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the Pacific ports by means of steam navigation, engages to accord to any citizen or citizens of the United States, who may establish a line of steam-vessels to navigate regularly between the different ports and bays of the coasts of the Bolivian territory, the same privileges of taking in and landing freight and cargo, entering the by-ports for the purpose of receiving and landing passengers and their baggage and money, carrying the public mails, establishing depots for coal, erecting the necessary machine and workshops for repairing and refitting the steam-vessels, and all other favors enjoyed by any other association or company whatsoever of the same character. It is furthermore understood between the two high contracting parties that the steam-vessels of either shall not be subject, in the ports of the other party, to any duties of tonnage, harbor, or other similar duties whatsoever than those that are or may be paid by any other association or company.

ART. 9. Whenever the citizens of either of the contracting parties shall be forced to seek refuge or asylum in the rivers, ports, or dominions of the other with their vessels, whether merchant or of war, through stress of weather, pursuit of pirates or enemies, they shall be received and treated with humanity, giving to them all favor and protection for repairing their ships and placing themselves in a situation to continue their voyage, without obstacles or hindrance of any kind. And the provisions of this article shall apply to privateers or private vessels-of-war as well as public, until the two high contracting parties may relinquish the right of that mode of warfare, in consideration of the general relinquishment of the right of capture of private property upon the high seas.

ART. 10. When any vessel belonging to the citizens of either of the contracting parties shall be wrecked, or shall suffer any damages in the seas, rivers, or channels, within the dominions of the other, there shall be given to them all assistance and protection, in the same manner which is usual and customary with the vessels of the nation where the damage happens, permitting them to unload the said vessel, if necessary, of its merchandise and effects, without exacting for it any duty, impost, or contribution whatever.

ART. 11. All the ships, merchandise, and the effects belonging to the citizens of one of the contracting parties, which may be captured by pirates, whether within the limits of its jurisdiction, or on the high seas, and may be carried or found in the rivers, roads, bays, ports, or dominions of the other, shall be delivered up to the owners, they proving, in due form, their rights before the competent tribunals; it being well understood that the claim should be made within the term of one year, by the parties themselves, their attorneys, or agents of their respective governments.

ART. 12. The citizens of each of the contracting parties shall have power to dispose of their personal goods within the jurisdiction of the other, by sale, dnation, testament, or otherwise; and their representatives, being citizens of the other party, shall succeed to their said personal goods, whether by testament or ab intestato, and they may take possession thereof, either by themselves or others acting for them, and dispose of the same at their will, paying such duties only as the inhabitants of the country where such goods are shall be subject to pay in like cases. And if, in the case of real estate, the said heirs would be prevented from entering into the possession of the inheritance on account of their character of aliens, there shall be granted to them the longest period allowed by the law to dispose of the same as they may think proper, and to withdraw the proceeds without molestation; nor any other charges than those which are imposed by the laws of the country.

ART. 13. Both the contracting parties promise and engage, formally, to give their special protection to the persons and property of the citizens of each other, of all occupations, who may be in the territories subject to the jurisdiction of the one or the other, transient or dwelling therein, leaving open and free to them the tribunals of justice, for their judicial recourse, on the same terms

which are usual and customary with the natives of the country; for which they may employ, in defence of their rights, such advocates, solicitors, notaries, agents, and factors as they may judge proper, in all their trials at law; and such citizens or agents shall have free opportunity to be present at the accusations and sentences of the tribunals in all cases which may concern them; and likewise at the taking of all examinations and evidence which may be exhibited on the said trials, in the manner established by the laws of the country. If the citizens of one of the contracting parties, in the territory of the other, engage in internal political questions, they shall be subject to the same measures of punishment and prosecution as the citizens of the country where they reside.

