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REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF THE BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY,

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith my report, which contains a brief statement of the more important work accomplished by the Bureau of Animal Industry during the year 1890. For many interesting details of the work, and for the reports of agents, inspectors, and other employés, I must refer you to the Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Animal Industry. Very respectfully,

D. E. SALMON, Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry. Hon. J. M. RUSK,

.

PLEURO-PNEUMONIA.

The year has passed without any discovery of contagious pleuropneumonia outside of the districts which were recognized in the last report as infected. The regulations of the Department have been enforced without difficulty, and the progress of the work for the eradication of this plague has been continuous and rapid.

No cases of the disease have occurred in the State of New York except on Long Island. No cases have been discovered in Pennsylvania during the year, although a constant inspection has been maintained. The last case discovered in Maryland occurred in 00tober, 1889, and since that time the State has been free from all evi. dence of the contagion. The condition of New Jersey as regards thi. plague has also improved rapidly. No other States have been af fected.

The efficiency of the regulations and of the methods employed under them is demonstrated by the fact that for two years there has not been a case of the disease outside of the very restricted areas on the Atlantic seaboard which have from the first been recognized as infected. These regulations are still in force, and with the almost complete eradication of the contagion the danger of any infection extending to other sections has practically disappeared.

WORK IN NEW YORK.

In order to hasten the work on Long Island more radical measures of disinfection were adopted early in the year and in certain cases where the disease had reappeared several times stables were torn down and burned. It also became necessary in order to maintain any respect for the Department regulations that vigorous measures should be adopted to prevent cattle from grazing upon the commons in the infected district. There appeared to be a widespread opinion, fostered by interested parties, to the effect that the Department had no power to enforce its regulations. As the total eradication of the disease could never be accomplished while the cattle of the infected districts were allowed to pasture in common and mingle together on the pastures and highways, it was determined to put a stop to this practice by seizing and slaughtering all cattle found off of the owners' premises without a permit from the chief inspector. The first seizure included over one hundred head of cows, and this was followed by others at short intervals. The owners, however, soon discovered that it was to their interest to abide by the regulations and from that time the disease has rapidly disappeared. There can be no doubt but that these measures, though they appear arbi. trary and severe, were the means of bringing speedy success to the work on Long Island, when before their adoption there was reason to fear that the contagion might still linger there for an indefinite time.

From July 1, 1889, to June 30, 1890, there were inspected in New York 17,767 herds, containing 147,988 head of cattle. There were 151,284 animals reëxamined and 34,905 were tagged with numbers and registered upon the books of the Bureau.

There were 128 new herds found affected with pleuro-pneumonia during the year, and these herds contained 2,879 animals, 182 of which were pronounced diseased when the inspections were made. There were purchased for slaughter during the same time 603 affected cattle at a cost of $15,756.37, an average of $26.13; also 2,513 exposed cattle at a cost of $55,744.54, an average of $22.18.

The smaller cost of the exposed cattle was due, as in previous years, to the fact that the amount which the owner realized for the carcasses was deducted from the appraised value, the Department paying the balance.

It has been found necessary to disinfect 416 stables, stock yards, or other premises during the year, and also to make post-mortem examinations upon 17,109 carcasses of bovine animals, of which 631 were found diseased with pleuro-pneumonia.

The total expenses in New York from July 1, 1889, to June 30, 1890, were $174,952.48, of which $71,500.91 was paid for cattle purchased for slaughter as either diseased or exposed. The remainder constitutes the cost of disinfection, inspection, tagging, registering, supervising the movement of cattle, post-mortem examinations, and all the various expenses incident to a work of this character.

WORK IN NEW JERSEY.

In this state the active work has been almost entirely confined to Hudson County. The diseased herds discovered have not been numerous, and both affected and exposed animals have been promptly slaughtered.

From June 30, 1889, to July 1, 1890, there were inspected in New Jersey 8,624 herds, containing 64,108 head of cattle. Of this number 40,305 were reëxamined and 9,780 were tagged with numbers and registered upon the books of the Bureau.

