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that no man can, of right, be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship, or to maintain any minister against his consent; that no human authority can, in any case whatever, control or interfere with the rights of conscience; and that no preference shall ever be given, by law, to any religious establishment or mode of worship
4. That no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under this State.
5. That elections shall be free and equal.
7. That the people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and possessions, from unreasonable searches and seizures; and that general warrants, whereby an officer may be commanded to search suspected places, without evidence of the fact committed, or to seize any person or persons not named, whose offences are not particularly described and supported by evidence, are dangerous to liberty, and ought not to be granted.
8. That no free man shall be taken or imprisoned, or disseized of his freehold, liberties, or privileges, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any manner destroyed or deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by the judgment of his peers, or the law of the land.
9. That in all criminal prosecutions, the accused hath a right to be heard by himself and his counsel; to demand the nature and cause of the accusation against him, and to have a copy thereof; to meet the witnesses face to face; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and in prosecutions by indictment or presentment, a speedy public trial, by an impartial jury of the county or district in which the crime shall have been committed ; and shall not be compelled to give evidence against himself.
10. That no person shall, for the same offence, be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb.
11. That laws made for the punishment of facts committed previous to the existence of such laws, and by them only declared criminal, are contrary to the principles of a free government; wherefore no ex post facto law shall be made.
12. That no conviction shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture of éstate. The estate of such persons as shall destroy their own lives shall descend or vest as in case of natural death. If any person be killed by casualty, there shall be no forfeiture in consequence thereof.
13. That no person arrested or confined in jail, shall be treated with unnecessary rigor.
14. That no freeman shall be put to answer any criminal charge but by presentment, indictment, or impeachment.
15. That all prisoners shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, unless for capital offences, when the proof is evident or the presumption great. And the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in case of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.
16. That excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
17. That all courts shall be open; and every man, for an injury done him in his lands, goods, person, or reputation, shall have remedy by due course of law, and right and justice administered without sale, denial, or delay. Suits may be brought against the State in such manner, and in such courts, as the Legislature may, by law, direct.
18. That the person of a debtor, where there is not strong presumption of fraud, shall not be continued in prison after delivering up his estate for the benefit of his creditor or creditors, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.
19. That the printing presses shall be free to every person who undertakes to examine the proceedings of the Legislature, or of any branch or officer of government; and no law shall ever be made to restrain the right thereof. The free communication of thoughts and opinions is one of the invaluable rights of man, and every citizen may freely speak, write, and print on any subject, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty. But in prosecutions for the publication of papers investigating the official conduct of officers or men in public capacity, the truth thereof may be given in evidence; and in all indictments for libels, the jury shall have a right to determine the law and the facts, under the direction of the court, as in other criminal cases.
20. That no retrospective law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, shall be made.
21. That no man's particular services shall be demanded, or property taken, or applied to public use, without the consent of his representatives, or without just compensation being made therefor.
22. That perpetuities and monopolies are contrary to the genius of a free State, and shall not be allowed.
23. That the citizens have a right, in a peaceable manner, to assemble together, for their common good, to instruct their representatives, and to apply to those invested with the powers of government for redress of grievances or other proper purposes, by address or remonstrance.
24. That the sure and certain defense of a free people is a well regulated militia : and, as standing armies in time of peace are dangerous to freedom, they ought to be avoided, as far as the circumstances and safety of the community will admit; and that in all cases the military shall be kept in strict subordination to the civil authority.
25. That no citizen of this State, except such as are employed in the army of the United States, or militia in actual service, shall be subjected to corporeal punishment under the martial law.
26. That the free white men of this State have a right to keep and to bear arms for their common defense.
27. That no soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner prescribed by law.
28. That no citizen of this State shall be compelled to bear arms, provided he will pay an equivalent, to be ascertained by law.
29. That an equal participation of the free navigation of the Mississippi, is one of the inherent rights of the citizens of this State: it cannot, therefore, be conceded to any prince, potentate, power, person or persons whatever.
