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created, and such law shall be published in at least one newspaper in each judicial district, if one is published therein, throughout the State, for three months preceding the election at which it is submitted to the people.
ARTICLE IX.-Incorporations. Sec. 1. No corporate body shall hereafter be created, renewed, or extended, with the privilege of making, issuing, or putting in circulation, any bill, check, ticket, certificate, promissory note, or other paper, or the paper of any bank, to circulate as money. The General Assembly of this State shall prohibit by law, any person or persons, association, company or corporation, from exercising the privileges of banking, or creating paper to circulate as money.
2. Corporations shall not be created in this State by special laws, except for political or municipal purposes, but the General Assembly shall provide, by general laws, for the organization of all other corporations, except corporations with banking privileges, the creation of which is prohibited. The stockholders shall be subject to such liabilities and restrictions as shall be provided by law. The State shall not, directly or indirectly, become a stockholder in any corporation.
ARTICLE X.- Education and School Lands. Sec. 1. The General Assembly shall provide for the election, by the people, of a superintendent of public instruetion, who shall hold his office for three years, and whose duties shall be prescribed by law, and who shall receive such compensation as the General Assembly may direct.
2. The General Assembly shall encourage, by all suitable means, the promotion of intellectual, scientific, moral and agricultural improvement. The proceeds of all lands that have been or hereafter may be granted by the United States to this State, for the support of schools, which shall hereafter be sold or disposed of, and the five hundred thousand acres of land granted to the new States, under an act of Congress, distributing the proceeds of the public lands among the several States of the Union, approved Å. D. 1841, and all estates of deceased persons, who may have died without leaving a will, or heir; and also such per cent. as may be granted by Congress on the sale of lands in this State, shall be and remain a perpetual fund, the interest of which, together with ali the rents of the unsold lands, and such other means as the General Assembly may provide, shall be inviolably appropriated to the support of common schools throughout the State.
3. The General Assembly shall provide for a system of common schools, by which a school shall be kept up and supported in each school district, at least three months in every year; and any school district neglecting to keep up and support such a school may be deprived of its proportion of the interest of the public fund during such neglect.
4. The money which shail be paid by persons as an equivalent for exemption from military duty, and the clear proceeds of all fines collected in the seyeral counties for any breach of the penal laws, shall be exclusively applied, in the several counties in which such money is paid or fine collected, among the several school districts of said counties, in the proportion to the number of inhabitants in such districts, to the support of common schools, or the establishment of libraries, as the General Assembly shall, from time to time, provide by law.
5. The General Assembly shall take measures for the protection, improvement, or other disposition of such lands as have been or may hereafter be reserved or granted by the United States, or any person or persons, to this State, for the use of a university; and the funds accruing from the rents or sale of such lands, or from any other source, for the purpose aforesaid, shall be and remain a permanent fund, the interest of which shall be applied to the support of said university, with such branches as the public convenience may hereafter demand, for the promotion of literature, the arts and sciences, as may be authorized by the terms of such grant. And it shall be the duty of the General Assembly, as soon as may be, to provide effectual means for the improvement and permanent security of the funds of said university.
ARTICLE XI.- Amendments of the Constitution. If, at any time, the General Assembly shall think it necessary to revise or amend this Constitution, they shall provide by law for a vote of the people for or against a convention, at the next ensuing election for members of the General Assembly; in case a majority of the people vote in favor of a convention, said General Assembly shall provide for an election of delegates to a convention, to be held within six months after the vote of the people in favor thereof.
ARTICLE XII.-Miscellaneous. Sec. 1. The jurisdiction of justices of the peace shall extend to all civil cases (except cases in chancery and cases where the question of title to any real estate may arise), where the amount in controversy does not exceed one hundred dollars, and by the consent of parties may be extended to any amount not exceeding five hundred dollars.
.2. No new county shall be laid off hereafter, nor old county reduced, to less contents than four hundred and thirty-two square miles.
3. The General Assembly shall not locate any of the public lands, which have been or may be granted by Congress to this State, and the location of which may be given to the General Assembly, upon lands actually settled, without the consent of the occupant. The extent of the claim of such occupant so exempted shall not exceed three hundred and twenty acres.
WISCONSIN was so called from its principal river. A territorial government was organized in 1836. It is rapidly increasing in population, and is among the most inviting portions of the West. The subject is now agitated relative to its becoming a sovereign State; and it will, no doubt, soon be numbered as such.
MISSOURI TERRITORY. This territory extends from the Missouri River to the Rocky Mountains, and from Arkansas to British America, being in length about 900 miles.
INDIAN & WESTERN TERRITORY, Extends from the western boundary of Arkansas and Missouri to Red River on the south, and the Punca and Platte, or Nebraska, on the north; roughly estimated at about 275,000 sq. m. The Western Territory, extending to the Rocky Mountains, contains 350,000 sq. ms.
OREGON: “The last corner of the earth," as an English journalist has called it. This is a large extent of country, belonging to the United States, west of the Rocky mountains. It was first discovered by the Spanish, and by them sold to the Americans. The Columbia River was explored in 1790, by Gray, an American navigator; and in 1805 the interior of the country was more fully examined by Clark and Lewis, by order of the United States' government. In 1811, a settlement was founded by Mr. Astor, of New York, at the mouth of the Columbia. The contentions in reference to the boundary are now amicably adjusted, and the territory is fast filling up with enterprising settlers, mostly from the eastern States. Area about 350,000 sq. m.
The governors of territories are appointed by the President, with the consent of the United States' Senate, for three years, and receive a salary of $2,500 per annum. Each territory is entitled to the privilege of electing one delegate to Congress. No territory is allowed an elector for President. The people of a territory may assume a State government when there are 30,000 inhabitants.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK,
Formed in 1821.
