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he never obtained it. He was arrogant, presumptuous, and vain. He began his career in India by making enemies both of his own officers and of the native population. Still, in spite of these difficulties, the large force which he commanded enabled him to capture Fort St. David.

He had but an unfavorable opinion of Bussy and placed little value upon his achievements. That able officer was therefore recalled from the Deccan and the French cause thereby suffered great injury. It is pleasanter to read that six officers who arrived with Lally and who were of higher rank than Bussy, requested that he might be considered as their superior.

In the latter part of the year 1758 Lally began the siege of Madras. Although he displayed both bravery and military skill, be failed in his attempt. The French were now greatly in need of both money and supplies, and discipline could with difficulty be maintained. On January 22, 1760, after suffering many losses, they met Colonel Coote at Wandewash. Lally, under the impression that the enemy's line wavered, ordered bis cavalry to charge.

Neither officers nor obeyed. The infantry did better. Charging gallantly, they carried all before them, but, unsupported, fell back. The Sepoys refused to fight. Bussy was taken prisoner and Lally was forced to retreat.

The victorious English now captured in rapid succession posts still held by the French and finally besieged Pondicherry. Lally made brave resistance, but in January, 1761, was forced to surrender. Returning to France he was thrown into prison, tried, and, most unjustly, condemned to death. On the 5th of April Gingee surrendered, and the French had no longer a military post in India.

One of the last to surrender was Law, a man who had val. iantly demeaned himself in manifold difficulties. With but a few of his countrymen he took part in a battle in which the English were victors. Knowing the French cause in India to be now hopeless, and disdaining to flee, he grimly mounted astride a cannon and awaited the end.

Examples of such pathetic desperation are rare, and yet the attitude is not without an element of the ludicrous. The English commander,


with several officers, hearing of Law's strange freak, ride up and dismount. Respectfully saluting him they compliment his bravery and request the surrender of his sword. The Frenchman, careless of life, is not willing to surrender if he is to be deprived of his sword. The point is at once yielded, and Law is placed in the English commander's private palankeen. Appreciating a brave man's feeling inquisitive visitors are not allowed to see him. A native, high in authority, speaks slightingly of the captive, but is at once sternly rebuked. “The age of chivalry is gone!" exclaims Burke, but we must still believe that so late as 1761 the spirit of chivalry was not entirely extinct, when we see a modern and less exalted Black Prince making captive of a modern and less exalted King John; treating him with the utmost courtesy; and, to further soothe him, praising highly his martial exploits.

By the Treaty of Paris the stations which had been possessed by France at the beginning of 1749 were restored. It was but a few years, however, before the French Company ceased to exist. War again broke out between France and England. In 1778 Pondicherry, after a most resolute defence, was again captured, and in 1779 the French were again without a settlement in India.

Hyder Ali, a native ruler whose abilities were of the highest order, suddenly poured an immense army into the Carnatic, and it was decided to send a French force to join him against the English. Early 'in 1782 some two thousand Frenchmen were landed at Porto Novo. Before the close of the year, Suffren, the French naval commander, a man possessed of in. domitable courage and rare capacity for command, sustained four conflicts with the English fleet.

At Madras the condition of affairs was for a time pitiable. The troops of Hyder Ali had spread themselves over the sur rounding country, and great numbers of the inhabitants filed to the English settlement for protection. It was impossible to obtain supplies, and a terrible famine ensued.

In December, 1782, Hyder Ali died; but soon after, Bussy, who had formerly so distinguished himself, arrived with re. enforcements from France and landed at Fort St. David. He was now old, and weakened by disease. Outnumbered by the

English he still fought a furious battle, but soon found himself blockaded between a hostile army and fleet. The English fleet, however, fiercely attacked by Suffren, was forced to seek safety at Madras. Again did the prospects of the French brighten, but whether any permanent advantages could now have been gained in face of the firmly established power of England can never be known. News of peace between France and England put an end to strife, and India remained in the possession of the English. The French were allowed to hold a few settlements, and were granted the valuable privilege of surrounding Chandernagore with a ditch sufficient for purposes of drainage.

