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acters whom he introduces in his novels. Tbis is followed by the story of his connection with the stage, and his mad Chase for gold in the closing years of his life; and the volume closes with a valuable chapter on the bibliography of his works.

MAGAZINE OF ART. - The May number contains a copy of the painting “Home, Sweet Home," by P. Morris, A.R.A., as a frontispiece.-Syon House, by Eustace Balfour, with three engravings.—“A penny plain, and twopence colored,” by Robert Louis Stevenson, with fifteen engravings.-—“A Silent Coloquy, from the picture by Paul Stade.-A Greek Dressing Case, by Jane E. Harrison, with two engravings.—Pictures at Leeds, with five engravings.—The “Royal Academy” of China painting, by Cosmo Monkhouse, with six engravings.—The Lower Thames, by Aaron Watson, with six engravings.—The Lace School at Burano, by F. Mabel Robinson.—The Sword, by David Haunay, with eight engravings.—“By the Fire-side,” from the picture by J. N. Melis.— The chronicle of art.-American art notes.— Yearly subscription, $3.50. Single numbers, 35 cents. Cassell & Co. 739 Broadway.

THE Art Amateur concludes its fifth year with the May number. Notable features are the frontispiece, “Morning Prayer," from C. S. Pearce's Salon picture ; the profusely illustrated article on the National Academy Exhibition, and the first of a series of articles on “The Modern Home,” treating of the vestibule and hall. Louis Leloir and George Fuller, artists recently deceased, receive appreciative biographical notice. The work of Solon, a famous French ceramic artist, is described and illustrated. Other articles of interest are on spurious old faience, the drawings of the old masters, the Pastel Exhibition, and “How we Lost the Castellani Collection.” The supplement sheets include designs for monograms, jewelry, wood-carving, etched and hammered brass, and china paintings, (pansies, roses and rhododendron for vase and tiles); a pomegranate design from South Kensington for an embroidered screen, and a child's head in color from a drawing by P. A. Wille. With the May number The Art Amateur is to be introduced in England, after the manner of Harper's and the Century. Price, $4.00 per year; single numbers, 35 cents. Montague Marks, Publisher, 23 Union Square, New York.

THE

NEW ENGLAND ER.

No. CLXXXI.

JULY, 1884.

ARTICLE I.-CIVIL SERVICE REFORM.

Much has been accomplished, but much more remains to be done by the Civil Service Reformers. President Hayes (seconded by Carl Schurz as Secretary of the Interior), gave them bis hearty and vigorous assistance. President Garfield would have done the same if his life had been spared. President Arthur made a change for the better in his course and conduct towards them, after the New York election of November, 1882.

In 1880, there were signs of a great awakening in the public mind on the subject of administrative reform. Undoubtedly Dorman B. Eaton's book on the Civil Service in Great Britain contributed largely to this revival. In the fall of 1880, the Civil Service Reform Association of New York City started anew, and reorganized itself, with George William Curtis as President, and Everett P. Wheeler as Chairman of its Executive Committee. This committee set to work in good earnest and framed two bills to be laid before Congress. They were drafted by Mr. Eaton. No man in the country was better VOL. VII.

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competent to perform this difficult task. No man had studied the subject in all its details more diligently, or mastered it more thoroughly or discussed it at greater length. One of these bills provided for open competitive examinations for admission to certain branches of the subordinate Civil Service, and the other prohibited political assessments.

Both were introduced into the Senate on the 10th day of January, 1881. In February, Mr. Eaton and Mr. Wheeler, the one being a Republican and the other a Democrat, were sent on to Washington to see if they could find anybody there who would hear what they had to say about these bills. There were two geotlemen in Congress, both Democrats, who had become interested in the reform of the Civil Service, and who looked with compassion and sympathy upon the strangers from New York. They were Senator Pendleton of Ohio, and Representative Willis of Kentucky. The two bills bad been referred to a select committee of the Senate, of which Mr. Pendleton, though not formally the chairman, appears to have been the active member. Eaton and Wheeler had a hearing before this committee. When they came back to New York to make report of what they had seen and done, it was as if a couple of missionaries had just returned from the heathen. They brought good news. At least they thought so. They had been listened to with patience and courtesy. That of itself was encouraging. But more than this, Senator Pendleton bad concluded to put aside a bill of his own, to adopt in its place that one of the reformers that provided for competitive examinations, and to report it back to the Senate with an earnest recommendation for its passage. This was done on the 16th of February, and this bill was afterwards known as the “Pendleton bill." But nothing further was heard of it that winter. Congress was fast drawing to a close, and on the 4th of March, President Hayes was to retire and President Garfield to be inaugurated. The Congressional Record of that session covers 2472 closely printed pages, but no speech or utterance of any kind about Civil Service Reform, either pro or con, can be found in this vast mass of Congressional verbiage. So deaf to the voice of public opinion and so blind to the signs of the times, were the men who composed the Forty-Sixth Congress.

