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Agricultural imports, fiscal year ending June 30, 1890, with change in tarif duties.

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Animals and animal products :

Over one year, $10. $244, 747 20 per cent. ad val.

Under one year, $2. Horses.

4,840, 485 20 per cent. ad val. 320, or 30 per cent. if

value over $150. Sheep..

1, 268, 209 20 per cent. ad val. Over one year, 31.50.

1 Under one year, $0.75. Cheese.

1, 295, 506 4c. per lb

6c. per lb. Eggs.

2,074, 912

5c. per dozen. Wools

15, 204,083 Class 1 (above and below 30C. per lb.)

10c. and 12c. 11 cents. Class 2 (above and below 30c. per Ib.)

10c. and 12c.

12 cents. Class 3 (above and below 12c. per lb.)

2fc, and 5c

| At 13c. per lb., 32 p. ct.

Over 13c., 50 p. c. ad val. Flax

2,188, 021 Straw

$5 per ton.

$5 per ton. Not hackled

$20 per ton. 1c. per lb. Dressed line

$40 per ton.

3c. per Ib. Tow

$10 per ton.

14c. per lb. Barley

5, 629, 819 10c. per bush. 30c. per bush. Hay

1,143, 445 $2 per ton.. $1 per ton. Hops

1,053, 616 oc. per lb

15c. per lb. Tobacco

17,005, 192 Unstemmed (leaf)

75c. per lb

$2 per lb. Stemmed (leaf).

$1 per lb

$2.75 per lb. All other

350. per lb

Stemmed, 50c. per Ib.

1 Unstemmed, 35c.per lb. Potatoes...

1,365, 898 15c. per bush. 25c. per bush. Wines

8,853, 956 Champagne : Bottles between pint and quart.


$8 per doz. Bottles between half pint and pint .

$3.50 per doz. 84 per doz. Bottles less than half pint..

$1.75 per doz.. $2 per doz.

57 per


We have a strong assurance in the recent increase of values of meat products, and the circumstances which now environ production, of continued prosperity of stock raising. New industries now in process of development will increase the ability of consumers to purchase meats; and better protection of wool will open larger domestic markets, as it has already advanced prices. There is an increasing inter

, est in the production of mutton in the central West, and of early lambs in the populous East, indications of progress that promise increase of profit in sheep husbandry. Of chief interest naturally to the stock raisers of this country are the export trade in animals and their products, and the possibilities of still further relieving our home markets of these products by extending our markets abroad.


Stop by step as it were with the vigorous prosecution of the work of exterminating pleuro-pneumonia and controlling Texas fever, and with a more general appreciation of the benefits derived from a judicious exercise of the powers conferred on this Department, we find a gratifying improvement in the export trade in live animals. The total value of animals and fowls exported for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1890, was over $33,000,000, an increase of something over $15,000,000 as compared with the year previous. The increase in the number of cattle was from 205,780 in 1889 to 394,836 in 1890, while the number of hogs exported increased from 45,128 to 91,148, over 100 per cent. In horses there was a slight reduction of exports, far more than counterbalanced, however, by the large increase in the number of mules exported. In the number of sheep exported there was a decrease.

A very large increase is shown in the export trade in beef and hog products, while in dairy products the export trade in butter was especially gratifying, the figures for 1889 being 15,504,978, and in 1890 29,748,012 pounds. The increase in the value of meat and dairy products exported between 1889 and 1890 was over $32,000,000. At a time when our domestic markets are overcrowded with animals and their products, this increase in the export trade is very encouraging. The prices realized abroad have as a rule been good, and but for the unjust restrictions placed upon both animal and meat products abroad, the increase in the amount exported would have been much greater. Experimental shipments of cattle to Germany and Belgium were made during the year with favorable results, but excessive duties and the quarantine restrictions which were immediately imposed at once destroyed this trade. A careful review of the trade shows how urgent it is that we should secure more favorable regulations in the chief European countries in regard to our exports of animals and animal products. The first step towards the accomplishment of this object was necessarily to secure as far as possible the absolute immunity of our own cattle from disease.

ERADICATION OF PLEURO-PNEUMONIA. The regulations for the eradication of contagious pleuro-pneumonia have been vigorously enforced during the entire year, and rapid progress has been made. In New York no cases have occurred during the year ending June 30, 1890, except on Long Island. There have been no cases in Maryland since October, 1889. Pennsylvania has remained free from the disease during the entire year. In both Maryland and Pennsylvania constant inspection has been maintained and the complete eradication of the contagion thereby assured. During the two months of May and June, 1990, but 13 affected animals were purchased in the whole infected district as compared with an average of 71} per month during the preceding ten months. At this writing it would seem that the disease is practically banished from American soil, though the length of time which has elapsed since the last case of the disease was noted by the inspectors has been hardly sufficient to warrant a formal official declaration to this effect.



The vigor with which the work of exterminating pleuro-pneumonia was carried on would nevertheless, as far as our export trade was concerned, have been comparatively ineffectual unless simultaneously with its eradication in this country we were able to convince Great Britain and other European governments of the progress made in ridding the United States of this disease. Early last winter, there. fore, I solicited the aid of the State Department in opening negotiations through Minister Lincoln with the British Government, looking to an arrangement which I deemed extremely desirable with a view to putting an end to the frequent allegations that cases of contagious pleuro-pneumonia existed among American cattle shipped to British ports.

