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It will be seen from the above that Genoa distributed a large portion of the goods she received from western countries to other Italian ports. This is particularly the case with cotton and woollen goods, hides and leather. It is impossible to distinguish the amount of articles manufactured in this kingdom. The rice and corn exported were the produce of Piedmont and Lombardy. A large portion of the wool exported was the produce of the province of Genoa. The average price of wheat for 1860 was one dollar and thirty-five cents per bushel; of cotton, thirteen cents per pound; of wool, twenty one cents; olive oil, thirteen cents; unrefined sugars, seven cents; coffee, thirteen cents.
I think the direct trade between the United States and Genoa might be profitably increased. Our agricultural implements are generally superior in quality and cheaper in price than the English tools introduced, wherever agriculture is being improved. We must eventually supply this market with breadstuffs. At present, however, Russia undersells us.
Petroleum is being imported in considerable quantities. Thus far it has been generally transhipped in English ports. It should be imported direct. One cargo, at least, is now on the way from New York.
The raw and manufactured silks of this market ought to be exported directly to the United States, instead of mediately by France, as has been the practice for the most part hitherto. Lombardy is the greatest silk-growing country in the world, and Genoa is its market. It is estimated that in 1861 Lombardy, Piedmont, and Liguria, the three provinces of which Genoa is the principal seaport, produced 57,666,400 pounds of raw silk. Of this amount Lombardy produced 31,046,000 pounds, or about one-fourth of the whole silk crop of Italy, including Venetia and the Tyrol. The value of this raw silk is estimated at the sum of 140,000,000 pounds. This fact seems to me specially worthy the attention of merchants in the silk trade.
There may be other articles of import or export deserving mention, but my attention has been directed to none of special importance.
By reason of the deficiency of return cargoes freights to. New York rule low, and this fact ought to facilitate exporting from Genoa to New York or other northern ports. It is, perhaps, not out of place to add that Messrs. Valerio & Falbri, merchants of Genoa, (late of New York,) are engaged in commendable efforts to increase direct trade.
No change in the port regulations, or duties upon American commerce, has been communicated to this consulate during the year.
I will furnish a statement of the rules and customs of the port, so far as affecting American ship-owners, masters, and shippers.
Spezia.-WILLIAM T. RICE, Consul.
MARCH 31, 1862.
The great works in contemplation, two of which are in actual construction at this place, will open a field of profit to the energetic industry and enterprising spirit of American citizens, as Spezia, after her "Rip Van Winkle" repose, is now waking to find herself famous.
The King's government have awarded thirty-six million francs towards the construction of their naval arsenal here; the land has been surveyed, the position defined, and the works commenced. The contract has been given to an Italian company, and six years allowed for its fulfilment.
To enable the contractors to carry out their engagements, it will be necessary to employ between three and four thousand workmen. The final cost will probably exceed eighty million francs. The proposed site commences at the town of Marola, on the western side of the gulf, then follows the shore to the city of Spezia, making thence a westerly circuit to the foot of the mountains, thereby comprising the entire valley on the south side of Spezia, which valley constitutes by far the most valuable land in the vicinity.
I have been informed that a commission is to be appointed to survey and report the probable expense connected with the intended fortification of the whole gulf.
It is, indeed, surprising that the peculiarly great benefits bestowed by nature upon this beautiful bay should not earlier have attracted sufficient notice to be taken the advantage of for which it is so well adapted. But before the rapid accession of territory and the great increase of naval power of Sardinia, the possession of a large naval station was not as imperative as it is at present, and I have reason to believe that the works connected with it will be pushed forward with vigor and despatch.
The large lead foundery on the eastern shore of this gulf has been reopened under the management of an English company, who are succeeding far beyond
their expectations. The ore is brought from the island of Corsica, and after smelting the lead is shipped to different parts of the Mediterranean, generally in small sailing crafts. The coal mines at Saranza are now being worked by the same company, and produce a very good quality of coal at a very moderate price. Upon the arrival of one of our national steamships I shall endeavor to have proved the practicability of its use in our navy, as it is used efficaciously on board of all merchant steamers plying between this port and Genoa. If found to answer, I shall recommend it to the Navy Department, as it would be not only a great convenience, but also most economical to our government for the use of our men-of-war in the Mediterranean.
FLORENCE.-T. BIGELOW LAWRENCE, Consul General.
JANUARY 6, 1862.