The next two years brought about a wonderful change. On the 16th of January, 1883, the Pendleton bill, in an amended form, having passed both houses of Congress, was approved by President Arthur. He appointed as Civil Service Comınissioners, to aid him in carrying out the new statute, Dorman B. Eaton of New York, John M. Gregory, of Illinois, and Leroy D. Thoman, of Ohio. In February last, the President transmitted to Congress the first annual report of this Commission. It affords an opportunity to observe the practical operation of the new merit system of making appointments, as contrasted with the old spoils system. The first thing that we notice is the extremely limited application of the new statute. None of the post-masters, of whom the number is no less than 48,434, are affected by it in respect to their tenure of office or their salaries. Nor does it touch the mode of appointing any of the officers of the government, the appointment of whom is confirmed by the Senate. Senatorial patronage therefore, so far as regards the power of confirmation, is as yet undisturbed. Persons employed as laborers or workmen are also expressly excepted from the operation of the act.

There are only three branches of the service that have thus far been subjected to the new system of appointment. The first embraces 5,652 clerkships and other places in the executive departments at Washington, with salaries not exceeding $1800 and not less than $900 per annum. The second em. braces 2,573 places, with salaries varying from $900 to $1800 or over, in those customs districts, where the number of such places in each, are "all together as many as fifty.” There are only eleven such districts, to wit: Boston, Portland, Burling. ton, New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, New Orleans, Detroit, Port Huron, Chicago and San Francisco. Thirdly, the reformed system applies to 5,699 clerks and other employees in those post offices, where the whole number of such clerks and employees in each, “together amount to as many as fifty." There are twenty-three such post-offices and they are as follows: Boston, Providence, New York City, Brooklyn, Albany, Rochester, Buffalo, Newark, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, Washington, New Orleans, Louisville, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, Indianapolis, Chicago, St. Louis, Milwaukee, Kansas City, and San Francisco. Add together the pumber of places as above stated, in the departments at Washington and in the customs service and postal service, and you have an aggregate of 13,924. According to the Report of the Commis. sion, there has been a subsequent increase, so as to carry the number above 14,000. Stated then in round numbers, ibere are 14,000 clerks and other employees of the Government, who have been brought under the protection of the civil service act, and who hold their places independently of politics, politicians or political influences. This fact shows a good begin. ning. The authors of the Pendleton bill never expected from it as its immediate result any thing more than such a begin. ning. They were practical men and not such visionary theorists as they were often represented to be. They might easily have projected a measure of reform that would have been far more sweeping and radical. But they were dealing with the subject before them from a practical point of view, and they rejected all such radical propositions and suggestions as chimerical. They saw plainly that it would be impracticable to induce Congressmen to surrender all their patronage at a single stroke. They said to themselves : “This is a reform that may be accomplished gradually. We can not do every thing all at once. We will first make an experiment, and the American people shall see how it works. We will select and set off by themselves a few sections or branches of the Civil Service. We will cut them off from all connection with the spoils system, and from the partisan and machine politics of the day, and we will put them under the operation of the merit system.” And this is what has been done by the civil service act.

Some of the other features of the reformed system in actual practice can only be touched upon in the fewest words possible. According to the Report of the Commission, the whole number of applicants examined was 3,542. The number of those who were successful, having been graded above the minimum of sixty-five (the figure for the maximum of complete proficiency being 100) was 2,044. Of these, the number appointed to the service during the period of six months from July 16, 1883 (until which date the old methods of appointment were

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