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Mede; and in a note, page 532, it is shewn, that this excellent man, as well as his patron, derived his attachment to the practice of many of those rites, from the venerable Bishop Andrews.
of public place and eminent authority, whose actions as they could not be hid, so their wisdom or weakness would be exposed to every censurer, according to that party and side which he most adopted or opposed.'. “ I added, that people were not taken generally so much with grand and severer virtues, as with things more plausibly and seasonably, yet piously and prudently, adapted to their capacity as well as their good; that as they were not to be unworthily bumoured, so por too roughly neglected or offended; that it was much easier not to raise than to allay the spirit of • jealousy in the populacy; that it was no hard matter for a good and great man honestly to make himself gracious with the best and most people, by doing them as much good as they could expect, without any wresting of his or their consciences, without diminishing his lawful authority, or their iugenuous liberties; that in some cases and postures of times, a wise man was pot bound to do people more good than they would or could bear, nor was he to surfeit and tire them by over-driving them to better pasture; that it was possible to serve the times, and yet to serve the Lord, as the pilot that ' in a rough sea humors the winds and waves, yet saves himself, bis ship and goods; lastly, that it was no hard matter for his Lordship, and other Bishops of great parts and preferments, to out-do in preaching, praying and • well-doing all those that most maligned Episcopacy.'
“ To this purpose I took the boldness sometimes to speak to his Lordship; which as he heard at first with something a severer brow, so he at length very gravely and calmly thus replied: Protesting, with a serious attestation of his integʻrity before God's omniscience, that, however he might mistake in the mean and method, yet he never had other desigu than the glory of God, the service of his majesty, and the good order, peace and decency of the Church of England:' that he was so far from complying with Papists, in order to confirm them in their errors, that he rather chose such methods to advance the honour of the Reformed Religion in England, as he believed might soonest silence the cavils of fiercer Papists, induce the more moderate Recusants to come in to us, as having less visible occasion given them by veedless distances and disputes to separate from us, which he thought arose much from that popular variety,inconstancy,easiness irreverence and uucomeliness, which might easily grow among us in the outward profession of religion, for want of exact observing such uniformity and decency in religion, as were required by the laws and canons of this church and state. He added, that he had (further) a desire as much as he could, to relieve the poor and depressed condition of many ministers, which he had to his grief observed in Wales and England, where their discouragements were very great, by reason of the tenuity and incompetency of their livings; that in his visitations he had sometimes seen it with grief, among twenty ministers, not one man had so much as a decent garment to put on, nor did he believe their other treatment of life was better; that he found the sordid and shameful aspect of religion and the clergy gave great advantages to those that were Popishly inclined, who would hardly ever think it best for them to join with that Church which did not maintain either its own honour or its clergy to some competency and comeliness.
" Much more discourse his Lordship was pleased to use at several times to this purpose, which commands my charity to clear him, as far as I can judge, of any tincture of Popery, truly so called, or of any superstition, which placeth a religion in the nature and use of that thing which God hath not either particularly commanded, or in general permitted. I suppose he thought, that where "God hath allowed to bis church and to every private christian, so far as may consist with the church's good order and peace, a liberty of ceremonious and circumstantial decency as to God's worship, there neither himself was to be blamed, nor did he blame other men, if they kept within those discreet and inoffensive bounds which either the church's public peace required, or its indulgence to private christians permitted. 'And thus I leave this Archbishop to stand or fall to his and our Great Master, who
The most obnoxious of the new ceremonies was that of boning towards the altar ; yet a celebrated Dissenter, Mr. Alsop, in the prefaceto his Mischief of Impositions, praises the moderation with which it was recommended in the Canons of 1640,
“ that “ they which use this rite, despise not them who use it not; and
they who use it not, condemn not those that use it.” These and other circumstances, to which allusion is made in some of the preceding notes, will, it is hoped, enable the reader to form a tolerably correct estimate of Archbishop Laud's character ; and the respect and veneration, to which the memory of this great man is really entitled, will not be diminished by a perusal of the subjoined documents. In the correspondence between Grotius and his friends, frequent mention is made of the Archbishop's strenuous efforts to procure peace and concord in the Church Universal. But, before we advert to his plans for effecting that desirable purpose, it will be necessary to give some account of his care for the Church of England.
