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Description of merchandise.
Net prices, less Rate of duty,
10 per cent 10 per cent.
ఉలునిత: మృతి: కలం
Skins, lamb and kid ...
Each Skins, sheep, of Angora, white and colored.........
Ad valorem ............ Skins, sherp and goat ...,
Each ............ Snoked meat, sinoked and dried ............
Ad valorem....... Soap..
Per quintal Soapwort
Per oke.......... Socks, of Volo
....do........... Socks, of Volo, colored .......
Ad valoremi. Socks, called terlik, large, of Aba
Per parcel of 10 Socks, called terlik, small.
...do ............ Socks, called terlick, ordinary.
Per oke......... Spoons of common wood of all sorts.........
....do.... poons of coral and mother-of-pearl
....do.... Spoons, dyed, called boyama, of wood..
....do.. Staves ...
Ad valorem .......
....do Stockings, of Volo, colored
Ad valorem. Stockings, of Yourouk, ordinary..........
Per oke......... Sweetmeats, jelly, and jam
do Table covers, of Cyprus....
Per piece ........
Ad valorem ......
Per oke........ Tinder, of cork....
...00.... Timber, of all sorts
Ad valorem .........
Each Towels called akbasi), peshtimal, and havlou
Per pair Towels, of Gheive, called haviou....
Per oke.... Towels, embroidered in tinsel...
Each ... Tragacanth, of Bagdad, interior
Per oke... Tragacanth, of Bassora
...do... Tragacanth, middling...
.. do ........ Tragacanth, superfine, called yaprak, (leaf). .......
do............... Tragacanth, inferior, called mahloui.
Each Trowsers, of Constantinople, called karavan adizlik,
(blue.) Trowsers, with gaiters, called potowo, of Aba, of goats' ....do.........
wool. Trowsers, embroidered, for horsemen...... Trowsers, ordinary, with gaiters
... do ........ Turban, piece, embroidered, of Bagdad, called albanee.....do.... Turban, piece, embroidered, of Constantinople, called
albanee. ?'urban, piece, plain, of Constantinople, called destar, do.... Twine
Per oke.... Vallonia, of Aidin, Usbak, Ghuedousand other places, Per quintal
delivered at Smyrna.
Per kilo. of 100 okes Walnut si usage
....do.... Wine, of the whole ttoman empire, including com- ... do...
mon Cyprus. Wine of Cyprus, called commandaria
Ad valorem ...... Wool, sheep's, of Anatolia, Roumeli, and Constanti- Per quintal....
nople, unwashed, and in lime. Wool, of Anatolia, Roumeli, washed
....do Wool, of Syria, Tripoli, in the west, Bagdad, &c., Per quintal
unwashed, and in limé.
Description of merchandise.
Net prices, less Rate of duty,
10 per cent. 10 per cent.
Wool, of Syria, Tripoli, in the west, washed
Per quintal... Wool, goats', of Angora, Konia,Castambol, Gheredeh, Peroke.....
and Beybazari. Wool, goats', of Van..
....do....... Woollen braid, of Constantinople......
Balikesri, Bazardgik, and Philippopoli.
Per piece of 9 pikes
gora, for greatcoats.
gora, for greatcoats. Woollen cloth, Shuyak
Per pike.... Zarfs of metal, of Constantinople..
Per parcel of 10..
53 30 36 23
26 40 93 86
ARISTIDES AZARIAN, Commissioner.
CONCLUSION. According to the stipulations of the new treaty of commerce, all merchandise imported into the Ottoman Empire, excepting such as is prohibited, by merchants of the United States of America, as well as all that is exported by them from the country, will pay a custom-house duty of eight per cent. As, by the new treaty, the duties of the customs are to be assessed on the value of the merchandise at the wharf, the valuation established as a principal on the wholesale prices of the goods, counting the yuzluk, or gold majidieh, at one hundred piasters, they have undergone a diminution of ten per cent., so as to reduce them accordingly to their value at the wharf. The duties, therefore, of the present tariff are fixed on the net value of the merchandise, and will be collected as herein stated.