30. That no hereditary emoluments, privileges, or honors, shall ever be granted or conferred in this State.
31. That the limits and boundaries of this State be ascertained, it is declared they are as hereafter mentioned, that is to say: Beginning on the extreme height of the Stone mountain, at the place where the line of Virginia intersects it, in latitude thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes north; running thence along the extreme height of the said mountain to the place where Watauga river breaks through it; thence a direct course to the top of the Yellow mountain, where Bright's road crosses the same; thence along the ridge of said mountain between the waters of Doe river and the waters of Rock creek, to the place where the road crosses the Iron mountain ; from thence along the extreme height of said mountain, to the place where Nolichucky river runs through the same: thence to the top of the Bald mountain ; thence along the extreme height of said mountain, to the Painted Rock, on French Broad river; thence along the highest ridge of said mountain, to the place where it is called the Great Iron or Smoky mountain ; thence along the extreme height of said mountain, to the place where it is called Unicoi or Unaka mountain, between the Indian towns of Cowee and Old Chota; thence along the main ridge of the said mountain, to the southern boundary of this State, as described in the act of cession of North Carolina to the United States of America : and that all the territory, lands, and waters lying west of the said line, as before mentioned, and contained within the chartered limits of the State of North Carolina, are within the boundaries and limits of this State, over which the people have the right of exercising sovereignty and the right of soil, so far as is consistent with the Constitution of the United States, recognizing the articles of confederation the bill of rights, and Constitution of North Carolina, the cession act of the said State, and the ordinance of Congress for the government of the territory north-west of the Ohio: provided, nothing herein contained shall extend to affect the claim or claims of individuals, to any part of the soil which is recog. nized to them by the aforesaid cession act: and provided also, that the limits and jurisdiction of this State shall extend to any
other land and territory now acquired, or that may hereafter be acquired by compact or agreement with other States or otherwise, although such land and territory are not included within the boundaries here inbefore mentioned.
32. The people residing south of French Broad and Holston, between the rivers Tennessee and Big Pigeon, are entitled to the right of preemption and occupancy in that tract.
ARTICLE II. Sec. 1. The powers of the government shall be divided into three distinct departments; the legislative, executive and judicial.
2. No person or persons belonging to one of these departments shall exercise any of the powers properly belonging to either of the others, except in the cases herein directed or permitted.
3. The legislative authority of this State shall be vested in a General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives, both dependent on the people.
4. An enumeration of the qualified voters and an apportionment of the representatives in the General Assembly, shall be made in the year one thousand eight hundred and forty-one, and within every subsequent term of ten years.
5. The number of representatives shall, at the several periods of making the enumeration, be apportioned among the several counties or districts according to the number of qualified voters in each; and shall not exceed seventy-five, until the population of the State shall be one million and a-half; and shall never thereafter exceed ninetynine; provided, that any county having two-thirds of the ratio, shall be entitled to one member.
6. The number of senators shall, at the several periods of making the enumeration, be apportioned among the several counties or districts, according to the number of qualified electors in each, and shall not exceed one-third the number of representatives. In apportioning the senators among the different counties, the fraction that may be lost by any county or counties, in the apportionment of members to the House of Representatives, shall be made up to such county or counties in the Senate as near as may be practicable. When a district is composed of two or more counties. they shall be adjoining; and no county shall be divided in forming a district.
7. The first election for senators and representatives shall be held on the first Thursday in August, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-five; and forever thereafter, erections for members of the General Assembly shall be held once in two years, on the first Thursday in August; said elections shall terminate the same day.
8. The first session of the General Assembly shall commence on the first Monday in October, one thousand eight hundred and thirtyfive; and forever thereafter, the General Assembly shall meet on the first Monday in October next ensuing the election.
9. No person shall be a representative, unless he shall be a citizen of the United States of the age of twenty-one years, and shall have been a citizen of this State for three years, and a resident in the county he represents one year immediately preceding the election.
10. No person shall be a senator unless he shall be a citizen of the United States, of the age of thirty years, and shall have resided three years in this State, and one year in the county or district, immediately preceding the election. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be eligible to any office or place of trust, the appointment to which is vested in the executive or the General Assembly, except to the office of trustee of a literary institution.
11. The Senate and House of Representatives, when assembled, shall each choose a speaker and its other officers, be judges of the qualifications and election of its members, and sit upon its own adjournments from day to day. Two-thirds of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized by law to compel the attendance of absent members.
12. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member, but not a second time for the same offence; and shall have all other powers necessary for a branch of the Legislature of a free State.
13. Senators and representatives shall in all cases, except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during the session of the General Assembly, and in going to and returning from the same; and, for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.
14. Each house may punish by imprisonment, during its session, any person not a member, who shall be guilty of disrespect to the house, by any disorderly or contemptuous behavior in its presence.
15. When vacancies happen in either house, the Governor for the time being shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.
16. Neither house shall, during its session, adjourn without consent of the other for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.
17. Bills may originate in either house, but may be amended, altered, or rejected by the other.
18. Every bill shall be read once on three different days, and be passed each time in the house where it originated, before transmission to the other. No bill shall become a law, until it shall be read and passed on three different days in each house, and be signed by the respective speakers.
19. After a bill has been rejected, no bill containing the same substance shall be passed into a law during the same session.
20. The style of the laws of this State shall be, “ Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the Slate of Tennessee."
21. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and publish it, except such parts as the welfare of the State may require to be kept secret; the ayes and noes shall be taken in each house upon the final passage of every bill of a general character, and bills