There were 29 new herds found affected with pleuro-pneumonia during the year, and these herds contained 405 anímals, 46 of which were pronounced diseased at the time the inspections were made. There were purchased for slaughter during the same time 69 affected cattle at a cost of $1,848.50, an average of $26.79 per head; also 451 exposed cattle at a cost of $10,947.75, an average of $24.27 per head,

It has been found necessary to disinfect 167 stables, stock yards, or other premises, and also to make post-mortem examinations upon the carcasses of 10,741 bovine animals, of which 89 were found diseased with pleuro-pneumonia.

The total expenses in New Jersey from July 1, 1889, to June 30, 1890, were $60,828.02, of which $12,896.25 was paid for cattle purchased for slaughter because they were either diseased or had been exposed.

WORK IN MARYLAND.

Although the last case of pleuro-pneumonia was discovered in Maryland in October, 1889, it was deemed best to keep up the inspection for a considerable time in order that there might be a certainty of the complete extermination of the disease. Quarantine restrictions were removed May 1, 1890, but inspections have been continued, and it may now be definitely announced that Maryland is free from the contagion.

From July 1, 1889, to June 30, 1890, there were inspected in Maryland 7,296 herds, containi g 71,503 head of cattle. Of this number 8,368 were reëxamined and 10,298 were tagged with numbers and registered upon the books of the Bureau.

There were 2 new herds found affected with pleuro-pneumonia during the year, and these herds contained 28 animals, 2 of which were pronounced diseased when the inspections were made. There were purchased for slaughter during the same time 4 affected cattle at a cost of $99.19, an average of $24.80 per head; also 69 exposed cattle at a cost of $1,115.01, an average of $16.16 per head.

It was found necessary to disinfect 5 stables or other premises during the year and to make post-mortem examinations upon the carcasses of 15,109 bovine animals, of which 4 were found diseased with pleuro-pneumonia.

The total expenses in Maryland from July 1, 1889, to June 30, 1890, were $38,558.17, of which $1,214.20 was paid for cattle purchased for slaughter as either diseased or exposed.

THE WORK AS A WHOLE.

Including all the districts in which pleuro-pneumonia has existed there were inspected from July 1, 1889, to June 30, 1890, a total of 33,687 herds of cattle, containing 283,599 animals. Of this number 199,957 were reëxamined, and 54,983 were tagged with numbers and registered upon the books of the Bureau.

There were 159 new herds found affected with pleuro-pneumonia during the year, and these herds contained 3,312 animals, 230 of which were pronounced diseased when the inspections were made. There were purchased for slaughter during the same time 676 affected cattle at a cost of $17,704.06, an average of $26.19 per head; also 3,033 exposed cattle at a cost of $67,807.30, an average of $22.36

per head.

It has been found necessary to disinfect 588 stables, stock yards, or other premises, and also to make post-mortem examinations upon the carcasses of 42,959 bovine animals, of which 724 were found diseased with pleuro-pneumonia.

The total expenses of the pleuro-pneumonia work from July 1, 1889, to June 30, 1890, have been $274,338.67, of which $85,511.36 was paid for cattle purchased for slaughter as either diseased or exposed.

The remainder constitutes the expense for inspection, disinfection, tagging, registering, and supervising the movement of cattle, of post-mortem examinations, and of all the various expenses necessary to insure the prompt discovery of this plague when it 'appears in any herd and prevent the further extension of the infection.

The following table gives a résumé of the pleuro-pneumonia work from July 1, 1889, to June 30, 1890, as given in detail above :

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A résumé of expenditures in the pleuro-pneumonia work for the same period is made below:

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The progress accomplished by this work can not be appreciated without comparing the number of new herds found affected during the year, and the total number of cases of pleuro-pneumonia found on post-mortem examination with similar data gathered from the reports of preceding years. As all carcasses of animals which have died or which have been slaughtered in the infected districts are carefully examined, we have in the returns of the post-mortem examinations the total number of cases of pleuro-pneumonia which have occurred.

The number of cattle and of new herds found affected with . pleuro-pneumonia on post-mortem examination during the year ending June 30, 1890, as compared with the preceding year is as follows:

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