The duty of eight per cent. on exports is only applicable to the first year of the present tariff. It will be reduced one-eighth for the second, that is, to seven per cent.; one-seventh for the third, that is, to six per cent.; and so on, so that each year it will be diminished one per cent. until the eighth year. At the commencement of the eighth and the following years the duties will only amount to one per cent., collected as stipulated in said treaty, only for the purpose of covering the expenses
of the customs. All articles of export not designated in the present tariff, or which, being therein designated, are left to pay duties ad valorem, will first be reduced as aforestated ten per cent. on their current value, and then pay
duties on the remaining value; this, however, to be subject to the same annual diminution of one per cent. as all those articles which have been properly tariffed.
The products of the United States of America imported into the Ottoman Empire will always continue to pay a duty of eight per cent.; those which have not been designated in the tariff
, or are left to their ad valorem, will pay in the same manner eight per cent. after the aforesaid reduction of ten per cent. of their value.
The payment of the import and export duties will be effected in immediate cash
payments; that is, the yuzluk, or gold majidieh, at one hundred piasters, and its subdivisions in gold and silver of pure alloy, in due proportions—five silver majidieh to make one gold majidieh ot one hundred piasters; and the foreign coins to be at the value which may be fixed for them at the imperial mint. At the capital merchants are free to pay their duties in the paper currency (kaimehs) at the highest rate of the borsa (exchange) in the place of the gold majidieh of one hundred piasters. A bulletin will be procured daily for this purpose, indicating how many piasters of the paper currency will represent a gold majidieh, and will serve for the day following. It will be suspended in a conspicuous place in the custom-house, and the kaimeh currency will be received in pay. ment of duties at the highest rate stated in said bulletin.
Payments in kaimehs, calculated as the bases of the gold majidieh of one hundred piasters, in the place of money of pure alloy, are, however, restricted entirely to the capital for the present; and if at a later period the circulation of this currency be extended to the provinces of the empire, it will also be received there in payment of the custom-house duties in the same manner as has been explained in the reference to the capital, that is to say, on the calculation of the number of paper piasters required to make one gold majidieh of one hundred piasters. In the mean time, and in advance of the case, it being impracticable to establish on an uncertain basis the manner of effecting the payment there in kaimehs, it is left for the present undetermined ; so that in case of future need an arrangement may be made between the Sublime Porte and the legation of the United States of America, according to the existing circumstances. Until then the custom-house duties in the provinces will be collected as aforesaid, viz: The yuzluk or gold majidieh for one hundred piasters, and its subdivisions in gold and silver of pure alloy in the same proportion, five silver majidiehs to the gold majidieh of one hundred piasters, and all foreign coins at the rates fixed on this basis by the imperial mint. In the event of the custom-house authorities and the merchants of the United States not being able to come to an understanding on the value of the merchandise not designated in the tariff, or left ad valorem, and a dispute arise between them, the duties will, according to ancient usage, be paid in kind.
The present tariff will remain in force at the custom-house of the capital, from the 1st of March, 1278, or March 13, 1862, á la franka, to the 1st March, 1285, or March 13, 1869. One year previous to the expiration of the term, viz: during the last year, each of the parties will have the right, in consequence of the differences which may probably occur in the value of merchandise, to claim a revision of the tariff. But if this term of one year pass by without such claim having been put forward by either of them, the tariff will continue to hold good for another period of seven years.
The present tariff has thus been drawn up to this tenor and purpose by the commissioners of the United States of America and the Sublime Porte, and received the sanction of his Imperial Majesty. CHABAN, 29, 1278.
MEHEMMED KIANY, (L. s. For the President of the Commissioners,
H. S. ISMAIL PACHA, (absent.)
Commissioner U. S. A.
JOHN P. BROWN, Secretary and Interpreter (ex officio) U. S. Legation. A correct translation.
JOHN P. BROWN. Approved.
E. JOY MORRIS,
Minister Resident of U. S.
CONSTANTINOPLE.-C. W. GODDARD, Consul General.
November 28, 1862. I am unwilling longer to delay my annual report, although I have not yet received for transmission any of the consular reports on which I had relied for the preparation of an intended table of the trade and commerce of the Turkish empire.
INCREASE IN OUR COMMERCE.
The returns of arrivals and departures of our vessels at this port for the year ending September 30, 1862, exhibit a gratifying increase of American commerce in the Bosphorus, viz:
No. of vessels. Toppage. 1859.
28,569 showing á gain over last year of thirty-six per cent. in the number and of twenty-seven per cent. in the tonnage of our vessels, while doubling that of 1860, and trebling that of 1859. Eight vessels have arrived from American ports, (six from New York and two from Boston,) with cargoes principally of rum and alcohol. Three have cleared for Boston with rags and wool.
