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and hence numerous towers and castles were erected along the coast, from the tops of which signals could be given to the settlements in the valley of approaching danger. The castle erected at Leghorn, or where the city has since been built, was called Labro. When or by whom this castle was founded is not known, nor is its history of any interest at the present day, except that where it once stood there is now a flourishing commercial city, the entrepot to central Italy and of the extensive marts of the Mediterranean.

As early as 1603 the settlements surrounding Castle Labro had so increased that the title of city was given to them, and under the patronage of the Medicis, the family to whom Italy is indebted for many of her most important works of imperishable fame, Leghorn grew speedily into a place of importance. It was surrounded by walls and fortifications; the adjacents swamps were drained; extra inducements were offered to those who would become citizens of this new city by the Medicis, who foresaw its importance to them in their extensive commercial operations; and in three years the new city had increased its population to eight thousand. It would be interesting to have in detail the history of this city through all of its numerous changes during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, but the limits assigned to this paper will not permit.


There are within the walls of the city eighteen Catholic churches and eight in the suburbs, one Greek, one Episcopal, (Church of England,) one Scotch Presbyterian, one Dutch church, and one Jewish synagogue. The latter is the most wealthy synagogue in the world, after that of Amsterdam.


The city has four charitable institutions for orphans, all of them very large and well-managed establishments, which reflect great credit upon the city. There is also a large establishment for the poor. All of these institutions are supported by the contributions of the citizens of the city. The city has three hospitals-two for the public and one exclusively for the military.


Until the organization of the present government but little attention was paid to the establishment of schools for the poorer classes; public schools were not known until quite recently. The present efficient minister of public instruction is laboring to establish an efficient system of free schools in Italy, and the project has met with much favor from all classes, and this system of education will, no doubt, be universally adopted. It will be some time, however, before the beneficial effects of such a liberal system of education will be developed. Universal education is not an enterprise that is looked upon with favor by the army of friars and monks, who have a controlling influence in all Catholic countries; and yet, in this respect, there is much hope for the future of Italy. Since the new educational system has been adopted, thirteen public schools have been opened in Leghorn, and one seminary, one superior school, and one scientific college. The city has but one public library and four reading rooms.


All of the Italian cities are noted for their theatres. Leghorn has seven of these places of amusement; the "Floride" is one of the most celebrated. It was erected in 1777, will seat 3,000 people, and was painted by the great artist, Adarnallo, one of the most eminent fresco painters of the eighteenth century.

The other theatres are more modern. The "Goldan " was built in 1843, and is remarkable from being covered entirely with stained glass, which gives a very pleasing effect. The stranger visiting Leghorn can never be at a loss for amusement. The theatres are always open, where the operatic, comic, and tragical are served up in styles to suit all tastes.

Leghorn, like New York, has its "Croton:" the city is supplied with water from three reservoirs, capable of containing 12,000,000 gallons, but the supply is often found inadequate during long-continued droughts. The water is drawn from fountains erected at the corners of the streets and in the squares, and is conveyed to the houses in jars and small kegs by the water porters, who are usually women, that make this a regular business. They charge for this service according to the amount of water which they supply, usually from three to five cents per day for an ordinary family. The argument against such improvements as conducting water into the houses by means of pipes is, that "these poor people who carry the water would lose their employment." We should be thankful, for the sake of "progress," that this kind of logic is not generally adopted. * In many respects, Leghorn is a modern city. Its streets are wide, straight, and remarkably well paved. The contrast between the streets of this and other cities of Italy is very striking, and is noticed by all visitors the moment they arrive. This city presents an air of business and freshness that is reviving.


The harbor of Leghorn is one of the best and most commodious in the Mediterranean. The government has been to great expense in erecting a breakwater, that fully protects the shipping in the harbor; and still further and more complete improvements are under way, which, when completed, will make the harbor of Leghorn of sufficient capacity to accommodate the entire merchant fleet of the Mediterranean. The present wise ruler of Italy sees that the locality of Leghorn makes it the principal port of his kingdom; and hence the government is preparing to make it, in every respect, worthy of being the great commercial entrepot of Italy. Like Newport and Cape May, Leghorn is the fashionable resort during the bathing season; and, not unfrequently, forty thousand strangers from the interior of Italy, the Roman States, Sicily, Egypt, Constantinople, and the north of Europe congregate here.

