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is' abreast with the latest investigations. The narrative is objective and impartial. There is little expression of opinion in matters respecting which there is religious or political disagreement.

It is not a fault of this book that it is eminently unreadable; for it was not designed to be read continuously. It is a mass of notes to serve as a basis of lectures and as a book of reference. The copious index is thus an extremely useful addition. We can cordially commend this volume as likely to be of great service to teachers of history in schools of a higher grade.

Politics.*_ This book is intended to be a philosophical treatise on the science of politics, treating of the structure and develop ment of the State as an organism for the concentration and distribution of the political power of the nation. It enters not at all into any ethical questions, for the nation per se has no moral character. The book treats of the origin of the nation, the organs which it uses, the force of the nation and how it is developed and applied. One chapter is devoted to the early impulses to uvity in the British colonies in America. The authors treat also of the conditions and tendency of normal political growth and of the tendency of power in the United States, in which an interesting statement is given of the arguments of the secessionists and their opponents previous to the war of the rebellion. Covering so much ground as it does, the treatise is necessarily condensed, and this book will not take the place of Dr. Mulford's elaborate work “ The Nation.” The writers seem to bave made good use of the labors of their predecessors in the same field of research, differing from them, when need be, and strengthening their own positions by the authority of previous writers in some cases.

The subject is treated entirely in the abstract, and this is not relieved by much grace of style.

A CATHOLIC DICTIONARY.|- This work has the sanction of a triple imprimatur. Prefixed is the approval of E. S. Keogh, “Cen

* Politics : An introduction to the study of comparative constitutional law. By WILLIAM W. CRANE and BERNARD MOSES, Ph.D., Professor of History and Political Economy in the University of California. G. P. Putnam's Sons: New York and London. 1884.

+ A Catholic Dictionary, containing some account of the Doctrine, Discipline, Rites. Ceremonies, Councils, and Religious Orders of the Catholic Church. By WnLIAN E. Addis, and THOMAS ARNOLD), M. A. New York: Catholic Publication Society. 1884.

We regret

sor Deputatus,” Archbishop Manning, and Archbishop MoCloskey. It is, therefore, an orthodox book according to Roman Catholic standards. We are told in the Preface that besides corrections, there are other “alterations” in the American Edition. that these “alterations” are not so marked in the text that the reader may see their nature and extent. The work, while not going profoundly into the subjects involved, is intelligently written, is instructive and interesting. It is a very convenient hand-book; in point of candor, it is up to the level of the average books comprised in Protestant theology. The article on Galileo explains pretty fully and freely the facts of the case, but argues that there

, was no ex-cathedra decision against the motion of the earth. In the article on “The Inquisition " it is asserted that no Catholic, since the encyclicals and allocutions of Pius IX., can take the ground that punishments ought not to be inflicted—that is, penalties involving force and what is called "persecution"-on beretics and revolters. This is, surely, a lamentable fact, and Catholics have no occasion to thank Pius IX. for this hateful doctrine, which men like Fleury, condemned.

BALZAC.*_ The author of this modest little volume makes no pretension of having given anything like a full exhibition of the life and genius of the extraordinary man whose name appears as its title. To do this would be impossible in a thin duodecimo, for in any broad view of the history of the modern novel no figure stands out more prominent than that of Balzac. He is not only--for good or ill--the prince of modern French novelists, but the father of all who have since distinguished themselves in realistic fiction. The events of his own life, too, were crowded with incident, and are almost as full of interest as those in the career of any one of the personages who owe to him their creation. The author of this "study” of Balzac, as it might appropriately be called, seems thoroughly at home in the literature of his subject, and has at command a style which is easy, flowing, and never heavy. The book is arranged in six chapters. In the first it briefly sketches the early life of Balzac. In the second there is a concise and intelligible account of the gigantic work which he undertook and of course left incompletethe human comedy, which was no less than an attempt to illustrate every conceivable passion in the human heart by some one of the innumerable characters whom he introduces in his novels. This is followed by the story of his connection with the stage, and his mad Chuse for gold in the closing years of his life; and the volume closes with a valuable chapter on the bibliography of his works.

* Balzac. By EDGAR EVERTSON SALTUS. 12mo, pp. 199. Boston ; Houghton, Mifflin & Co.

