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ARTICLE IX.-General Provisions.-Education. Sec. 1. Knowledge and learning, generally diffused through a community, being essential to the preservation of a free government, and diffusing the onportunities and advantages of education through the various parts of the State being highly conducive to this end, it shall be the duty of the General Assembly to provide by law for the improvement of such lands as are or hereafter may be granted by the United States to this State for the use of schools, and to apply any funds which may be raised from such land, or from any other source, to the accomplishment of the object for which they are or may be intended. The General Assembly shall from time to time pass such laws as shall be calculated to encourage intellectual, scientific, and agricultural improvements, by allowing rewards and immunities for the promotion and improvement of arts, science, commerce, manufactures, and natural history; and countenance and encourage the principles of humanity, industry, and morality.
Emancipation of Slaves. Sec. 1. The General Assembly shall have no power to pass laws for the emancipation of slaves, without the consent of the owners. They shall have no power to prevent emigrants to this State from bringing with them such persons as are deemed slaves by the laws of any one of the United States. They shall have power to pass laws to permit the owners of slaves to emancipate them, saving the rights of creditors, and preventing them from becoming a public charge. They shall have power to prevent slaves from being brought to this State as merchandize, and also to oblige the owners of slaves to treat them with humanity.
2. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war against it, or adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or his own confession in open court.
3. No person who denies the being of a God shall hold any office in the civil department of this State, nor be allowed his oath in any court.
4. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of an appropriation by law, nor shall any appropriation of money for the support of an army be made for a longer term than two years; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public moneys shall be published with the promulgation of the laws.
5. Absence on business of this State, or of the United States, or on a visit of necessary private business, shall not cause a forfeiture of a residence once obtained.
6. No lottery shall be authorized by this State, nor shall the sale of lottery tickets be allowed.
7. Internal improvements shall be encouraged by the government of this. State, and it shall be the duty of the General Assembly, as soon as may be, to make provision by law for ascertaining the proper objects of improvements in relation to roads, canals, and navigable waters; and it shall also be their duty to provide by law for an equal, systematic, and economical application of the fund which may be appropriated to these objects.
8. Returns for all elections for officers who are to be commissioned by the Governor, and for members of the General Assembly, shall be made to the Secretary of State.
9. Within five years after the adoption of this Constitution, the laws, civil, and criminal, shall be revised, digested, and arranged, and promulgated in such manner as the General Assembly shall direct, and a like revision, digest, and promulgation shall be made within every subsequent period of ten years.
10. In the event of the annexation of any territory to this State, by a cession from the United States, laws may be passed extending to the inhabitants of such territory all the rights and privileges which may be required by the terms of such cession, anything in this Constitution to the contrary notwithstanding.
11. The person of a debtor, except where there is strong presumption of fraud, shall neither be imprisoned nor continued in prison after delivering up his estate for the benefit of his creditors, in such manner as may be prescribed by law.
2. All property subject to taxation shall be taxed according to its value, that value to be ascertained in such manner as the General Assembly shall direct, making the same equal and uniform throughout the State. No one species of property from which a tax may be collected, shall be taxed higher than another species of property of equal value: Provided, the General Assembly shall have power to tax merchants, hawkers, pedlers, and privileges, in such manner as may from time to time be prescribed by law: and provided further, that no other or greater amounts of revenue shall at any time be levied, than required for the necessary expenses of government, unless by a concurrence of two-thirds of both houses of the General Assembly.
3. No poll tax shall be assessed for other than county purposes.
4. No other or greater tax shall be levied on the productions or labor of the country than may be required for expenses of inspection.
Establishment of Banks. Sec. 1. The General Assembly may incorporate one State Bank, with such amount of capital as may be deemed necessary, and with such number of branches as may be required for public convenience, which shall become the repository of the funds belonging to, or under the control of, the State; and shall be required to loan them out throughout the State, and in each county, in proportion to representation; and they shall further have power to incorporate one other banking institution, calculated to aid and promote the great agricultural interests of the country; and the faith and credit of the State may be pledged to raise the funds necessary to carry into operation the two banks herein specified : Provided, such security can be given by the individual stockholders as will guaranty the State against loss or injury.
2. All freemen, when they form a social compact, have equal rights; and no man, or set of men, is entitled to exclusive, separate, public emoluments or privileges, but in consideration of public services. ,
3. No religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust in this State.
4. All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship God according to the dictates of their own consciences; no man shall be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship, or to maintain any ministry against his consent; no human authority ought, in any case whatever, to control or interfere with the rights of conscience in matters of religion, and no preference shall ever be given by law to any religious societies or modes of worship. But it shall be the duty of the Legislature to pass such laws as shall be necessary to protect every religious denomination in the peaceable enjoyment of their own mode of public worship.
5. Every citizen shall be at liberty to speak, write, or publish his opinions on any subject, being responsible for the abuse of that privilege; and no law shall ever be passed curtailing the liberty of speech or of the press.