Nine cargoes have been discharged and six laden at this port.
THE BLACK SEA GRAIN TRADE.
Seven-eighths of our shipping in the Bosphorus is in the European grain trade, sailing in ballast from the Mediterranean, or with coal from England to a Turkish or Russian port on the Black sea, or Sea of Azof. They load with corn, rye, wheat, or barley, in southern Russia, or at the mouth of the Danube, if of moderate draught, perhaps paseing up to Galatz, the depot of the graingrowing principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia, and return to Corti or Falmouth, and a port of discharge.
The Danubian valley and southern Russia form the granary of Europe, but the navigation of that noble river is impeded by drought and interrupted by ice, and the heavy river dues and lighterage, and the high freights and insurance on the long and circuitous voyage to western Europe, leave the grain fields of the Danube, the Dnieper, and the Don, at serious disadvantage with their American rival.
Thirty-four American vessels arrived at this port with grain, thirteen with coal, and seventeen in ballast. Thirty-four cleared with grain, twelve with coal, and twenty-two in ballast.
The brig China, Captain Ipton, of Boston, in ballast, was lost in a gale off Port Lagos, January 5, all hands being saved.
EXPORT DUTIES ABANDONED.
By commercial treaties with the United States and other powers, the Porte has at length abandoned its traditional policy of taxing exports by reducing the export duty to eight per cent. with the annual reduction of one per cent. until its extinction, and raising the tariff on imports to a uniform standard of eight per cent.
Important benefits are anticipated from this enlightened measure.
By decree of February 28, the importation of powder, cannon, and other arms and ammunition, is prohibited.
WITHDRAWAL OF A PAPER CURRENCY.
Financially, the year will be remembered for the sudden disappearance of paper money.
The cainè issued by the late Sultan, during the war, depreciated rapidly toward the close of his reign. At the beginning of the year gold commanded a premium of 90 per cent., advancing to 125 per cent. or more during the winter, when serious disturbances were threatened in the capital, to which paper currency was confined. Various expedients were resorted to, which produced great fluctuations without affording relief, until, in July, government announced the speedy redemption and withdrawal of the paper.
In August the government began to pay for the paper forty per cent. in gold, and sixty per cent. in consols, bearing six per cent. interest, and September 13 the balance of the paper was, by imperial decree, withdrawn from circulation, and the currency of Constantinople instantaneously became metallic.
Although gold up to that day was at sixty per cent. premium, prices did not fall materially, and now, two months after, rents, wages, provisions, &c., are not more than twelve or fifteen per cent. less than they were when expressed in depreciated paper, which leaves them, in fact, from thirty to forty per cent. higher, and renders Constantinople, at present, one of the most expensive capitals in Europe.
The piaster has resumed its original par value of 4 10 cents.
A tax of one piaster a ton is levied on every vessel passing up or down the Dardanelles, and 11 piaster up or down the Bosphorus, for light dues.
While the depreciated cainè was a legal tender, the French company who farm this revenue, refusing to receive it, compromised with the consulates by accepting gold at 110 piasters to the Turkish pound; but, on its withdrawal, they demanded dues at 100.
By advice of Hon. Mr. Morris, our minister resident, I directed American shipmasters to resist this exaction, and I have accordingly cleared their vessels on receipt of the just sum, after their tender of them to the authorities.
I learn that the British, Swedish, and Norwegian consuls general have fol. lowed our example, and there is reason to believe that this new claim will not be persisted in.
The light-houses near the Black sea entrance of the Bosphorus too closely resemble each other, and shipwreck and loss of life have sometimes been the result.
American captains pretty uniformly complain of the light dues as exorbitant.
Sailing vessels have recently been permitted to navigate the Bosphorus by night.
Each vessel is still required to procure a firman or imperial permit at this port, at an expense of $5 or more, and an average delay of twenty-four hours, which frequently involves the loss of a fair wind, and the expense of towage for vessels desiring to pass directly from the Black sea into the Mediterranean, or back.
On passing out of the Dardanelles the firman must be landed in an open roadstead, often with great inconvenience, and not without danger in a heavy sea. The expense and annoyance attending these firmans are more obvious than their necessity, and the last-named requirement ought, in my judgment, to be disputed as unreasonable.