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Cinchona has been next in importance until recently. Hides and skins now rank second. Besides these, products for consumption and exportation are cacao, cocoanuts, sugar, bananas, tobacco, and occasionally cotton and corn. There are also some foreign shipments of India rubber, vegetable ivory, dyewoods, and gold and silver. Other products for home use are rice, yams, sweet potatoes, and Egyptian corn.

Of the rice produced, in the region of Cartagena, the berry is so small that machinery has not been secured with which to successfully clean it. Some wheat is grown on the highlands, but it is not popular because its flour can not be made into light bread. As to cereal cultivation generally, the habits of the people, their farming implements, and the climate are against it. The plow used in Colombia and most of the tropics is the primitive, single-handle, wood plow of Algeria and Moorish Spain, oftenest without an iron shod point, drawn by oxen yoked across the forehead firmly with a piece of timber and a rope or piece of rawhide; and although this instrument may disturb the soil, it helps as little as its owner towards reliable, steady husbandry, such as is known alone to less enervating climes. Iron and steel plows have been introduced on some plantations, but have been invariably broken by the laborers at night, and abandoned. Just so was the first tramway torn up in Puerto Cabello.

The latest census of farm and range stock gives the following numbers:

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An attempt to show the foreign trade of Colombia for 1888 was made by United States Minister Abbott, derived from his inspection of the customs returns of the country, and his reports, corrected by the Department of State upon the authority of the customs returns of this country, Great Britain, and France, and from the Statesman's Year-Book as to the trade of Germany, are the basis of the following tables. The indirect trade through France was with Belgium and Switzerland; that through the United States and Great Britain was with unascertained countries.

Imports of Colombia, 1888.

From

Direct.

Indirect.

Total.

France
Great Britain..
The United States.
Germany
The Antilles.
Ecuador.
Spain..
Peru..
Italy
All other countries..

$7,874,000 $2,026,000
5, 236,000 272,000
4,923, 259

100, 621
1,010, 304

225, 701
171, 147
122, 156
16, 690

9,824
97,088

$9, 900,000 5,508,000 5,023, 880 1,010, 304

225, 701 171, 147 122, 156 16, 690

9, 84 97, 088

Total

19,686, 169

2, 398, 621

22,084,790

AG 90-23

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PAN-AMERICAN TRADE. The interest manifested in the affairs of our neighbors of the Americas lying to the southward, and the importance of present trade relations with those countries, warrant a careful preparation of the facts of commercial exchanges with them. The following figures are

. taken from the official records of the Treasury Department, gathered by the Bureau of Statistics. The agricultural items in exports and imports are carefully segregated and presented separately. In the totals by countries the agricultural totals are placed side by side with the aggregates of all exports to or imports from the countries of South America, those of Central America, and the group of islands constituting the West Indies.

The following is a statement of our exports to the countries named and imports from those countries, during the last fiscal year:

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Agricultural.

Total.

Countries.

Exports.

Imports.

Exports.

Imports.

Dollars.

Dollars.

Dollars.

351, 366
314,091
138, 223
283, 413
212, 195
191, 448

Dollars.
1,380, 382
2, 264, 410
1,050, 689
1,016,099
1,636, 913

180, 524

4,146,511

8,414,019

362, 623

211, 465 8,625, 484

1,490, 736

7,529,017

4,509, 134

8,376,077

762, 546 2, 967,254 9, 276,511

5,454, 618

696,005 2,622, 625 60,403, 804

Central America:

Costa Rica
Guatemala
Honduras
Nicaragua..
San Salvador..
British Honduras

Total......
South America:

Argentine Republic..
Bolivia..
Ecuador
Chili
Brazil
French Guiana.
British Guiana
Dutch Guiana.
Peru
United States of Colombia.
Uruguay
Venezuela.