In 1840 the population of this city was estimated at 79,000; in 1862 it is not less than 115,000. Such is a very brief sketch of the origin, past, and present history of one of the principal commercial cities of the Mediterranean. The first consul for the United States at Leghorn was Thomas Appleton, of Boston, who received his appointment early in the year 1798. The first official despatch written by Mr. Appleton to the department bears date "Leghorn, December 26, 1798," and is addressed to Hon. Timothy Pickering, Secretary of State. In this communication the consul says: "I arrived at this port the 7th of November, after a quarantine of eight days, which is six less than usual,” &c.; and as the day of ocean steamers had not yet dawned upon the world, Mr. Appleton arrived at his post in a merchant ship, the "Aurora," of Baltimore. He continued in charge of this consulate until his death, in 1839 or 1840, a period of over forty years. His position as consul gave him superior advantages, so far as trade with the United States was concerned, and there is no doubt but that we are mainly indebted to him, as a leading and extensive merchant, (the law prohibiting consuls from engaging in business had not then been adopted,) for the large amount of American shipping that visited this port with cargoes from the United States during his term of office.

The second consul of the United States at Leghorn was J. A. Binda, a native of Italy, but a naturalized citizen, appointed consul in 1840. In the brief interval between the death of Mr. Appleton and the arrival of the new consul the duties of the consulate were discharged by Mr. John B. Tarten, of Philadelphia, a gentleman who had personally served his government in the H. Ex. Doc. 63—33

capacity of consul at Rome. Mr. Binda continued to hold his position as consul until the first day of January, 1862, at which time the writer of this report assumed the duties of the office.

Thus, it will be observed, that since the organization of our government down to the year 1862, but two persons have occupied the post of consul for the United States at Leghorn-a period of sixty-two years, and a very important one in the history of our country. It would be natural to suppose that during this long term, while our commerce has largely increased in other localities, and the sails of our immense merchant fleet whiten every sea, our trade with the port of Leghorn has kept even pace with our commercial progress elsewhere. The following table, compiled from the official records of the consulate, shows the amount of American shipping which visited this port from the 7th of November, 1798, the date of opening this consular office, to the 12th of April, 1808. In this table I have given the values of the exports from the United States received here, so far as I have been able to obtain them. To the value of these shipments I invite the special attention of the department. From the 12th of April, 1808, to the year 1815, there is nothing on record in this office showing that any American vessels arrived at this port. The second war with England, known as the war of 1812, is doubtless the cause of this total discontinuance of shipments from the United States to Leghorn. The following is the exhibit of shipments above referred to:

Statement of the amount of shipping of the United States arrived at the port of Leghorn from November, 1798, to May, 1808, inclusive, with value of

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The above list shows that from November, 1798, to May, 1808, six hundred and forty-two vessels arrived at this port from the United States, and, in almost every instance, with cargo. The value of these cargos is not stated, but for a portion of the time, commencing with 1802, the values given foot up at $18,596,300. To this sum, if we add for the four years not reported, from 1798 to 1801, inclusive, and also for the balance of the year 1808, which is not included in the above statement, say $12,000,000, which would be a fair estimate, we have in round numbers, as the value of exports from the United States to Leghorn, for the first ten years after the establishment of this consulate, the sum of thirty millions of dollars-an average of three millions of dollars per year; and this, too, at a time when our merchant marine was in its infancy.

In looking over these records, we are reminded that great changes have taken place in our commercial operations. New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and (before the blight of secession had visited them,) Savannah, Charleston, Mobile, and New Orleans are our exporting cities.

At the time we are writing, Salem, Newburyport, New Bedford, Portsmouth, Newport, Norfolk, Marblehead, Providence, Alexandria, Va., and other places, the names of which do not now appear in the exporting list, were, formerly,

among our largest shipping cities to foreign ports. The principal articles shipped to Leghorn were coffee, sugar, pepper, logwood, codfish, and flour in large quantities; rosin, tobacco, wheat, indigo, India goods, staves, herrings, beeswax, and rum. Salem and Boston were large shippers of sugar, coffee, and India goods. Baltimore and Philadelphia supplied flour; and, perhaps, it may not be uninteresting to the citizens of the noted temperance town of Newburyport to know that their fathers were large exporters of rum. Codfish were exported from Marblehead and other New England ports. New York exported large supplies of rosin, tar, logwood, tobacco, and dry goods. These reminiscences of our early commercial operations with Leghorn show that our trade was in a healthy condition; and, also, what is as important with nations as with individuals, the balances were on "our side" of the ledger. It is to be feared that in too many instances the balances have changed sides; and we now find ourselves on the other side of the account; such, at least, is the case with our present trade with Italy.