ART. 14. The citizens of the two contracting parties shall enjoy the full liberty of conscience in the countries subject to the jurisdiction of the one or the other, without being disturbed or molested on account of their religious opinions, provided they respect the laws and established customs of the country. And the bodies of the citizens of the one who may die in the territory of the other shall be interred in the public cemeteries, or in other decent places of burial, which shall be protected from all violation or insult by the local authorities.

ART. 15. It shall be lawful for the citizens of the United States of America, and of the republic of Bolivia, to sail with their ships, with all manner of liberty and security, no distinction being made who are the proprietors of the merchandises laden thereon, from any port to the places of those who now are, or hereafter shall be, at enmity with the contracting parties. It shall likewise be lawful for the citizens aforesaid to sail with their ships and merchandises before mentioned, and to trade with the same liberty and security, not only from places and ports of those who are enemies of both or either party, to the ports of the other, and to neutral places, but also from one place belonging to an enemy to another place belonging to an enemy, whether they be under the jurisdiction of one power or of several.

ART. 16. The two high contracting parties recognize as permanent and immutable the following principles, to wit:

1st. That free ships make free goods; that is to say, that the effects or goods. belonging to subjects or citizens of a power or state at war are free from capture or confiscation when found on board of neutral vessels, with the exception of articles contraband of war.

2d. That the property of neutrals on board an enemy's vessel is not subject to confiscation, unless the same be contraband of war.

The like neutrality shall be extended to persons who are on board a neutral ship, with this effect, that although they may be enemies to both, or either party, they are not to be taken out of that ship, unless they are officers or soldiers, and in the actual service of the enemy. The contracting parties engage to apply these principles to the commerce and navigation of all such powers and states as shall consent to adopt them as permanent and immutable.

ART. 17. This liberty of navigation and commerce shall extend to all kinds of merchandise, excepting those only which are distinguished by the name of contraband of war, and under this name shall be comprehended—

1st. Cannon, mortars, howitzers, swivels, blunderbusses, muskets, fuzes, rifles, carbines, pistols, pikes, swords, sabres, lances, spears, halberds, and grenades, bombs, powder, matches, balls, and all other things belonging to the use of these arms.

2d. Bucklers, helmets, breastplates, coats of mail, infantry belts, and clothes made up in the form and for a military use.

3d. Cavalry belts, and horses, with their furniture.

4th. And, generally, all kinds of arms, offensive and defensive, and instruments of iron, steel, brass, and copper, or any other materials, manufactured, prepared, and formed expressly to make war by sea or land.

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ART. 18. All other merchandises and things not comprehended in the articles of contraband explicitly enumerated and classified as above shall be held and considered as free, and subjects of free and lawful commerce, so that they may be carried and transported in the freest manner by the citizens of both the con tracting parties, even to places belonging to an enemy, excepting only those places which are at that time besieged or blockaded, and to avoid all doubt in this particular, it is declared that those places or ports only are besieged or blockaded which are actually attacked by a belligerent force capable of preventing the entry of the neutral.

ART. 19. The articles of contraband before enumerated and classified which may be found in a vessel bound to an enemy's port shall be subject to detention and confiscation, leaving free the rest of the cargo and the ship, that the owners may dispose of them as they see proper. No vessel of either of the two nations shall be detained on the high seas on account of having on board articles of contraband, whenever the master, captain, or supercargo of said vessel will deliver up the articles of contraband to the captor, unless the quantity of such articles be so great or of so large a bulk that they cannot be received on board the capturing ship without great inconvenience; but in this, as well as all other cases of just detention, the vessel detained shall be sent to the nearest convenient and safe port for trial and judgment according to law.

ART. 20. And whereas it frequently happens that vessels sail for a port or place belonging to an enemy without knowing that the same is besieged, blockaded, or invested, it is agreed that every vessel so circumstanced may be turned away from such port or place, but shall not be detained; nor shall any part of her cargo, if not contraband, be confiscated, unless, after waining of such blockade or investment from any officer commanding a vessel of the blockading forces, they shall again attempt to enter; but she shall be permitted to go fo any other port or place she shall think proper. Nor shall any vessel of either that may have entered into such port before the same was actually besieged, blockaded, or invested by the other, be restrained from quitting such place with her cargo, nor, if found therein after the reduction and surrender, shall such vessel or her cargo be liable to confiscation, but they shall be restored to the owners thereof.

