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evils because their representative sinned. This explanation is not only exposed to the objection that it contravenes our ordinary ideas of justice—an objection which, if not absolutely fatal, at least throws a strong presumption against it, and impels us to search for some more reasonable account of the meaning—but is also inconsistent with the universal sense of the verb [Gen. xliii. 9, xliv. 32; I. Kings i. 21, the only passages which are even claimed as exceptions, not being properly applicable to the case in hand], and is directly contradicted by what is said in vv. 18, 19. Dr. Shedd who favors the view of actual participation, says of this mode of interpreting the words : “The clause is introduced to justify the infliction of death upon all men. But it makes an infliction more inexplicable, rather than less so, to say that it is visited upon those who did not commit the sin that caused the death, but were fictitiously and gratuitously regarded as if they had.' (Com. on Rom., p. 125.)

The reader may be referred to the commentaries of these two writers, opposing each other, for a satisfactory refutation of the views of both. We are led, accordingly, by the failure of the literal explanation to ask for another. And here we notice that Paul repeatedly uses the aorist tense in a semi-figurative or figurative sense, in cases analogous to the present. In the next chapter, vv. 4, 6, 8, he says that he and his Christian readers were buried with Christ, that their old man was crucified with Him, that they died with him. Gal. ii. 20, he declares that he had been crucified with Christ. In passages like these he does not mean that the Roman believer, who became a Christian, perbaps many years after the death of Jesus, was actually put on the cross with Him and participated in His dying. He means, simply, that by reason of his becoming a believer, and whenever he does so, any person is, ipso facto, so closely united with Jesus that it is as if he had been actually placed on His cross.

In a similar sense,

the posterity of Adam sinned in his sin.”

PROFESSOR H. B. SMITH's SysTEM OF CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY.* --Professor Karr has done a good work in preparing for the press, from manuscripts unfinished and, in part, fragmentary, very valuable writings of one of the foremost of American philosophers and theologians. The small volumes which he has

Syster of Christian Theology. By HENRY B. SMITH, D.D., LL.D. Edited by
S. KARR, D.D., Professor, etc. New York: A. C. Armstrong & Co. 1884.

previously issued were stored with important thoughts, expressed in the terse and compact style for which Professor Smith was distinguished. The present, more copious work, is the edifice to which those volumes formed the vestibule. If the larger structure, from one point of view, is in a degree disappointing, it is owing to the imperfection of the materials, or their imperfect condition. The reader cannot avoid the regret that the honored author did not live to elaborate and complete, with his own hand, the building upon which he bad expended so much thought and time. We are thankful, however, for the work as it stands, —a work which is indebted for its issue to the industry and skill of the editor. Professor Smith's theme is Redemption. This be rightly makes the subject of Christian Theology. In the First Division, be considers “the Antecedents of Redemption,"-God and the Trinity; Cosmology, or Creation, Decrees, Providence, and the Theodicy ; Anthropology, the doctrine of Man and of Sin. The Second Division relates to the Person and the Work of Christ. In the Third Division, the Kingdom of Redemption, are comprised Justification, Regeneration, etc., together with Eschatology. Everywhere we find quickening suggestions and acute discussions. The ample learning of the author is used for the service of the reader and not for ornament. Occasionally we meet with passages which, we are sure, Professor Smith would not have left in their present form. For example, after arguing against Dr. N. W. Taylor's position respecting the non-prevention of sin, he proceeds to positive statements of his own; and (p. 155) he says: “If God should prevent sin by omnipotence or exclude it wholly, this might diminish the capabilities of boliness (and of course of happiness also) in the system.” This is precisely Dr. Taylor's doctrine and proposition. If Dr. Taylor, , therefore, is opposed on this topic it must be through a misconception. On one subject, we are somewhat surprised at a remark by the editor in a foot-note. He says (p. 317) of Professor Smith: “ It is a question whether he did not intend to make some final statements wbich would bring out more distinctly the proper federal headship of Adam on the basis of the natural headship.” We always understood Professor Smith to be a strenuous opposer of the theory which is here referred to. Federal headship on the basis of natural headship is the view of the Princeton theologians. This view Professor Smith never manifested, as far as we have known, any disposition to favor.

CLARKE's “The IDEAS OF THE APOSTLE Paul.”—This volume has many claims to attention and respect. Its author is a man of ripe experience as a minister. He is religious in his tone and spirit. He is a scholar of excellent attainments. He is well acqnainted with the theological literature of the day. He is a careful student of the New Testament. Scattered along its pages are many thoughts which are adapted to interest and to profit readers of theological opinions diverse from his own. Illustrations of religious truth, gathered from wide reading, are unostentatiously introduced. It is an honest book. Nor are we disposed to magnify the differences of interpretation between the writer and those who are commonly termed orthodox. Yet these differences are important. Ideas are attributed to Paul which we do not think that he cherished. That the Apostle held and asserted the preëxistence of Christ and his divinity, we hold to be the inevitable conclusion of a sound and fair exegesis. So, the “reconciliation” of which the Apostle speaks is a change in the relation of God to men. Dr. Clarke's interpretation of the pertinent passages is contrary to the judgment of such exegetes as Meyer and Weiss, and contrary, in our judgment, to the real tenor and intent of the Apostle's argument.

