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claring that her former marriage was not valid, because it had been celebrated against the form promulgated in the empire and against the "Fridenstine Council," always observed there. And the report adds, that even the Brazilian chambers passed, in 1861, a marriage law, by which the hereditariness (Erbrecht) of children of Protestant parents appears in many cases very little secured. But still a great number of German emigrants, induced by the advantages offered and the promises made by the Brazilian agents, as well as by the present peaceable state of affairs there, prefer emigrating to that country to settling in the United States, where, it is true, land is gratuitously offered to actual settlers, but without facilitating their passage by pecuniary assistance.
In this respect, I beg most respectfully to intimate, whether it might not be advisable for our government to abolish the so-called "head money" or emigrant tax, which at certain times may have been advantageous, but is now an actual impediment to emigration, especially if it is taken into consideration that the new homestead bill is intended to attract whole families to the unsettled parts of our country. For single persons that tax may appear trifling; but it is not at all encouraging for families, consisting of ten or twelve persons, the working power of whom will be so much needed as soon as peace will have been restored.
Finally, I beg to remark that the number of emigrants, to which the said report of the "Frankfort association" refers, is not trifling, as it only includes those who applied for the advice of that association; but still the proportion of the total emigration of Germany can be judged from it.
DUCHY OF BADEN.
[Transmitted by the United States consul general.]
Annual report on the commerce, industry, and agriculture of the Grand Duchy
JANUARY 21, 1862.
The unsettled state of politics, which has so universally prevailed during the last three years, has equally affected the year just concluded. All the commercial and industrial relations of the world have been more or less characterized by that spirit of uncertainty. The continued feverish excitement in Italy, the wretched condition of affairs in Austria, but, above all, the American crisis, had a distressing influence over the whole of Europe, and this depression fell with the greatest weight on the commerce and industry of the Grand Duchy of Baden.
The government of Baden exhibits a very laudable zeal in assisting the recent efforts in Germany to establish unity in the political and social life of the several states of the confederacy. The concordat with Rome having fortunately been abolished again, in consequence of the strenuous opposition of the mass of the people, the Baden government issued a new regulation for all religious confessions, on the broadest basis of freedom of conscience. At the late sitting of the chambers the grand duke declared, in rather energetic language, that he had not only the interests of his subjects and of his country in view, but also the introduction of some solid improvements into German affairs generally. In regard to freedom of trade and choice of residence, which are desired by the mass of the people throughout Germany, Baden sets a worthy example to those states in which the antiquated system of guilds and other illiberal institutions are still in force. The chambers deliberated also on some other important subjects for
legislation, such as the organizing the law courts and the powers of the police; also an alteration in the rights of communities, which are quite in opposition to the advanced spirit of the present age. A decision of much commercial importance was that of permitting the several boards of the Grand Duchy to send delegates to the "mass meeting of German boards of commerce," held at Heidelberg on the 10th of May last, under the protection of the grand ducal government. The principal questions discussed on that occasion were, first, the abolition of land transit duties and the Rhine tolls; second, the compilation of a code of commercial law for the whole of Germany; and, third, the establishment of railway regulations to be in force in Germany. It is proposed that such commercial mass meetings shall be held at regular intervals, which will, no doubt, be of much benefit to the commerce and industry of the country.
The first industrial exhibition of the Grand Duchy took place at Carlsruhe last August, and furnished a very gratifying and lively picture of the progress of Baden manufacture and trade. The exhibition consisted of twelve principal departments, viz: 1. Furniture, musical instruments, hardware, and carpetwork. 2. Woollen, cotton, linen, silk, and straw goods, and articles of clothing. 3. Minerals, phlogistics, raw materials, products of first preparation, larger pottery, (earthenware,) and common woodenware. 4. Machines, apparatus, models, common cast iron ware. 5. Watches, parts of watches, and jewelry. 6. Objects of plastic art and of natural history. 7. Chemicals, stone, earthern, and glass wares. 8. Metallic objects, arms, and tools. 9. Instruments and mechanical implements. 10. Paper and articles in paper, and pasteboard portfolios. 11. Provisions and articles of personal consumption. 12. Fur and felt goods, leather, leather articles, harness, and carriages. The objects most worthy of notice in this exhibition were the Mannheim looking-glass and Mannheim tapestry; the machines from the Carlsruhe and Holstein manufactories, of the leather factories of Weinheim and Lahe, and especially the plaited straw work, and watch and clock work of the Black forest. The articles just noticed will also be fully represented at the approaching international exhibition in London.