The following statement of the number of vessels from the United States, arrived at this port from 1850 to 1860, inclusive, with the number "in ballast " and with "cargo," will show that our exports have decreased, while our imports have largely increased.

Statement of amount of shipping of the United States of America arrived at the port of Leghorn from January 1, 1850, to the year 1860, inclusive.

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This exhibit shows an almost exact inverse order of the condition of our trade. From 1798 to 1808 our ships arrived here with cargo and departed in ballast; from 1850 to 1860 they arrived in ballast and departed with cargo; from 1798 to 1808 the value of "outward cargoes" did not exceed $5,000,000, leaving a balance in favor of our commerce of not less than $25,000,000. No record has been kept of the value of "inward cargoes" from 1850 to 1860, but it is a liberal estimate to place the balance of trade against us for the ten years ended with 1860, at $20,000,000.

The article of the most value that is exported from the United States is tobacco, upon which our margin of profit is very slight indeed; and I take this occasion to urge our government to prohibit the exportation of tobacco, except in a manufactured state. Tobacco is a government monopoly in nearly all of the European states; and it is an article from which an extensive revenue is derived. The tobacco that is used both in France and Italy mostly comes from the United States, and the contract for supplying the two governments is held by a celebrated tobacco house of Paris, who purchase of our planters at the lowest plantation price, cure, store and ship it on their own account, and thus make large profits, which would be retained by our planters, tobacco manufacturers, and shippers if the prohibition I recommend was adopted. This prohibition would not decrease the demand for the article; the quality of the Virginia and Kentucky tobacco cannot be obtained from any other source, and the only change would be the transfer of a large profit to our planters and dealers,

in place of the meagre sum which we now receive, which is scarcely sufficient to defray the cost of growing the plant. I respectfully refer this subject to the department as worthy of the early action of our government in the direction which I have indicated. It is but justice to ourselves to adopt this course. We raise an article, the fair quality of which cannot be obtained from any other source, and dispose of it at an extremely low price. The purchasers make a monopoly of it, and sell it at large profits. Let us imitate their example, and transfer a portion of the profits of the tobacco monopoly from the consumers to the producers.

I have made this comparison between the condition of our trade now with Leghorn and what it was formerly, not so much for the purpose of showing a large balance against us, as to institute an inquiry of the state of our commerce at other points, and to see if the history of our commercial operations with Leghorn is not the history of many other localities-if the balances have not, in like manner, been transferred from the credit to the debit side of the accounts. I think I may safely say that such is the case. What is the cause of this change, and how is it to be remedied? is the business inquiry that nations should be as prompt to make as individuals; for whatever benefits the individual benefits the state. Wealthy and prosperous subjects make a powerful and influential government; that which enhances the welfare of the one adds to the strength, stability, and importance of the other.

These general principles being admitted, it would be well for the department to publish to the country, for the benefit of the commercial public, a statement of the condition of our foreign trade; having in view, in such publication, the purpose of showing where our trade has increased and where decreased, accompanied with such suggestions as may be deemed appropriate as to the best means to be adopted to extend our foreign commerce. Such a publication issuing from the Department of State, if generally circulated in our business circles, would have a decidedly beneficial effect.

One of the most effective means that could be adopted to extend our commerce in the Mediterranean, and I may say the only one by which it can be brought about, is to inaugurate direct trade with the principal ports of Spain, France, and Italy. A line of propellers running between New York and Leghorn, touching at Palermo, Marseilles, Malaga, and Gibraltar, would be the means of immediately placing at our disposal a large and valuable trade, that is now almost entirely in the hands of the Liverpool and London merchants. Steam communication is so frequent between England and the Mediterranean, that the English merchants, manufacturers, and bankers have been enabled, with but little of opposition, to occupy this extensive commercial field, and they have realized from it immense profits. In every city, town, and village you find the English merchant and banker. The first is ready to furnish you with whatever you want for your journey, if you are a tourist, including "stout" and porter, while the latter will receive and forward your baggage, purchase, pack, and ship your paintings and works of art, and discount your bills on London; and thus you find it the world over; "everywhere" there is the Englishman ready to supply you with articles of English manufacture. It is this national activity that has given the English government so much power, and it is just such enterprise that I would have imitated by the United States. Under the fostering care of our consular system, we too can occupy new fields of enterprise, extend our national influence by expanding our commerce, and divert to ourselves many wide-flowing streams of wealth that now, through carefully guarded channels, find their outlets in the vicinity of the looms of Manchester and the forges of Sheffield. To secure control of the commerce of the Mediterranean is an in

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