We, the people of the State of New York, acknowledging with gratitude the grace and beneficence of God in permitting us to make choice of our form of government, do establish this Constitution.
ARTICLE I. Sec. 1. The legislative power of this State shall be vested in a Senate and an Assembly.
2. The Senate shall consist of thirty-two members. The senators shall be chosen for four years, and shall be freeholders. The Assembly shall consist of one hundred and twenty-eight members, who shall be annually elected.
3. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business. Each house shall determine the rules of its own proceedings, and be the judge of the qualifications of its own members. Each house shall choose its own officers, and the Senate shall choose a temporary president, when the Lieutenant-Governor shall not attend as President, or shall act as Governor.
4. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and publish the same. except such parts as may require secrecy. The doors of each house shall be kept open, except when the public welfare shall require secrecy. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than two days.
5. The State shall be divided into eight districts, to be called Senate districts, each of which shall choose four senators.
The first district shall consist of the counties of Suffolk, Queens, Kings, Richmond, and New York.
The second district shall consist of the counties of Westchester, Putnam, Dutchess, Rockland, Orange, Ulster, and Sullivan.
The third district shall consist of the counties of Green, Columbia, Albany, Rensselaer, Schoharie, and Schenectady.
The fourth district shall consist of the counties of Saratoga, Montgomery, Hamilton, Washington, Warren, Clinton, Essex, Franklin, and Št. Lawrence.
The fifth district shall consist of the counties of Herkimer, Oneida, Madison, Oswego, Lewis, and Jefferson.
The sixth district shall consist of the counties of Delaware, Otsego, Chenango, Broome, Cortland, Tompkins, and Tioga.
The seventh district shall consist of the counties of Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, and Ontario.
The eighth district shall consist of the counties of Steuben, Livingston, Monroe, Genesee, Niagara, Erie, Allegany, Cattaraugus, and Chautauque.
And as soon as the Senate shall meet, after the first election to be held in pursuance of this Constitution, they shall cause the senators to be divided by lot into four classes, of eight in each, so that every district shall have one senator of each class: the classes to be numbered, one, two, three, and four. And the seats of the first class shall be vacated at the end of the first year; of the second class, at the end of the second year; of the third class, at the end of the third year; of the fourth class, at the end of the fourth year; in order that one senator be annually elected in each Senate district.
6. An enumeration of the inhabitants of the State shall be taken, under the direction of the Legislature, in the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty five, and at the end of every ten years thereafter; and the said district shall be so altered by the Legislature, at the first session after the return of every enumeration, that each Senate district shall contain, as nearly as may be, an equal number of inhabitants, excluding aliens, paupers, and persons of color not taxed ; and shall remain unaltered, until the return of another enumeration, and shall at all times consist of contiguous territory; and no county shall be divided in the formation of a Senate district.
7. The members of the Assembly shall be chosen by counties, and shall be apportioned among the several counties of this State, as nearly as may be, according to the number of their respective inhabitants, excluding aliens, paupers, and persons of color, not taxed. An apportionment of members of Assembly shall be made by the Legislature, at its first session after the return of every enumeration; and when made, shall remain unaltered until another enumeration shall have been taken. But an apportionment of members of the Assembly shall be made by the present Legislature according to the last enumeration, taken under the authority of the United States, as nearly as may be. Every county heretofore established, and separately organized, shall always be entitled to one member of the Assembly, and no new county shall hereafter be erected, unless its population shall entitle it to a meinber.
8. Any bill may originate in either house of the Legislature; and all bills passed by one house, may be amended by the other.
9. The members of the Legislature shall receive for their services a compensation to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the public treasury; but no increase o the compensation shall take effect during the year in which it shall have been made. And no law shall be passed increasing the compensation of the members of the Legislature beyond the sum of three dollars a day.
10. No member of the Legislature shall receive any civil appointment from the Governor and Senate, or from the Legislature, during the term for which he shall have been elected.
11. No person being a member of Congress, holding any judicial or military office under the United States, shall hold a seat in the Legislature. And if any person shall, while a member of the Legislature, be elected to Congress, or appointed to any office, civil or military, under the government of the United States, his acceptance thereof shall vacate his seat.
12. Every bill which shall have passed the Senate and Assembly shall, before it become a law, be presented to the Governor: if he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it with his objections to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it: if, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of the members present shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered ; and if approved by two-thirds of the members present, it shall become a law: but in all such cases, the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journals of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the Governor within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Legislature shall, by their adjournment, prevent its return; in which case it shall not be a law.
13. All officers holding their offices during good behavior may be removed by joint resolution of the two houses of the Legislature, if two-t
wo-thirds of all the members elected to the Assembly, and a majority of all the members elected to the Senate, concur therein.
14. The political year shall begin on the first day of January; and the Legislature shall every year assemble on the first Tuesday of January, unless a different day shall be appointed by law.
15. The next election for Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, senators, and members of assembly, shall commence on the first Monday of November, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-two; and all subsequent elections shall be held at such time, in the month of October or November, as the Legislature shall by law provide.
16. The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, senators, and members of Assembly, first elected, under this Constitution, shall enter on the duties of their respective offices on the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-three; and the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, senators, and members of assembly, now in office, shall continue to hold the same, until the first day of January one thousand eight hundred and twenty-three, and no longer.
ARTICLE II. Sec. 1. Every male citizen of the age of twenty-one years, who shall have been an inhabitant of this State one year preceding any election, and for the last six months a resident of the town or county where he may offer his vote; and shall have, within the year next preceding the election, paid a tax to the State or county, assegsed upon his real or personal property; or shall by law be exempted from taxation; or being armed or equipped according to law, shall have performed within