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The table which follows will furnish a view of the principal articles imported from the United States from October 1, 1860, to September 30, 1861.
Exports to the United States from Para, from October 13, 1859, to September
Exports from October 1, 1860, to September 30, 1861.
Articles exported from Para to the United States during the years ended September 30, 1860 and 1861.
I annex to the foregoing the following information obtained from the report addressed to the provincial legislative assembly on the 17th August last, by his excellency Francisco Carlos de Araiyo Brusque, president of the province inland navigation of the bays and rivers of the province-S steamers, 325 sailing craft; 6,431 tons, and 2,320 men employed.
H. Ex. Doc. 63-43
The number of passengers and amount of passage money and freight for the years 1859 and 1860 will appear by the following table:
Finance. The provincial revenue for 1860, including a balance on hand of R's 52,922,719, was R's 793,955,380. The liquidated expenditure for the same period was, R's 555,880,485; which gives a balance on hand of R's 238,074,895. The president remarks that this favorable condition of the revenue could not be traced to a natural cause, which finds an explanation in an increase of the productions of industry or a more general employment of capital; but that the excess was due to high prices and an increased demand for rubber, as well as the creation of new sources of revenue and increased taxes. As two-thirds of the revenue is derived from the tax on rubber, a fall in price, or a diminished demand for the article, at once affects the revenue, as has taken place in the 1st Semester of current year.
It is understood that this phenomenon is on account of the crisis in affairs in the United States, and should disappear, in a period more or less remote, with the solution of our diffiulties and the re-establishment of the equilibrium between the producers and consumers.
Public instruction.-The president remarks that this is the branch, of all others, which should receive the best care of the government; but that, in this province, there exists a want of a proper system of instruction and a marked difference of schools. Teaching does not become a profession, but too often a mode to obtain a living without further care in the matter, and that there exists the necessity of establishing a normal school-a school to educate teachers.
Instead of a school population in proportion to the general population of 1 to 10 in this province, estimating the population at 250,000, the children who receive instruction are, in proportion to the whole population, as 1 to 73. In this province the report gives the following result:
Population, 250,000. Number of schools, 73. Number of pupils, 3,3912,851 males, and 540 females. One school for 3,424 inhabitants. One school for 46 pupils.
The city of Para has a lyceum, with eight professorships and ninety-three students; also, two private colleges, one attended by 184 students, the other by 118 students; and finally, a female school, where, at present, 92 scholars obtain a home and education. The larger number are orphans or of poor parents, and are educated gratuitously. The expense of this establishment the current year is estimated at $8,000.
PERNAMBUCO.-THOMAS ADAMSON, JR., Consul.
OCTOBER 28, 1862.
In accordance with the instructions contained in sections 153 and 154, consular regulations, I have the honor to submit the following commercial statistics of the trade of the port of Pernambuco for the year ended June 30, 1862:
No. 1. Statement of the exportations of the province of Pernambuco during the year ended June 30, 1862, compared with the five preceding years.
No. 2. Statement of the value of the exports of the province of Pernambuco to foreign countries and to ports of the empire for the year ended June 30, 1862, compared with the five preceding years.
No. 3. Statement of importation of principal articles at the port of Pernambuco during the year ended June 30, 1862, with average price for same period. No. 4. Comparative statement of importation of principal articles in the port of Pernambuco during the years 1857, 1858, 1859, 1860, 1861, and the respective quantities received from each in 1861.
No. 5. Statement of goods imported from the United States in American vessels, and entered for consumption at the port of Pernambuco, during the year ended June 30, 1862.
No. 6. Statement of foreign shipping entered in the port of Pernambuco during the year ended June 30, 1862, showing the number and tonnage of each class of vessels, and the total tonnage employed in this trade of each nation. No. 7. I also enclose merchants' circular, which is a correct translation of the official regulations regarding merchant vessels at the port of Pernambuco.