Total..
West Indies:

Danish West Indies
French West Indies
British West Indies
Dutch West Indies.
Hayti
San Domingo
Cuba
Porto Rico

304, 102

2, 100 275,672

341, 763 4,903, 421

82, 943 1, 231, 151

171,760 112, 581 984, 115

360, 412 1,805, 194

5, 193,741

1,477 480, 797

1 3, 492 52,642, 737 4,512, 593

458, 925

202, 965 3, 669, 996 2, 847, 828 10, 156, 454 80,271,005

2,038, 643

773, 244 3,728, 961 2,027,383 3,703, 705

4, 526,181

460, 243

314, 032 4,263, 519 2,986,964 10, 392, 569

10,575, 164

33, 654, 324

92, 119,560

513,787

99, 382 14,579, 986

30, 123 2, 948, 295 1, 285, 873 47, 294, 203 3,672, 274

29, 941,525

335, 959 1, 326, 23:2 5,539, 461

365, 121 1,955, 406

390, 845 5,099, 954 1,327, 028 16.340,004

77, 947, 333

70,483, 923

Total.
Grand total

29, 941, 525
68, 104,983

77, 947, 333 178, 692, 377

28, 405, 904

158, 283, 945

The value of exports to these countries is about three eighths of the value of imports from them. The exchange requires in cash, to settle the difference, more than $110,000,000. Almost four fifths of the great aggregate of imports is for sugar and coffee, the former mainly from the West Indies, the latter mostly from South America.

The total values of the different classes of agricultural exports from the United States to South American countries, for the fiscal year 1889, are as follows:

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There have been published in each monthly crop report during the year statements showing the rates of freight upon our principal products of agriculture, and farmers' supplies, by rail and water, from the important shipping points in all parts of the country to the large market centers; also the cost of transporting our surplus products to foreign countries. It is doubtless understood that these rates were those in operation upon the first day of each month, and did not show the changes occurring between the reports.

For the first five months of the year the rates from Chicago to New York and points taking New York rates, remained the same. The returns for June 1 showed a decrease of 5 cents per 100 pounds upon packing-house products, oats, and live hogs, and an increase of 15 cents upon wool. The application of the 3 cents differential to Boston by the Grand Trunk road, and the Wabash (Canadian Pacific Dispatch Line) claining the same right, caused another reduction in rates, as shown by the returns July 1. Dressed meats dropped from 45 to 33 cents, wheat and flour from 25 to 221, and live cattle from 26 to 194 cents. The rate upon wool was decreased from 65 cents June 1 to 50 cents, the same rate reported January 1. From this cause a further reduction was reported August 1. Packing-house products were reduced from 25 to 23, dressed meats from 33 to 30, cattle from 194 to 18, and hogs from 25 to 23 cents. The returns for September 1 showed only one change, i. e., wool was reduced from 50 to 344 cents per 100 pounds.

The following table shows the rates in operation January 1, 1890, upon a few of the more important articles of shipment from Chicago to Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, and the changes reported during the year:

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The rates from Missouri River points to Chicago and St. Louis were for a portion of the year—from April to September-in a more demoralized condition than they were east of Chicago. Especially was this true of the rates upon packing-house products and cattle. To Chicago from Kansas City, Atchison, St. Joseph, and Omaha the rates upon the former for the five months ending with September 1 were reported at 12 cents per 100 pounds each month, and upon the latter they were from 121 to 22 cents. June 1 the rates from Kansas City, Atchison, and St. Joseph to Chicago were reported at 127 cents for cattle and 22 cents for sheep and hogs, and to St. Louis, 9 cents for cattle, 14} cents for sheep, and 13 cents for hogs, with a rebate of $7.35 per car, regardless of dimensions, to Chicago, and $4.80 to St. Louis.

The following statements are the carload rates, in cents per 100 pounds, as reported upon the first day of each month during the year 1890, from Missouri River points to Chicago and St. Louis :

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* Rebate of $4.80 per car, regardless of dimensions. + Wheat, rye, and barley.

Corn and oats.

REDUCTION IN ALL-RAIL RATES.

A glance at the following table shows what a heavy decrease there has been in the rates of freight upon corn and wheat since 1870. The rates for 1871 to 1873, inclusive, showed an increase over those for 1870, but from that time there has been a steady decline, and this year's average rate upon corn is the lowest ever reported. As compared with the rate for 1870, there is a decrease of nearly 60 per cent. The wheat rate is also the lowest, with the exception of the years 1884 and 1885, when the decrease was 56 per cent for both years as compared with 1870, against 52.1 per cent this year.

The following statement shows the all-rail rates in cents per bushel upon corn and wheat from Chicago to New York and upon grain per 100 pounds from St. Louis to New York for the years named:

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