It will be seen by enclosure No. 1 that the value of goods manufactured in this city and its neighborhood, and shipped hence to the United States, between the latter part of the month of October and the end of December, amounted to 467,691,95 francs. Nearly all these exports are manufactures of Tuscan straw, and, as I learn from some of the principal manufacturers, amount in value and quantity to but about half the exports of like fabrics during the same period of time previous to the war.
The exportation to our country of marble and alabaster statuary, of paintings, of mosaics, and articles belonging to other departments of the fine arts, formerly very large, has almost entirely ceased since the commencement of our present troubles.
The wisdom of Congress in causing the law relating to the verification of invoices to be enforced is plainly manifest in the case of this consulate general. Formerly the value of goods exported from this immediate district during the period mentioned above was much greater than at present, yet the returns of my predecessors would seem to indicate altogether the contrary, the apparent amount of said exports bearing but a small approximation to the quantity really shipped. In fact, the law respecting the verification of invoices had become, in Italy, almost a dead letter, and I have but little doubt that this was the case elsewhere. Several of the principal exporters of straw fabrics, who have been engaged for years in trade with the United States, inform me that heretofore they have never obtained a consular verification of invoice.
The new regulation gives general satisfaction to the exporters of respectability here. I am informed by several of high reputation in the trade that formerly, when invoices giving the real valuation were sent with their goods to certain New York consignees, the latter substituted fraudulent invoices of their own, valuing the consignments at a lower rate for entry at the custom-house there, and, while paying duty according to these false papers, charged the exporters here with duty estimated upon the original invoices. All this, of course, is now prevented.
LEGHORN.-A. J. STEVENS, Consul.
FEBRUARY 24, 1862.
I have the honor to hand you herewith (enclosure No. 1) a statement of the imports of the port of Leghorn for the year 1861 compared with the year 1860. There are no commercial reports made by the local authorities here, and it
was only after much labor, experiencing innumerable difficulties and incurring considerable expense, that I succeeded in "fishing up," from the commercial transactions of the port, this statement. It will be found valuable as showing the variety as well as the amount of the imports. I have no means by which to determine the value of those imports, nor the amount which was for domestic consumption; but the statement which I give is sufficient to show the importance of the trade of this port, and that it is worthy of more attention than it has heretofore received from the manufacturing interests and commercial enterprise of the United States.
A statement of the grain trade of the port of Leghorn (enclosure No. 2) for the years 1860 and 1861 is also herewith forwarded to the department. The importance of the grain-growing interests of the United States renders information relating to the foreign demand and supply of grain of great value, and all the facts that I am able to obtain upon this subject I shall promptly communicate. Statement of the imports of the free port of Leghorn during the year 1861 compared with the year 1860.
Statement of the imports of the free port of Leghorn, &c.-Continued.
Statement of the grain trade of the free port of Leghorn in the year 1861 compared with the year 1860.
Sacks. 1,020,59 313, 126 1,393,717
Sacks. Sacks. Sacks Sacks. Sacks. 1,201,205 31,468 10, 707 13,719 60, 184 288,755 15,860 15,415 1,969 2, 464
Sacks. Sacks. 138,597 165, 389 198
1,489, 960 47, 328 36, 122 15,688 62,648 138,795 165.389 Exported and consumed............................................... 1,104,962 1,254, 434 31,913 18,075 13, 224 43,046 138,795 161,263 Balance in store 1st December of each year.
235,526 15,415 8,047 2,464 19,602
FEBRUARY 25, 1862.
I herewith forward to the department a printed copy of the "Royal decree of the 3d of November, 1861, regulating the port fees of the kingdom of Italy;" and I also enclose a correct translation of so much of said "decree" as relates to the shipping and commerce of the United States. Deeming it highly important that these new regulations should be made known to our shipmasters and owners, I have prepared a copy of said translation for the press, which I herewith forward to the department.
Royal decree of the 3d of November, 1861, regulating the port fees of the kingdom of Italy.
TAX FOR ANCHORAGE.
All vessels entering the ports of the (ten cents) per ton. The above tax for vessel will touch at any port, road, or purposes.
kingdom will be charged fifty centimes anchorage will be due every time the coast of the kingdom for commercial
It will not be considered a transaction of commerce sending a boat ashore, giving and receiving letters and samples, or buying necessary provisions for the completion of the voyage. Vessels will pay the tax for anchorage in the first port of the kingdom which they enter for the purpose of discharging or taking in cargo, and they may continue like operations in any other port of the kingdom without additional charge for anchorage; but if, in going from one port to another of said kingdom, they touch at any foreign port, said tax for an