I very much regret that the report of the trade of the United States with this province during the past year presents so unfavorable an appearance. Our vessels have found great difficulty in obtaining homeward freights, partly owing to the fear of privateers and the additional insurance for war risks. When return freight has been taken, it has been at rates averaging about $5 per
American merchants on this coast have had great difficulties to contend with since the commencement of the war in which our country is now engaged. A large proportion of the extensive trade in flour comes from Baltimore, and the business of that port has been taken from all loyal American houses and directed to foreign firms, well known to be sympathizers with the rebels. American vessels have also been put under the British flag, in the name of these parties, thus saving the war risk of 2 per cent. each way on value of cargo, which gives them an advantage against which it is difficult to compete. In addition to this, being generally branches of London or Liverpool houses, they have the advantage of being able to draw on the home house, while the American merchants are compelled to pay 1 per cent. for credits sparingly granted against shipping documents. In view of these facts, it is not strange that a large part of the trade of the United States with this coast is conducted by English merchants. The trade in American manufactured cottons, formerly of considerable importance, has entirely ceased.
But a very short time since American blue and brown drills and brown sheetings and shirtings had a decided preference in this market, but English
manufacturers have flooded the market with imitations bearing labels and marks which are perfect fac-similes of those borne by the genuine article. The difference in quality is hidden by starch, and the low prices at which the goods are sold have driven our goods out of the market. One hundred cases of American blue drills were reshipped from this port to New York a few years since, and our trade in this branch is entirely given up to England. It is much to be regretted that greater efforts have not been made to secure to our country a larger share of the trade with this great and growing empire. Brazil is developing with extraordinary rapidity, and the supplying of her wants is a prize worth contending for. I cannot better give my views on this subject than by quoting from a recent debate in the chamber of deputies of Brazil, as follows: Señor Franco de Almeida said, "That the honorable deputies may appreciate the immensely valuable interests which steam communication must create and increase, let it suffice to enumerate some of the principal products of which North America stands in need, and those which Brazil requires; we would furnish sugar, honey, drugs, fruits, coffee, cotton, tobacco, rice, hides, cocoa, sarsaparilla, precious woods, precious stones, dyestuffs, tapioca, cloves, isinglass, saffron, gum-copal, vanilla, copaiba, crude metals, &c., &c. North America could not find a nearer market than Brazil, nor could she procure these productions with greater facility, or so cheaply. Rio de Janeiro would necessarily become a great American depot. On the other hand, we could supply ourselves with the productions of the United States with greater advantage and at a much cheaper rate; we could import wheat, flour, meats, butter, lard, horses. machinery, all articles of hardware, implements of trade and agriculture, furniture, woollen and cotton cloths, sailing vessels, steamers, and, furthermore, all the imitation works of art, which in the United States are extraordinarily cheap compared with Europe. To convince the minds of honorable deputies, I will remind them of a fact; the commerce of England with us, from 1840 to 1850, was nearly always stationary, averaging £2,000,000 sterling, according to the Blue Book and Mr. Oullack. During that same period our commerce with the United States was greater; and why? Because there was no steam communication then between the empire and Great Britain. The American clippers had an advantage over English barks. But the honorable deputies will remark that as soon as a line of English steamers was established these wonderful results were produced. The importation from Brazil into England in 1853, three years after the inauguration of the line increased 150 per cent. over that of 1848. In 1855 it had increased 300 per cent. England, which in 1852 imported 3,000,000 pounds of coffee, imported in 1853 52,000,000 pounds; in 1854, 59,000,000, and in 1855, 112,000,000.
When tranquillity is again restored to our beloved country, it is to be hoped that the attention of our legislators may be directed to our commerce with Brazil. A portion of our navy might be employed in such a way as to win for us the peaceful victories of commerce, no less glorious than those of war.
Among the public works of this province the most important is the Reufe and San Francisco railroad, which is designed to connect this city with the river San Francisco at the point where navigation is obstructed by the falls of Paulo Affençe. At present trains run regularly to Agua Preta, a distance of seventy-two miles from this city, and on the 1st day of December next the road will be opened to the river Una, a distance of seventy-nine miles from Pernambuco, and the termination of that part of the line at present contracted for. This work, great in this country, where railroad enterprises are in their infancy, enables the planters of the interior to send to market at a cheap rate the products which were formerly brought to this city on the backs of horses and mules, at a cost, in many cases, of almost their total value.
Of the government works at this port, the only one of especial interest is the "marine arsenal," and this is only particularly interesting because there is con