PLOETZ'S EPITOME OF UNIVERSAL History.* _Dr. Ploetz's work consists of full, methodized notes extending over the whole field of history. After a statement of the principal divisions of universal history, there follow compendious accounts both of the eastern and the western peoples which figure in the ancient period. Mediæval history, beginning with the emigration of the northern tribes and extending to the discovery of America by Columbus, is next in order. Modern bistory embraces four sections, the first terminating at the peace of Westphalia in 1648; the second covering the second half of the 17th century and the 18th century to the French Revolution; the third including the French Revolution and Napoleonic wars; the fourth comprising the interval from 1815 to the present. The American editor has introduced important improvements,-principally in the history of England and America, which has been entirely rewritten. The pages are besprinkled with dates; the notes are well stored with valuable references to authorities. In its contents the work is' abreast with the latest investigations. The narrative is objective and impartial. There is little expression of opinion in matters respecting which there is religious or political disagree ment.

* Epitome of Ancient, Mediæval and Modern History. By CARL PLOETZ. Translated with extensive additions by WILLIAM TILLINGHAST. Boston: Houghton, Mifilin & Co. 1884.

It is not a fault of this book that it is eminently unreadable ; for it was not designed to be read continuously. It is a mass of notes to serve as a basis of lectures and as a book of reference. The copious index is thus an extremely useful addition. cordially commend this volume as likely to be of great service to teachers of history in schools of a higher grade.

Politics.*_This book is intended to be a philosophical treatise on the science of politics, treating of the structure and develop ment of the State as an organism for the concentration and distribution of the political power of the nation. It enters not at all into any ethical questions, for the nation per se has no moral character. The book treats of the origin of the nation, the organs which it uses, the force of the nation and how it is developed and applied. One chapter is devoted to the early impulses to uvity in the British colonies in America. The authors treat also of the conditions and tendency of normal political growth and of the tendency of power in the United States, in which an interesting statement is given of the arguments of the secessionists and their opponents previous to the war of the rebellion. Covering so much ground as it does, the treatise is necessarily condensed, and this book will not take the place of Dr. Mulford's elaborate work “ The Nation.” The writers seem to have made good use of the labors of their predecessors in the same field of research, differing from them, when need be, and strengthening their own positions by the authority of previous writers in some cases.

The subject is treated entirely in the abstract, and this is not relieved by much grace of style.

A CATHOLIC DICTIONARY. - This work has the sanction of a triple imprimatur. Prefixed is the approval of E. S. Keogh, "Censor Deputatus," Archbishop Manning, and Archbishop McCloskey. It is, therefore, an orthodox book according to Roman Catholic standards. We are told in the Preface that besides corrections, there are other “alterations” in the American Edition. We regret that these “alterations” are not so marked in the text that the reader may see their nature and extent. The work, while not going profoundly into the subjects involved, is intelligently written, is instructive and interesting. It is a very convenient hand-book ; in point of candor, it is ap to the level of the average books comprised in Protestant theology. The article on Galileo explains pretty fully and freely the facts of the case, but argues that there was no ex-cathedra decision against the motion of the earth. In the article on “The Inquisition " it is asserted that no Catholic, since the encyclicals and allocutions of Pius IX., can take the ground that punishments ought not to be inflicted-that is, penalties involving force and what is called "persecution "-on beretics and revolters. This is, surely, a lamentable fact, and Catholics bave no occasion to thank Pius IX. for this hateful doctrine, which men like Fleury, condemned.

* Politics : An introduction to the study of comparative constitutional law. By WILLIAM W. CRANE and BERNARD MOSES, Ph.D., Professor of History and Political Economy in the University of California. G. P. Putnam's Sons: New York and London, 1884.

+ A Catholic Dictionary, containing some account of the Doctrine, Discipline, Rites, Ceremonies, Councils, and Religious Orders of the Catholic Church. By WILLIAM E. ADDIs, and THOMAS ARNOLD, M. A. New York: Catholic Publication Society. 1884.

BALZAC.*_ The author of this modest little volume makes no pretension of having given anything like a full exhibition of the life and genius of the extraordinary man whose name appears as its title. To do this would be impossible in a thin duodecimo, for in any broad view of the history of the modern novel no figure stands out more prominent than that of Balzac. He is not only-for good or ill—the prince of modern French novelists, but the father of all who have since distinguished themselves in realistic fiction. The events of his own life, too, were crowded with incident, and are almost as full of interest as those in the career of any one of the personages who owe to him their creation. The author of this study” of Balzac, as it might appropriately be called, seems thoroughly at home in the literature of his subject, and has at command a style which is easy, flowing, and never heavy. The book is arranged in six chapters. In the first it briefly sketches the early life of Balzac. In the second there is a concise and intelligible account of the gigantic work which he undertook and of course left incompletethe human comedy, which was no less than an attempt to illustrate every conceivable passion in the human heart by some one of the innumerable char

* Balzac. By EDGAR EVERTSON SALTUS. 12mo, pp. 199. Boston ; Houghton, Mimin & Co.

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