The circumstances under which these allegations were made convinced me of the absolute necessity that this Department should be represented at the inspections made of our cattle on landing in Great Britain. Thanks to the cordial co-operation of the State Department and the intelligent activity displayed in the matter by Minister Lincoln, I finally obtained the privilege of appointing veterinary inspectors representing this Department, to be resident in Great Britain, who were to be allowed every facility in participating with the British inspecting officers in the work of inspecting American cattle landed in British ports. As soon as this privilege was secured I appointed three competent officers for this responsible duty and dispatched them to Great Britain in charge of the Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry, Dr. Salmon, who remained with them until their duties were clearly defined and the best means decided upon to enable them to carry on their work effectually and in harmony with the British authorities. This transatlantic inspection has been in force for the past two months, and I am happy to be able to state that since it was instituted not a single case has been reported of contagious pleuropneumonia among American cattle landed in Great Britain. Indeed, I am now informed that not a single case has been reported by the British authorities themselves since March last.

At the same time that I presented this matter to the attention of the Secretary of State I also placed before him facts bearing upon our meat export trade, showing conclusively the utterly groundless nature of the charges made by other European governments in regard to the unwholesomeness of our meat, but especially of our pork products. I am happy to state that this matter was taken up by the State Department with the same cordiality that characterized its action in regard to our export of live cattle, and that the facts supplied by me to that Department were laid before the foreign govern. ments by our respective ministers so clearly and with such force as will, I am sure, carry considerable weight in the further consideration of this subject by the governments in question.


The act of August 30, 1890, provides for the inspection of all exported cattle, sheep, and swine. The amount of work required to accomplish this is indicated by the fact that during the year ending June 30, 1890, the number of these animals exported was as follows: cattle, 394,836 head; hogs, 91,148 head; sheep, 67,521 head. Rules and regulations for this service have been prepared and the inspection is now being made. The necessity of this inspection is shown by the exclusion of American cattle, sheep, and swine from European markets on the plea of the danger that disease will be introduced by them. While this inspection alone might not be accepted as in all cases giving a complete guaranty against the appearance of disease during the voyage, it is an important step in this direction, and will give us the means of knowing officially the condition of the animals as they leave our ports. In connection with the inspection recently established by me at the foreign animal wharves of Great Britain, it will also enable us to trace back animals which may be found affected there, so that the nature of their malady may be determined, and if found contagious the proper measures will be enforced for its eradication.


The regulations regarding Texas fever, which went into effect on March 15, though carefully formulated so as to allow the free movement of Southern cattle to market, have been on the whole well observed, and the result has been a marked decrease in the number of cases of Texas fever occurring on farms, in stock yards, or on vessels carrying export cattle. One of the largest buyers and exporters of cattle in the United States reports that, whereas a year ago he dared not buy cattle for feeding or export in the stock yards, but was obliged to go to the farms where he could get evidence that they had not been exposed, this year, on the contrary, he has purchased such animals at the stock yards without fear. Last year his losses from Texas fever, in spite of his precautions in buying, were considerable; the present summer he has not lost one from this cause. He further states that, owing to the immunity from this disease, insurance rates have been reduced from $8 to $3.50 on every $100 worth of cattle, this alone representing a saving of over a million dollars on export cattle. Owing to lack of authority under existing laws, I have, however, been unable in some cases to enforce these regulations, and there is at present 110 penalty which can be applied in such cases. Owing to such disregard, some cases have occurred of Texas fever imparted to valuable thoroughbred cattle, and these have since died from the effects of the disease.

Proper facilities for separating the two classes of cattle are still lacking at the ports on the Atlantic seaboard, and as a consequence the disease has occasionally appeared among export cattle on their voyage to foreign countries. The influence of this upon the trade is very bad. It is being cited in Great Britain as affording good reason for their continuing the prohibition of the introduction of live cattle from this country. Ample power to compel immediate remedy of this condition of things is therefore urgently needed. If the regulations of this Department can be properly enforced, the appearance of Texas fever in this country outside of the affected areas will be very rare, and not a single case should occur among cattle after leaving our ports. I have therefore suggested amendments to the act establishing the Bureau of Animal Industry, which are now pending in Congress. If enacted, these will fully provide for the prevention of the spread of this and other communicable diseases of animals from State to State or from the United States to foreign countries. These amendments are essential to rendering the work of this Department effectual. If there is to be control of animal diseases at all, it must be so thorough as to prevent their spread, and thus remove foreign objections to our cattle and meats, give confidence to stock owners ard shippers, and secure full protection to farmers.

INSPECTION OF PORK PRODUCTS. It is with great gratification that I have assumed the duties imposed upon me by the passage of the act of August 30, 1890, in which provision is made for the inspection of salted pork and bacon. The unjust war waged upon our pork products by some of the European governments rendered this provision absolutely necessary as a preliminary step towards any action looking to a removal of the obstacles which now impedo our export trade in these products. The absence of inspection on this side provoked an argument on the part of the representatives of foreign governments, to which we were really not prepared to reply. It was that no inspection being held by ourselves, while a rigid inspection was conducted by them of American pork products landed in their countries, they were in a position to know better than we ourselves the actual condition of these products. The present law will enable us to warrant the wholesomeness of our pork products under the seal of official inspection. Having then satisfactorily established the injustice of these foreign discriminations, we shall be in a position to demand their withdrawal, or at least to insist upon a retraction of all charges made on the ground of unwholesomeness or impurity. Armed with a certificate of inspection guarantying wholesomeness on the one hand, and with the retaliatory clause wisely interpolated in this law on the other, we shall, it seems to me, be in a position to provide powerful support to further diplomatic negotiations on behalf of American hog products.


In my report of last year I urged the great desirability of a national inspection of cattle at the time of slaughter, and also an inspection of meats, which would enable this Department to guaranty

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