The last grain crop was but middling. The same was the case with Indian corn, hops, hay, rape and poppy seed, and pulse; potatoes and turnips, however, furnished a very rich crop. The vintage was excellent in quality, but in quantity only averaged one-tenth of the usual produce. Fruit was almost wholly a failure. The result of the flax and hemp crops was very satisfactory. The tobacco crop was also rather productive, yielding more than 300,000 quintals. The quality, however, from the effects of the hot weather, turned out to be indifferent, the leaves being thick and wet. Clover was extremely abundant; whilst in the year 1860 the supplies had all to be obtained from foreign sources, this year large quantities may be expected. In consequence of the failures of the crops in France, a very lively business was transacted in wheat immediately after the termination of the harvest. Agents came from all parts of France, especially to Mannheim, and made large purchases from several houses there, which immediately bought the grain in Hungary. These purchases were not without influence on the prices of grain in the Grand Duchy, where they rose considerably. The great inundations in Holland, and the unfavorable weather along the Lower Rhine damaged the potato crop there very much, so that large supplies had to be exported from Baden from that neighborhood. Agriculture is, on the whole, in a very flourishing condition, and the last few years having been rich in food for cattle, enabled the farmers to make good their stock again. The prices of beasts for draught and slaughter have, for the same reason, and also on account of the increased exportation, considerably advanced. The exportation of wine to the United States, which was formerly very important, has, owing to the present troubles, almost entirely ceased. In the same degree and from the same cause the manufacture of the so-called "Pfalroe" cigars is
suffering. The greater part of the factories of this article, the number of which is said to be sixty-five, have ceased working, and the rest have much reduced the number of their workmen. This has occasioned an increase in the emigration of young, active men to the United States lately, most of them hoping, of course, to obtain engagements in the army of the States.
The results of the railway communication and that of the principal customhouse officers in the Grand Duchy of Baden, in 1861, cannot be known before March, as the annual statistics will only be reported then. It may, however, be stated generally that railway communication has increased, and that the government lines, in particular, have paid good interest, most of them 7 per cent., still the railway debt of the Grand Duchy is not inconsiderable. The net amount of debt of the railway sinking fund amounted, on the 1st of January, 1860, to 47,300,000 florins, or $18,920,000; to this is to be added the sum of 42,700,000 florins, or $17,080,000, as additional contribution for the lines laid down in 1860, and already granted by the chambers, so that the debt amounts to at least 90,000,000 florins, or $36,000,000; up to April, 1861, the net profits of the mail and railroad administration have been sufficient for the payment of the interest of the debt, and for the establishment of the sinking fund. These net proceeds amounted in 1859 to 3,634,421 florins, or $1,453,768, and in 1860 to 4,162,968 florins, or $1,665,187; therefore 528,547 florins, or $211,419 more than in 1859, and even after the two payments already mentioned there was a surplus shown on the 1st January, 1860, of 2,584,369 florins, or $1,033,747. The revenues will naturally increase with the completion of the entire railway out of the Grand Duchy, which will soon be accomplished; but still not in proportion to the cost of building, as the most profitable lines are already in activity, and the expense of those not yet finished is, even irrespectively of their smaller receipts, proportionably much higher. The communication, however, has been improved by the completion of the permanent bridge over the Rhine, from Kehl to Strasburg, last spring. A further communication across the Rhine by a bridge near Mannheim may be also considered as assured. The laying down of the government railway line from Waldshutt, by Schaffhausen, to Constance is being actively carried on, and the same energy is displayed in working out the railway which is to cross the Odenwald, connecting Heidelburg and Wirzburg.
A corresponding improvement is seen in these parts of the Grand Duchy not touched by railroads where the public roads are either improved or extended, or such new ones made as are necessary, so that in all branches of national economy a laudable spirit of activity prevails.
The commercial capital of the Grand Duchy of Baden is the port of Mannheim. The commerce of Mannheim was rather extensive last year, notwithstanding the unsettled state of politics and the American crisis, and was actually on the increase, as compared with preceding years. The chief business is divided into that of forwarding goods, and trading in agricultural produce, wood and tobacco, and secondly into that of colonial goods, wholesale trade and manufactures. Besides the large transport of goods through Mannheim by the Rhine and Neckar, there was an almost equally considerable conveyance of goods brought by the several railways. The most important of these were the shipments of cotton for Switzerland, which, on account of the reduction of the Rhine tolls.were sent from England by the old route up the river, instead of being sent to France, and which were last year remarkably extensive, the spinners being induced by the state of affairs in America to endeavor as much as possible to cover their supplies. There were also very large shipments of tram rails and of pig iron from England, and large quantities of coal from the Ruhr country. The factories of the lower Rhine, as usual, sent their cloth and woollen and cotton stuffs intended for the neighborhood of Wurtemberg, Bavaria and Switzerland, as well as for Italy, and for these Maunheim has for many years
formed the natural staple place. The business of forwarding goods has been carried on specially by fifteen firms, whilst with many other houses it forms a secondary branch. To this commerce Mannheim chiefly owes the importance it has gradually obtained since the establishment of the Zollverein. Its transactions in agricultural produce were very extensive last year, especially in wheat, which had been bought up by Mannheim houses, in the immediate neighborhood and also in Austria, and upwards of 600,000 hectolitres were exported to France. The business in rye was less important, as that crop was not very abundant and the imports from abroad not sufficiently profitable. The supplies on hand were partly consumed at home and partly sold to the Middle Rhine country. Barley was exported to the Lower Rhine and Switzerland for brewing; but not to the same amount as in former years, the prices not admitting of its exportation to Holland and England. Transactions in oats and pulse were very limited, but of potatoes 200,000 quintals were sent to the Lower Rhine and Holland. The prices of all kinds of agricultural produce maintained themselves uninterruptedly at a high standard, and averaged as follows: wheat, 14 florins, peas, 11; rye, 11; lentils, 12; barley, 93; beans, 13; oats, 8 florins; potatoes, 3; all per 200 lbs.