In July 1629, while he was only Bishop of London and obnoxious to the Puritans for his strictness in exacting conformity, he addressed the following interesting communication to his friend Gerard Vossius, Professor at Leyden, in answer to the letter in the note:* “The last particular which you state in will judge our confidences and infirmities according to our sincerity. Doubtless this Prelate had more in him of charity, liberality, munificence and magnificence (as appears by the works he undertook to found, to build or to repair) than ever I saw in any of those who are the having and getting not the giving enemies to Episcopacy.' I have omitted a part of the Arch-, bishop's character, which will be quoted in a subsequent note.
* On the 20th of June, 1629, Vossius thus addressed Dr. Laud, who was then Bishop of London : “ Within the last few days I have learnt, from those who seemed well acquainted with the affairs of Great Britain, that there is
yet some reason to fear that, by the improvident zeal of certain individuals, • a schism may probably arise in your celebrated country, on account of some. • dissensiou between very learned men in the controversy about Predestination and the dogmas conuected with it.' My informants also said, that your piety and prudence bave therefore been occupied during the last session of Parliament in endeavouring, if possible, to avert by salutary aud moderate counsels an evil so pestilent in its nature; but that this evil was of too obstinate a kind to be then dispelled.' This was perhaps the less practicable, because among those who einployed the pretext of religion, as is too commonly the practice, there might be not a few who coveted after the enjoyment of another person's dignity, and patronized novelties.
“I am not accustomed to indulge my curiosity so far, as anxiously to inquire into the public affairs of your country, but, notwithstanding, I cannot affect to conceal the great uneasiness which I have felt concerning this matter. For it is my wish that the affairs of Great Britain should be most flourishing and prosperous,-not only because it seems to me as though by your favour 1 am now in some degree reckoned in the pumber of the inhabitants of your country, -but chiefly because the safety of the Reformed Church depends, under God, upou the kingdom of Great Britain and upon these [United] Provinces. It is therefore my constant prayer to God, that He would be pleased to bless his serene Majesty the King, and to grant a happy issue to your holy design, and to that of others who profess a similar purpose. That design is approved with both hands,' as the phrase is, by all those who are in these provinces lovers of peace and concord. Indeed, ‘if we have regard to human power alone, those persons seem to undertake a difficult province who study to be mediators in religious differences : Nay, such persons much too frequently become a prey to the victor, as I have in some measure learnt by experience to
* your letter is, within a few days you have heard, from those
persons who seemed well acquainted with British affairs, that the dissension which has arisen between some learned men in my own injury. But, I still hope, God is not yet so offended with our sins,as to permit this sad evil of dissension to burst forth among you,and to effect the national ruin : Against such a catastrophe all men wish to provide, if we may believe what they say about themselves. But, how great soever may be the hoasts of peace, which are made by each party, the pacific remedies which they prescribe are exceedingly different. For many of them know of no other method [of procuring peace,] than for themselves to gain the entire supre. macy after they have cruelly treated those who hold different sentiments, and after they have oppressed them with fines and punishments. Others of them on the contrary, express a far greater moderation both of purpose and sentiment towards all those who retain the foundation of religion. of the possibility of carrying this moderation into effect, those who hold the latter opinion do not despair,-provided adequate honour be conceded to venerable antiquity, and to those great men whom it has been the will of God to produce out of due time. For, whatever appearance there may be of sume difference op certain points between [those who patronize] the ancients and the moderns, the business [of peace] may still be adjusted, -provided the latter refrain from the rash indulgence of their passion for innovation, and provided those who adhere to the former [to antiquity) lay aside their love for domivion over the consciences of others. But this proviso is not acknowledged by the men who prefer their own ambition to heavenly truth, and the gratification of their private hatred and malevolence to christian charity : To whatever party these men may belong, while they choose to dispute with acuteness rather than to exemplify Christianity in their lives, they do not take the city of Saguntum, [they do not succeed in their professed intentions,] but they conquer soinething that is greater and far more excellent than Saguntum itself,—that is, BROTHERLY LOVE. It is impossible for us to be christians, when this love is banished from the minds both of the learned and the populace; in such circumstances, the kingdom of Antichrist receives vast accessions. These considerations induce me the more earnestly again to pray, that God may hereafter strengthen your most reverend Lordship and my illustrious Mæcenas with the spirit of truth and constancy, and that, for the accomplishment of this purpose, he may be pleased to bestow upon you long life and a continuance of good health, and to impart to others such a portion of grace as may incline them to listen impartially to your excellent admonitions and counsels, and no longer to seek their own things, but those which are Christ's."
