants. By consulting pages 259 and 576, the reader may learn the high character for learning, moderation, and piety, possessed by two of the other representatives,- BERGIUS, who was deputed by the Elector of Brandenburgh,—and CROCIUS, who, with Neuberger, attended in behalf of the Landgrave of Hesse. Leyser and Hopfner, who were the Professors of Divinity in the University of Leipsig, assisted at the Conference of their own accord. The relation of their proceedings possesses much interest. Those who know the benevolent complexion of the Augsburgh Confession, and its incompatibility with the peculiar tenets of Calvin, will naturally expect, that one of the main
points on which these moderate men divided was that of ELECTION and REPROBATION. Dury says at the conclusion of his account: The Saxon divines added, lastly, that they considered whatever was taught in
the Book of Concord concerning this article of Election to be true and agree! able to the Holy Scriptures : That is to say, God has chosen us by his grace,
but yet in such a manner as to have FORESEEN the men who will persevere . and truly believe in Christ ; and those whom God has thus foreseen, as
FUTURE BELIEVERs, he has chosen and predestinated, and they are the persons on whom he will bestow salvation and eternal glory:'
Faith and perseverance foreseen could neither be admitted by the Calvinists, who viewed such a concession tantamount to a profession of Arminianism, nor could they be abandoned by the Lutherans.
Mosheim, in his Ecclesiastical History, says : “This Conference at Leipsic was conducted with decency and moderation, and the deliberations were neither disturbed by iutemperate Zeal, nor by a proud spirit of contention and dispute; but that openness of heart, thať mutual trust and confidence, which are so essential to the success of all kinds of pacification, were wanting here. For though the doctors of the Reformed partly exposed, with the utmost precision and fairness, the tenets of their church, and made, moreover, many concessions which the Lutherans themselves could scarcely expect; yet the latter, suspicious and fearful, and always aprehensive of schemes formed by artifice under the mask of candour, to betray and ensnare them, did
not dare to acknowledge, that they were satisfied with these explications and offers; and thus the Conference broke up without having contributed in any respect to promote the salutary work of peace. To form a true idea of these pacific deliberations, of the reasons that gave rise to them and of the principles by which they were conducted, it will be necessary, to study the civil bistory of this interesting period with attention and care. This last remark is very important; without an accurate historical know