ART. 21. In order to prevent all kind of disorder in the visiting and examination of the ships and cargoes of both the contracting parties on the high seas, they mutually agree that, whenever a vessel-of-war shall meet with a neutral of the other contracting party, the first shall remain at a convenient distance, and may send its boats with two or three men only, in order to execute the said examination of the papers concerning the ownership and cargo of the vessel, without causing the least extortion, violence, or ill treatment, for which the commanders of the said armed ships shall be responsible with their persons and property; for which purpose the commanders of private armed vessels shall, before receiving their commissions, give sufficient security to answer for all the damages they may commit; and it is expressly agreed that the neutral party shall in no case be required to go on board the examining vessel for the purpose of exhibiting his papers, or for any other purpose whatever.

ART. 22. To avoid all kind of vexation and abuse in the examination of the papers relating to the ownership of the vessels belonging to the citizens of the two contracting parties, they agree that, in case one of them should be engaged in war, the ships and vessels belonging to the citizens of the other must be furnished with sea letters or passports, expressing the name, property, and bulk of the ships, as also the name and place of habitation of the master and commander of said vessel, in order that it may thereby appear that said ship truly belongs to the citizens of one of the parties; they likewise agree that such ships being laden, besides the said sea letters or passports, shall also be provided with certificates, containing the several particulars of the cargo, and the place whence

the ship sailed, so that it may be known whether any forbidden or contraband goods be on board the same; which certificates shall be made out by the officers of the place whence the ship sailed, in the accustomed form. Without such requisites said vessels may be detained to be adjudged by the competent tribunal, and may be declared legal prizes, unless the said defect shall prove to be owing to accident, and supplied by testimony entirely equivalent.

ART. 23. It is further agreed that the stipulations above expressed, relative to the visiting and examination of vessels, shall apply only to those which sail without convoy; and when said vessel shall be under convoy, the verbal declaration of the commander of the convoy, on his word of honor, that the vessels under his protection belong to the nation whose flag he carries, and, when they are bound to an enemy's port, that they have no contraband goods on board, shall be sufficient.

ART. 24. It is further agreed that in all cases the established courts for prize causes in the country to which the prizes may be conducted shall alone take cognizance of them; and whenever such tribunals of either party shall pronounce judgment against any vessel or goods, or property claimed by the citizens of the other party, the sentence or decree shall mention the reasons or motives on which the same shall have been founded, and an authenticated copy of the sentence or decree, and of all the proceedings in the case, shall, if demanded, be delivered to the commander or agent of said vessel without any delay, he paying the legal fees for the same.

ART. 25. No citizen of the republic of Bolivia shall take any commission or letters of marque for arming any ship or ships to act as privateers against the said United States, or any of them, or against the citizens, people, or inhabitants of the said United States, or any of them, or against the property of any of the inhabitants of any of them, from any prince or state with which the said United States shall be at war; nor shall any citizen or inhabitant of the United States, or any of them, take any commission or letters of marque for arming any ship or ships to act as privateers against the citizens of the republic of Bolivia, or any of them, or the property of any of them, from any prince or state with which the said republic of Bolivia shall be at war; and if any person of either nation shall take such commissions or letters of marque, he shall be punished according to their respective laws.

ART. 26. In accordance with fixed principles of international law, Bolivia regards the rivers Amazon and La Plata, with their tributaries, as highways or channels opened by nature for the commerce of all nations.