MAGAZINE OF ART. — The May number contains a copy of the painting “Home, Sweet Home," by P. Morris, A.R.A., as a frontispiece.-Syon House, by Eustace Balfour, with three en gravings.—“A penny plain, and two pence colored,” by Robert Louis Stevenson, with fifteen engravings.-“A Silent Coloquy," from the picture by Paul Stade.-A Greek Dressing Case, by Jane E. Harrison, with two engravings.-Pictures at Leeds, with five engravings.—The “Royal Academy” of China painting, by Cosmo Monkhouse, with six engravings.—The Lower Thames, by Aaron Watson, with six engravings.—The Lace School at Burano, by F. Mabel Robinson.— The Sword, by David Hannay, with eight engravings.“ By the Fire-side,” from the picture by J. N. Melis. The chronicle of art.-American art notes.-Yearly subscription, $3.50. Single numbers, 35 cents. Cassell & Co. 739 Broadway.

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The ART AMATEUR concludes its fifth year with the May number, Notable features are the frontispiece, “Morning Prayer," from C. S. Pearce's Salon picture ; the profusely illustrated article on the National Academy Exhibition, and the first of a series of articles on “The Modern Home,” treating of the vestibule and hall. Louis Leloir and George Fuller, artists recently deceased, receive appreciative biographical notice. The work of Solon, a famous French ceramic artist, is described and illustrated. Other articles of interest are on spurious old faience, the drawings of the old masters, the Pastel Exhibition, and “How we Lost the Castellani Collection." The supplement sheets include designs for monograms, jewelry, wood-carving, etched and hammered brass, and china paintings, (pansies, roses and rhododendron for vase and tiles); a pomegranate design from South Kensington for an embroidered screen, and a child's head in color from a drawing by P. A. Wille. With the May number The Art Amateur is to be introduced in England, after the manner of Harper's and the Century. Price, $4.00 per year; single numbers, 35 cents. Montague Marks, Publisher, 23 Union Square, New York.

THE

NEW ENGLAND ER.

No. CLXXXI.

JULY, 1884.

ARTICLE I.-CIVIL SERVICE REFORM.

Much has been accomplished, but much more remains to be done by the Civil Service Reformers. President Hayes (seconded by Carl Schurz as Secretary of the Interior), gave them his hearty and vigorous assistance. President Garfield would have done the same if his life had been spared. President Arthur made a change for the better in his course and conduct towards them, after the New York election of November, 1882

In 1880, there were signs of a great awakening in the public mind on the subject of administrative reform. Undoubtedly Dorman B. Eaton's book on the Civil Service in Great Britain contributed largely to this revival. In the fall of 1880, the Civil Service Reform Association of New York City started anew, and reorganized itself, with George William Curtis as President, and Everett P. Wheeler as Chairman of its Executive Committee. This committee set to work in good earnest and framed two bills to be laid before Congress. They were drafted by Mr. Eaton. No man in the country was better VOL. VII.

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competent to perform this difficult task. No man bad studied the subject in all its details more diligently, or mastered it more thoroughly or discussed it at greater length. One of these bills provided for open competitive examinations for admission to certain branches of the subordinate Civil Service, and the other prohibited political assessments.

Both were introduced into the Senate on the 10th day of January, 1881. In February, Mr. Eaton and Mr. Wheeler, the one being a Republican and the other a Democrat, were sent on to Washington to see if they could find anybody there who would hear what they had to say about these bills. There were two gentlemen in Congress, both Democrats, who had become interested in the reform of the Civil Service, and who looked with com. passion and sympathy upon the strangers from New York. They were Senator Pendleton of Ohio, and Representative Willis of Kentucky. The two bills bad been referred to a select committee of the Senate, of which Mr. Pendleton, though not formally the chairman, appears to have been the active member. Eaton and Wheeler had a hearing before this com

. mittee. When they came back to New York to make report of what they had seen and done, it was as if a couple of missionaries had just returned from the heathen. They brought good news. At least they thought so. They had been listened to with patience and courtesy. That of itself was encouraging. But more than this, Senator Pendleton bad concluded to put aside a bill of his own, to adopt in its place that one of the reformers that provided for competitive examinations, and to report it back to the Senate with an earnest recommendation for its passage. This was done on the 16th of February, and this bill was afterwards known as the “Pendleton bill." But nothing further was heard of it that winter. Congress was fast drawing to a close, and on the 4th of March, President Hayes was to retire and President Garfield to be inaugurated. The Congressional Record of that session covers 2472 closely printed pages, but no speech or utterance of any kind about Civil Service Reform, either pro or con, can be found in this vast mass of Congressional verbiage. So deaf to the voice of public opinion and so blind to the signs of the times, were the men who composed the Forty-Sixth Congress.

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