The traffic in stock wood and boards was extremely dull; the prices, however, were not only kept up, but inclined generally to a further advance, which varied according to the demand. This was much affected by the pressure on shipbuilding and other building enterprises, owing to the state of affairs in general; and the deficiency in the woods also began to be very perceptible. As there are no large store yards at Mannheim, the traders, when there is a sudden demand, are in the hands of the large shipping companies, which do not accommodate their prices to circumstances of the sale market.
Although the year 1861 commenced favorably for the prospects of the tobacco trade, the injury caused by the American tariff to the manufacture of cigars most prejudicially affected this branch of industry. The tobacco of 1860, being fine in the leaf and very light, was the best adapted to making cigars, but, for the reason already mentioned, was not attended to, and the prices of former years declined from twenty-four to fifteen florins per quintal for the finest sorts. It was only when, under the influence of the war in America, the supplies of tobacco from that country to the principal ports of Europe decreased that attention was again directed to this article, and still further when the produce of 1860 began to be appreciated, and favorable prospects were opened for exportation to England, Spain, and Italy. At the same time the continued great heat of the weather was so unfavorable to the product of 1861. The crop was satisfactory as to quantity, but, as might be expected, less in quality, the leaf having become too wet. Speculators and traders engaged, therefore, the more eagerly in older tobaccoes, which were soon disposed of at constantly advancing prices. This affected also the produce of the new crop, which, by degrees, received encouragement, and some extensive transactions were the result. It may be expected that the prices will not only maintain their present rates of from fourteen to twenty-two florins per quintal, according to quality, but will even rise higher, unless the American difficulty should not be solved, and some large purchases, which have been long promised, should be made by the French gov
In the manufacturing branch Mannheim suffered a severe blow, as mentioned above, by the decreased export of cigars, where, at least, twelve factories had wholly ceased working, and others, which at the present only manufacture the finest foreign tobacco, have been obliged to make a large reduction in the number of their workmen. There are, however, two tapestry manufactories, the celebrated glass factory, equalling the best French, two machine factories, two large chemical factories, the sugar refinery, and several others, in a very flourishing condition, while the Baden manufactory for artificial wool and cloth has totally
failed for want of business, and the shareholders lose every cent of their investments. A similar fate has befallen the Baden Zinc Company, not yet, however, liquidated.
The small trades of Mannheim continue to improve, and will still more so when perfect freedom of trade, now under discussion in the Baden chambers, is introduced. The traders are now much assisted by the Industry Hall, where a permanent exhibition represents the industrial application and progress of the city in all its productions, and attracts many purchasers from distant parts. There industry finds a refuge, a neutral ground, where competitors are on an equal footing, and where no exemption or advantage is conceded to the greediness of privileged speculators.
The Mannheim business in colonial goods, although of great extent, and carried on with the utmost energy by eleven large firms, serves only as a means of connecting the seaports with the interior of the country. It extends, however, not only over Baden, Wurtemburg, Bavaria, and Switzerland, but also over the whole of the Austrian empire, and is therefore well worthy of notice. About 100,000 bags of coffee were disposed of last year in small quantities in those various directions. The prices and conjunctures in this business naturally depend on the bearing of the different staple places.
There is a circumstance relating to the population of Mannheim which is the more worthy of remark, as it is so closely connected with the want of freedom of trade and the choice of residence already alluded to. The census taken last December shows that Mannheim, numbering 27,160 inhabitants, is one of those German cities whose population has for many years, though not entirely stationary, made, proportionably, little progress. This furnishes evident proof how objectionable that antiquated system is which does not allow a man to settle and to work wherever and at whatever trade he pleases, but grants the right of carrying on business only to natives or adopted citizens of the town. It is, therefore, of the highest importance to Mannheim, as the commercial and industrial capital of the Grand Duchy, that the bill for freedom of trade and residence now before the chambers should be passed.
As regards the special tariff of goods in the port of Mannheim, in the year 1860, the same may be stated as follows:
On a comparison with the year 1859, this statement presents an increase in
the imports and exports of 869,403 centners.