This letter contains sentiments that are worthy of an Arminian ; and in the text Bishop Laud answers it in a manner highly creditable to himself. Vossius refers to the distinguishing properties of the two contending parties in the church, the attachment of the Arminians to the Ancient Fathers and to many of the primitive usages of the church, and the increasing love of innovation which was manifested by the Calvinists. He also alludes to liberality of the former “ towards all those who retain the foundation of religion." If Bishop Laud had been the intolerant bigot that he is generally represented, many' sentiments in this letter would have given offence, especially such as that which refers to the men who “ loved dominion over the consciences of others, But Vossius knew his friend much better ; he kuew and approved of his endeavours to induce British christiaos “ exemplify Christianity in their lives, rather than to dispute with acuteness."
In 1621, he dedicated his work on the Latin Historians to the Duke of Buckingham, who was then Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, to which Vossius had formerly received an honourable invitation; and indeed he ingenuously confesses, in a letter dated June 1, 1625, that he had availed himself of this invitation,' “ to acquire some little profit to himself among the Dutch,” by an increase of salary. After receiving a copy of the Latin Historians from the author, Bishop Laud acknowledged the favour, Sept. 25, 1627, and told him, “ it was your History of Pelagianism which first attracted my affection for you, &c. I ain now writing a letter to the Duke of Buckingham; and he will probably hear from me, before any other, what
controversy respecting predestination and its annexed dogmas, is, by the imprudent zeal of certain individuals, nearly burst
a recompence is due to your exertions." At the end of March, 1628, Bishop Laud gave the subjoined description of an accident which had then recently befallen him : “ About two months ago, as with unlucky feet I was basten, ing after the king's majesty, who was then proceeding to Hampton Court, and whom it was the duty of my office [as Dean of the Chapel] to attend, I alighted from my carriage and leaped over a brook not more than four feet wide; when my feet fell unequally on the opposite shore among gravel and slippery ground, and I broke the sinew, or tendon, of the right leg. From that time
have been lame; neither is it yet certain when I shall recover my former strength. If you enquire, What is the meaning of all this?, I relate it for the purpose of informing you, that you have a friend that is lame. But although, in consequence of my broken tendon, I cannot perform in your behalf what both you and I desire, yet as soon as my strength is recruited I will sedulously despatch the affairs entrusted to me. You may thus understand, at least, if I be able to accomplish any thing, that I am disabled only in one part,-not in my heart or affections.
While Bishop Laud was confined to his room by this accident, Dr. Heylin was first admitted into his presence; and the account which he gives of that interview is one among the many natural touches presented to us in his very able Life of the Archbishop, and it is creditable to the heart and the domestic habits of that excellent prelate.
At the close of his account Dr. Heyliu adds,“ A passage, I confess, not pertinent to my present story, but such as I have a good precedent for from Philip De Comines, &c." I adopt the same apology for these extracts from the Bishop's correspondence; for I introduce them as elucidations of a succeeding letter to Archbishop Usher, which alludes to all these particulars. On the 5th of Aug. 1628, the Bishop again wrote to Vossius : Send me, if you please, your son, one out of the many of your happy children; and command him always to be mindful of the honour of God and of his father. The Duke of Buckingham will provide for his admission into one of the colleges as a sizar, in which he may pursue his studies at the least possible expence to you. By your leave, I will likewise be a father to him, if God will prolong my declining years, and as loug as your son walks in the footsteps of his father. Besides, the illustrious Duke has added another benefit, a Canonry at Windsor, that he may not seem to honour you in your son alone. My misfortune was a grievous ope, and still continues. I feel no pain in the part injured, but only a weakness, which will be my daily guest during the ensuing twelve months. If it be pleased then to take its departure, the restoration of my former agility will be as agreeable to me as a returu from captivity: If it do not then retire, my wish will be to retain an upright mind in a lame body, and I will freely submit to necessity. One thing I greatly lament-I am so intangled with business on all sides, as to be almost an exile from my books, which alone, next to God, are the objects of my devotion. I wished to inform you of this fact, that you may hereafter be pleased not to number me even among students.” In a postscript he adds : << My letter bas been delayed, yet not to your disadvantage; and I am glad that I have become acquainted with the circumstance before I transmitted it: For the king has changed his purpose, concerning a Canonry at Windsor, and has now begun to think about one at Canterbury, the value of which will exceed the former, by forty pounds a year at the lowest calculạtion,” &c. The whole of this correspondence took place prior to the letter which is quoted at the commencement of this note, and it exhibits the character of Laud in a very amiable light. In the former part of that letter the Bishop again alludes to Vossius's son, who is here said to be received under the patronage of the Duke of Buckingbam. After stating to the elder Vossius the preliminary measures adopted in his son's favour, Bishop Laud proceeds thus: “ On this subject my letters have been entirely silent; for