In virtue of

which, and desirous of promoting an exchange of productions through these channels, she will permit and invites commercial vessels of all descriptions of the United States, and of all other nations of the world, to navigate freely in any part of their courses which pertain to her, ascending those rivers to Bolivian ports, and descending therefrom to the ocean, subject only to the conditions established by this treaty, and to regulations sanctioned, or which may be sanctioned, by the national authorities of Bolivia not inconsistent with the stipula tions thereof.

ART. 27. The owners or commanders of vessels of the United States entering the Bolivian tributaries of the Amazon or La Plata shall have the right to put up or construct, in whole or in part, vessels adapted to shoal-river navigation, and to transfer their cargoes to them without the payment of additional duties; and they shall not pay duties of any description for sections or pieces of vessels, nor for the machinery or materials which they may introduce for use in the construction of said vessels.

All places accessible to these or other vessels of the United States upon the said Bolivian tributaries of the Amazon or La Plata shall be considered as ports open to foreign commerce, and subject to the provisions of this treaty, under such regulations as the government may deem necessary to establish for

the collection of custom-house, port, light-house, police, and pilot duties. And such vessels may discharge and receive freight or cargo, being effects of the country or foreign, at any one of said ports, notwithstanding the provisions of article 3.

ART. 28. If, by any fatality, (which cannot be expected, and which God forbid,) the two contracting parties should be engaged in a war with each other, they agree, now for then, that there shall be allowed the term of six months to the merchants residing on the coasts and in the ports of each other, and the term of one year to those who dwell in the interior, to arrange their business and transport their effects wherever they please, giving to them the safe conduct necessary for it, which may serve as a sufficient protection until they arrive at the designated port. The citizens of all other occupations, who may be established in the territories of the United States and the republic of Bolivia, shall be respected and maintained in the full enjoyment of their personal liberty and property, unless their particular conduct shall cause them to forfeit this protection, which, in consideration of humanity, the contracting parties engage to give them.

ART. 29. Neither the debts due from the individuals of one nation to the individuals of the other, nor shares, nor moneys which they may have in the public funds, nor in public or private banks, shall ever, in any event of war or of national difference, be sequestered or confiscated.

ART. 30. Both the contracting parties, being desirous of avoiding all inequality in relation to their public communications and official intercourse, agree to grant to the envoys, ministers, and other public agents the same favors, immunities, and exemptions which those of the most favored nation do or may enjoy; it being understood that whatever favors, immunities, or privileges, the United States of America or the republic of Bolivia may find it proper to give to the ministers and other public agents of any other power, shall, by the same act be extended to those of each of the contracting parties.

ART. 31. To make effectual the protection which the United States and the republic of Bolivia shall afford in future to the navigation and commerce of the citizens of each other, they agree to receive and admit consuls and vice-consuls in all the ports open to foreign commerce, who shall enjoy in them all the rights, prerogatives, and immunities of the consuls and vice-consuls of the most favored nation; each contracting party, however, remaining at liberty to except those ports and places in which the admission and residence of such consuls and viceconsuls may not seem convenient.

ART. 32. In order that the consuls and vice-consuls of the two contracting parties may enjoy the rights, immunities, and prerogatives which belong to them by their public character, they shall, before entering upon their functions, exhibit their commission or patent in due form to the government to which they are accredited, and, having obtained their exequatur, they shall be held and considered as such by all the authorities, magistrates, and inhabitants in the consular district in which they reside.

ART. 33. It is also agreed that the consuls, and officers and persons attached to the consulate, they not being citizens of the country in which the consul resides, shall be exempted from all kinds of imposts and contributions, except those which they shall be obliged to pay on account of their commerce or property, to which the citizens or inhabitants, pative or foreign, of the country in which they reside are subject, being, in everything besides, subject to the laws of the respective States. The archives and papers of the consulates shall be respected inviolably, and under no pretext whatever shall any magistrate seize or in any way interfere with them.

ART. 34. The said consuls shall have power to require the assistance of the authorities of the country for the arrest, detention, and custody of deserters from the public and private vessels of their country; and for that purpose they

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