While Lord Cornwallis, whose surrender at Yorktown bad compelled the recognition of the United States as a nation, was Governor-General of India, hostilities once more began between the French and English, and the unfortunate French settlements were again seized. To a subsequent GovernorGeneral, the Marquis Wellesley, the security of the English possessions seemed to be dangerously menaced by the existence of a body of troops, officered by Frenchmen, in the service of a native prince who was half a subject, half an ally, of the English. The Frenchmen were therefore compelled to return to Europe. In 1799 an embassy was sent by Wellesley to Persia, and besides a number of other very valuable concessions, it was provided that not only was no French army to be allowed to enter any Persian possession, but that the Persian governors were to be free to slay any individual Frenchman who might enter their provinces.

The Mahrattas who opposed the operations of General Lake in 1803, were largely officered by Frenchmen; at the battle of Delhi a Frenchman commanded ; and Frenchmen commanded a considerable part of the large force with which, on that memorable 23d of September, Wellington, with but a small number of troops, was so unexpectedly confronted on the field of Assaye; when, knowing that while it was dangerous to risk an attack it was even more dangerous to attempt a retreat, the future victor of Waterloo gloriously charged upon the enemy and gloriously won.

It has been supposed that the French invasion of Egypt in 1798 was an endeavor to carry out the plan which Leibnitz had presented to Louis the Fourteenth. The execution of such a plan required the possession of a fleet, but while Louis had possessed one not excelled by those of England or Holland, that of Napoleon on the other hand was weak and inefficient, and the Battle of the Nile put an end to French designs in the East, as the Battle of Trafalgar a few years later destroyed the last hope of an invasion of England.

In 1815 France was again granted possession of a few settlements, which are still retained.

Great has been the decline of the French colonial power. In North America the possessions of France which the perse: vering zeal of French missionaries and the impetuous energy of French explorers first laid open to European eyes, were of vast extent. A few fishing stations on the dreary coast of Newfoundland still serve to keep in remembrance the fact, that bold Frenchmen once laid claim, in the name of their sove. reign, to the territory surrounding the Great Lakes and to the immense tract drained by the Mississippi and its tributaries. In India the French gained control of large provinces ; princes became subject to them; millions looked up to them with fear; vast treasures were at their command; it seemed as if little was needed to attain as complete an ascendancy as that which the English have since acquired. But their possessions have dwindled to a few trading stations, and, in place of reports of provinces conquered, of rulers yielding homage to the succes. sors of Charlemagne, come bulletins of trade at Chandernagore; of the exports of Pondicherry; or notes on the commerce of Karikal.

Cleveland, Ohio.



BY "Nature,” for present purposes, is understood the mate. rial universe, including all phenomena with which the nonmetaphysical sciences deal-the whole body, one might perhaps say, of concrete truth, about which, so far as satisfactory investigation has been pushed, we feel positively sure; the actual facts, excluding all hypotheses which are from their nature incapable of demonstration. By “orthodoxy” (neg. lecting the etymology of the word), is meant a certain system of belief on subjects in regard to which neither the senses nor pure reason can furnish any direct testimony—the common opinion of the so-called "evangelical ” churches. This system of belief indubitably includes, among others, the following points :

1. That all men, everywhere, incline naturally to evil rather than to good; and that no one makes persistent progress toward a strictly virtuous life without supernatural assistance.

2. That man, nevertheless, is entirely free in his choices as a moral agent, and is therefore responsible for all his deeds; and yet that God not only foreknows to the minutest particular whatever comes to pass, but also so directs the course of events as to work out fully his own will, both in the general history of nations and in the personal life of every human being.

3. That the sins of the fathers are visited upon the children, to the third and fourth generation.

4. That man's eternal well-being depends upon his comply. ing with certain conditions which are stated in a number of ancient manuscripts, written in languages that no man for centuries has ordinarily spoken, and for the most part not explicitly formulated even in these writings, but expressed in general terms, or left largely to be inferred by the reader, in such manner that there is wide room for differences of opinion on many not unimportant points.

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