wished to refrain from writing till I saw something actually performed. I now beg leave to inform you, that I have executed every thing which either
• forth among us into a schism: You also allude to some affairs with which I and others were much occupied during the the wishes of the Duke or my own beld me bound to perform : For, according to the pleasure expressed in bis majesty's letter, your son is now Fellow of Jesus College, and may the change prove auspicious and happy both to bim and yourself! It is pot improbable, that in this matter likewise your son has outrun me : What indeed is there to prevent your receiving from him a previous account of these things ? For it would not seem wonderful, if a youth outran an old man, a sound man proceeded more swiftly than one who is lume, or if a son reached his father before a stranger could arrive! But though your son has now changed the place of his residence, I hope he will effect no change in his friends, in his disposition, or in his studies: This will easily be managed, first, by the grace of God, and then by your admonitions. The removal which he has made, will thus be the more felicitous; for it is from St. Peter to JESUS !” The wit in the last clause, which is a good specimen of the puns of that age, will be more readily understood when the reader is told, that young Vossius at his admission into the University of Cambridge was first entered of Peterhouse, and afterwards through royal favour elected Fellow of Jesus COLLEGE.
Vossius had long known Laud by letter, and by the frequent interchange of friendly sentiments, but at the close of 1629, he came into England, soon after the elevation of his friend to the Bishopric of London. of this visit a very interesting account is given in TWELLS's Life of Dr. Pocock, which commences thus : “ Gerard John Vossius, at this time a Professor at Leyden, being of great fame throughout the world for his extraordinary learning, had a particular respect paid him by some of the nobility, and mauy learned men of the Euglish natiou. He had published several excellent books, particularly his Pelagian History; wherein, as he had expressed more temper and moderation than some of his countrymen, so he manifested a just esteem for ecclesiastical antiquity, for which no church in the world had a truer regard than that of England." His visit to the University of Oxford is then described, “ where he was received with all the marks of a very great esteem. He spent much of his time, during his stay, in viewing the manuscripts and other rarities of the public library. Ainongst other things, he took particular notice of the Syriac manuscript of the Ěpistles, which gave occasion to Mr. John Rouse, the chief librarian, to acquaint him with Mr. Pocock's performance, [who had transcribed four of the Epistles in the Syriac character, added a Latin translation, &c.] Vossius, being extremely pleased with what he thus beard, desired to see both the author and the work; and, after much discourse with him, and a diligent examination of that, he made it his earnest request, that what so well deserved to see the light should no longer be kept in darkness.". Vossius undertook the charge of having this oriental treasure printed at Leyden, which was soon afterwards done, and Mr. Pocock dedicated the work to Vossius. It was this dedication which ultimately attracted the notice of Bishop Laud to Mr. Pocock's great merits, though in the Prelate's first letter to him at Constantinople in Oct. 1631, no mention is made of the name of Vossius. That letter, Mr. Twells says, “ plainly discovers, that they had then no acquaintance with each other; and that the Bishop, having no interest of his own in the chaplain at Aleppo, wrote to him in the strength of Mr. Bedwell's acquaintance.” The subjoined extracts from the literary correspondence of Archbishop Usher furnish some interesting particulars concerning the visit of Vossius.
In a letter from Sir H. Bourgchier to Archbishop Usher, dated Dec. 4, 1628, he says : “ Here hath been a good while with us Ger. Jo. Vossius of Leyden, a man well known to your Grace by his books, and now to me de facie, and, which is more, wiih whom I have contracted familiarity and friendship. He told me, that your Grace was well known to him, both by your Latin book which he had diligently read, and by the report of divers learned men: And when he understood by me how much you esteemed and loved him, he desired me to return bis humble thanks, with desire that you would command his service in whatsoever he is able to perform. His majesty has conferred upon him the Prebend in Canterbury which lately was Dr. Chapman's. He is now 'settling himself in it. He saith, he hath received a late