6. In prosecutions for the publication of papers investigating the official conduct of officers, or men in a public capacity, or where the matter published is proper for public information, the truth thereof may be given in evidence. And in all indictments for libels, the jury shall have a right to determine the law and the facts, under the direction of the court, as in other cases.
7. The people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and possessions, from all unreasonable seizures or searches; and no warrant to search any place, or to seize any person or thing, shall issue, without describing them as near as may be, nor without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation.
8. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall have a speedy public trial, by an impartial jury; he shall not be compelled to give evidence against himself; he shall have the right of being heard by himself or counsel or both; shall be confronted with the witnesses against him, and shall have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and no person shall be holden to answer for any criminal charge, but on indictment or information, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or offences against the laws regulating the militia.
9. All prisoners shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, unless for capital of fences, when the proof is evident or the presumption great; but this provision shall not be so construed as to prohibit bail after indictment found, upon an examination of the evidence by a judge of the Supreme or district court, upon the return of the writ of habeas corpus, returnable in the county where the offence is committed.
10. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, except when, in case of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.
11. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishment inflicted. All courts shall be open; and every person, for an injury done him in his lands, goods, person, or reputation, shall have remedy by due course of law.
12. No person, for the same offence, shall be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall a person be again put upon trial for the same offence after a verdict of not guilty; and the right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate.
13. Every citizen shall have the right to keep and bear arms in the lawful defense of himself and the State.
14. No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, retro-active law, or any law impairing the obligation of contracts, shall be made; and no person's property shall be taken or applied to public use, without adequate compensation being made, unless by the consent of such person.
15. No person shall ever be imprisoned for debt.
16. No citizen of this State shall be deprived of life, liberty, property, or privileges, outlawed, exiled, or in any manner disfranchised, except by due course of the law of the land.
17. The military shall at all times be subordinate to the civil autnority.
18. Perpetuities and monopolies are contrary to the genius of a free government, and shall never be allowed; nor shall the law of primogeniture or entailments ever be in force in this State.
19. The citizens shall have the right, in a peaceable manner, to assemble together for their common good, and to apply to those invested with the powers of government for redress of grievances, or other purposes, by petition, address, or remonstrance.
20. No power of suspending laws in this State shall be exercised, except by the Legislature or its authority.
21. To guard against transgressions of the high powers herein delegated, we declare that everything in this “bill of rights” is excepted out of the general powers of Government, and shall forever remain inviolate; and all laws conirary thereto, or to the following provisions, shall be void.
ARTICLE II. Sec. 1. The powers of the government of the State of Texas shall be divided into three distinct departments, and each of them be confined to a separate body of magistracy, to wit: those which are legislative, to one; those which are exécutive, to another; and those which are judicial to another; and no person, or collection of persons, being of one of those departments, shall exercise any power properly attached to either of the others, except in the instances herein expressly permitted.
ARTICLE III.- Legislative Department. Sec. 1. Every free male person who shall have attained the age of twentyone years, and who shall be a citizen of the United States, or who is, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution by the Congress of the United States, a citizen of the republic of Texas, and shall have resided in this State one year next preceding an election, and the last six months within the district, county, city, or town, in which he offers to vote (Indians not taxed, Africans and de scendants of Africans, excepted), shall be deemed a qualified elector; and should such qualified elector happen to be in any other county situated in the district in which he resides at the time of an election, he shall be permitted to vote for any district officer: provided, that the qualified electors shall be permitted to vote anywhere in the State for State officers: and provided, further, that no soldier, seaman, or marine, in the army or navy of the United States, shall be entitled to vote at any election created by this Constitution.
2. All free male persons over the age of twenty-one years (Indians not taxed, Africans and descendants of Africans, excepted), who shall have resided six months in Texas, immediately preceding the acceptance of this Constitution by the Congress of the United States, shall be deemed qualified electors.
3. Electors in all cases shall be privileged from arrest during their attendance at elections, and in going to and returning from the same, except in cases of treason, felony, or breach of the peace.
4. The legislative powers of this State shall be vested in two distinct branches; the one to be styled the Senate, and the other the House of Representatives, and both together the “Legislature of the State of Texas.” The style of all laws shall be, “Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Texas."
5. The members of the House of Representatives shall be chosen by the qualified electors, and their term of office shall be two years from the day of the general election; and the sessions of the Legislature shall be biennial, at such times as shall be prescribed by law.
6. No person shall be a representative, unless he be a citizen of the United States, or at the time of the adoption of this Constitution a citizen of the republic of Texas, and shall have been an inhabitant of this State two years next preceding his election, and the last year thereof a citizen of the county, city, or town for which he shall be chosen, and shall have attained the age of twentyone years at the time of his election.
7. All elections by the people shall be held at such time and places, in the