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1. HISTORY OF VERMONT.

CHAPTER 1.

NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. Boundaries, Situation and Extent, Climate, - Face of the Country, Soil and Productions, --Lakes, Rivers, Botany, Mineralogy, Natu...ral Curiosities. . Sec. 1. Boundaries. Vermont is bounded on the North by Lower Canada; East by Connecticut River, which divides it from New-Hampshire; South by Massachusetts ; West by New-York, and the deepest channel of Poultney River, East Bay and Lake Champlain. : Situation and Extent. It is situated between latitude 42d. 44m. and 45d. North; and between longitude 710. 33m. and 73d. 26m. West from London.

Its mean length is about 157 miles. Its breadth on the North line is 90 and on the South 40 miles; the average breadth being about 57 miles. It contains 9000 square miles, or about 5,760,000 acres.

1. How is Vermont bounded? What is ito extent? How many square miles does it contain ?

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VERMONT.

HISTORY OF VERMONT. Sec. 2. Climate. The climate of Vermont, at different seasons presents almost all the varieties of heat and cold. It is generally healthy, as is proved by the longevity of its inhabitants. The air is uncommonly dry and salubrious : and no regular disease is known to prevail.

The winter is cold, but the sky is usually serene. The earth is generally covered with snow from December to March. On the high lands, the snow falls earlier and continues later.

During a few years past, the climate has experienced a considerable change. The cold is less severe, and the snow "frequently disappears in the midst of winter. Sudden changes of the weather are much more frequent than forte

merly.

• In spring, the transition from the cold to the warm seas son'is highly interesting. Vegetation comes forward with 1 astonishing rapidity. The fields resume their accustomed :: *verdure; the trees put forth their wonted foliage ; and in" : a few days from the bleak and barren hues of winter, the whole face of nature assumes the gaudiest attire.

During the summer the heat is often severe, but seldom 10 of long continuance. The air is frequently refreshed by..: cooling breezes, attended by occasional showers. Long raios are seldom experienced.

The warm season generally continues to the middle or last of September, when frosts usually set in and arrest the.. progress of vegetation. It frequently, however, continues *pleasant to the middle of November. A few days of very mild weather, called the "Indian Summer,'' usually precedes the setting in of winter.

Sec. 3. Face of the Country. No State

2. What is said of the Climate? Are any regular diseases known to prevail ? What is said of the winter! What change has taken place in the climate ! What is said of Spring? Summer? What usually precedes the setting ioof winter.

3. What is the face of the Country? What the extent of the Green Moto. tains! lo what direction do they run ? Describe the eastern range-the western.- What is said of the country between these ranges! How wide is the principal range? What are the highest summits? What' is said of the native scenery in Vermont !

presents a greater variety of surface than Vermont. It is generally mountainous; the only plain of any considerable extent being near the Canada line.

The Green Mountains (from the French of which, Verd Mont, the State derived its name) extend from the southern to the northern boundary of the State. The highest range runs from the southern boundary about 80 miles parallel to the Connecticut River, and from 20 to 30 miles distant from it.

It then divides into two branches; the eastern continues parallel to the river, and from 10 to 20 miles distant, and continues to the north line of the State, occasionally rising to a great elevation. The western, which is the principal range, passes off to the north, and extends nearly to Canada, sometimes rising above the usual range of the clouds and sometimes falling below it.

The western range is pierced by some of the large streams falling into Lake Champlain. Between these two ranges, is a beautiful champaign country, from 20 to 30 miles in breadtb, second perhaps in fertility, to none in the State.

The valley of the Connecticut is also very fertile, and presents as fine a country for pleasure travellers as any in the United States.

The principal range of mountains from the north to the south line, is about 15 miles wide. The tops of the mountains are generally rocky, and covered with moss. The trees, pine, spruce, hemlock and fir, intermixed with shrubs, are small but very aged. At the highest elevation, spruce and hemlock trees, wbich have probably vegetated for centuries, are often not more than 2 or 3 feet high. They are

thickly surrounded by branches, so interwoven as to render the thicket almost impenetrable.

The three highest summits are Killington Peak, Camel's Rump in Huntington, and Mansfield Mountain in Stirling. The sides of the mountains are very irregular, particularly on the south, which is often precipitous.

From the principal range of the Green Mountains, the highlands decline to the east and west boundaries of the State. The descent is not uniform, being broken by frequent à elevations, and by the numerous streams falling into Lake Champlain and the Connecticut.

Vermont abounds in native scenery of great wildness and is sublimity. Its lofty mountains, the rude and narrow defiles that wind amongst them, and the rushing streams to which they give rise, present scenes of unrivalled grandeur and majesty.

The sloping hills, the fine intervals and the streams which water them, afford à softer and more elegant and finished landscape ; while the rich and universal verdure which crowns both hills and vallies, gives to the whole country an air of unmingled cheerfulness.

Sec. 4. Soil and Productions. The soil is generally fertile and well fitted for the purposes of agriculture. The highlands are best adapted to grazing. Winter wheat is

extensively cultivated the west side of the mountains, but does not thrive so well east of them.

Summer wheat, barley, oats, rye, peas and flax, flourish in nearly all parts of the State. Indian corn grows best on the intervals, but is every where raised in abundance. As a grazing country, it is surpassed by none.

Sec. 5. Lakes. Lake Champlain lies between Vermont and New-York. It is 100 miles long and from 1 to 25 miles wide. In lat. 45d. 45m. it narrows to a river, cal

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4. What is the character of the soil? What the productions 5. What Lakes are there in Vermont? Describe tbem.

ded the Sorelle, which falls into the St. Lawrence.

Lake Memphremagog lies chiefly in Canada. It is 40 miles long, of which 7 or 8 are in this State.

Sec. 6. Rivers. All the rivers have their sources in the Green Mountains. Those on the west side fall into Lake Champlain and the Hudson; and those on the east into the Connecticut; a few small streams run north into Lake Memphremagog.

The Connecticut washes tbe eastern side of the State, but belongs entirely to New Hampshire.

The Michiscoui rises in Belvidere, passes into Canada, returns into the State, and empties into Micbiscoui Bay.It is 75 miles long, and navigable to Swanton falls, 7 miles.

Onion River rises in Cabot, and after pursuing an irregular course of 80 miles, empties into Lake Champlain about 5 miles north of Burlington. It is navigable 5 miles. On this stream is a cataract where the water falls 500 feet in 30 rods.

The Lamoille rises in Greensboro', and running 75 miles empties into Lake Champlain in Colchester.

Otter Creek rises in Pern, (30 feet from the Battenkill,) and after running 90 miles, empties into Lake Champlain at Ferrisburgh. It is the longest river in the State, and is navigable 6 miles from its mouth.

West River rises in Weston, runs southeasterly 37 miles, and empties into the Connecticut at Brattleboro'.

White River rises in Kingston, and empties into the Connecticut at Hartford.

The Battenkill rises in Peru, and runs 45 miles to the Hudson.

Sec. 7. Botany. The principal forest

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