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As regards the cultivation of tobacco in the states of the Zollverein the following particulars may be of interest. It is evident from the official reports of those states of middle and southern Germany, which have hitherto been remarked for extensive cultivation of tobacco, that this branch of industry has much decreased lately. In the year 1860, 23,960 Prussian acres of tobacco were cultivated in the Grand Duchy of Baden, while in 1861 there were only 18,722. In Bavaria the number of days' work in those two years fell from 15,466 to 12,138; in the Grand Duchy of Hesse from 2,667 to 1,824; in Electoral Hesse from 1,040 to 653; in the Thuringian states from 1,088 to 604; Wurtemberg from 486 to 188; kingdom of Saxony from 106 to 48 Prussian acres. The cultivation of tobacco in Hanover fell from 1,932 to 1,227 Prussian acres. The result in Prussia is not known yet, but in the year 1860 there were 25,284 acres there sown with tobacco. As may be seen, a rapid decline took place in the Bavarian and the Baden palatinate, the two principal places in the south of Germany for the cultivation of tobacco. In each of these two provinces more than 21 per cent. In the year 1860 there were 93 parishes engaged to a greater or less extent in the cultivation of this plant. In 1861 there were only 29. The quantity of tobacco obtained in dried leaves amounted in Bavaria to 63,018 quintals, (zollcentner;) in Baden, 117,987; Grand Duchy of Hesse, 10,491; Electoral Hesse, 8,195; Hanover, 8,195; Thuringia, 4,736, and in Wurtemberg, 1,084. The average price per centner, medium quality, was, in Baden and Bavaria, 11 florins, 21-25 kreutzers; which, assuming the whole crop in both those countries to be sold at that price, would give the tobaccogrowers a net proceed of 1,985,637 florins.
This decrease in the cultivation of tobacco may, however, cease, should the war in America be protracted longer than is expected, so as to prevent the exportation of tobacco from our country, as it has already done during the last eighteen months. Such, at least, may be inferred from the late reports on the tobacco trade in this immediate neighborhood, especially in Rhenish Bavaria, (Pfalz,) and Baden. The business of the Pfalz tobacco is at present in a more flourishing condition than it almost ever was.
There is a demand from all quarters, and still higher prices would be given if satisfactory articles could be obtained. There are still some few parcels of the tobacco of 1857, 1858, and 1859, in the hands of the wholesale dealers, and as much as from 20 to 21 florins can be obtained at present for cut tobacco, and 17 to 18 florins a centner for heavy.
The principal markets for these extensive sales are Belgium, Holland, and England, and consignments are daily made to those countries. The manufacturers there purchase the tobacco probably with a view of replacing that from Kentucky and Maryland, and also partly as a speculation, thinking that the troubles in our country are far from being ended. In any case, however, Pfalz tobacco will constitute a great part.
There is scarcely any tobacco of 1860 to be procured, and what little there is to be found has risen of late about two florins per centner. Some samples of 1862 sandleaves, called sandgrumpen, have been already shown in the market, and produced 34 to 3 florins per centner in their moist state. To judge from them a better year may be expected than in 1860. The produce of this year seems likely to be more remunerative, and the growers may look forward to good prices.
In Seckenheim, Neckerau, Lorsch, and Plankstadt, for example, prices have risen from fourteen to sixteen and seventeen florins per centner; and in Kirchheim and Eppelheim, fresh from the planter, the centner was paid for as high as seventeen and eighteen florins. Such quotations of sandleaf have not been known for a long time, although no one can say whether they have yet reached their highest point. A great deal, also, has been resold already by the dealers
to Holland, where it is intended to make up for the deficiency from Porto Rico and Maryland.
The annexed table, marked E, specifies the receipts of duties in the Zollverein on foreign and beet-root sugar, together with the quantity of beet root worked into sugar from the 1st April, 1861, to the 1st April, 1862.
Several shipments have been made during the present year (as will appear also from my quarterly returns of exports) of grünekem, or green corn, an article of agricultural produce new to the United States. It is the green or unripe wheat, and it is a favorite dish with the Jews, for whose use, I am told, it is exported to America.
Another new agricultural article of exportation is spelt, (Triticum speltas,) of which some hundreds of bushels have been sent by a speculator of this neighborhood to the United States for sowing. This grain, which somewhat resembles wheat, is cultivated in Baden, Rhenish Bavaria, and Würtemberg, and is sent in the husk, and it is so soft that it would be spoiled before it reached America if it were threshed first.
As a new American article in this country I must mention petroleum. As yet, there is an obstacle to its coming into general use from the restrictions laid on it by the government as well as by the gas and insurance companies, on account of the danger arising from its great inflammability. The gas companies are naturally opposed to it as a formidable rival, and the great cautiousness of the local authorities with respect to it may be judged from some recent regulations issued by the police of the free city of Bremen, which run as follows: "In consideration of the great inflammability of a mineral known as petroleum, this tribunal, by order of the senate, decrees as follows:
"1. As soon as any vessel, having petroleum on board, enters one of the ports of Bremerhaven, the captain or his lieutenant shall, even before the entrance of the vessel into their sluice, under a penalty of from five to ten thalers for each cask, give information to the authorities that he has petroleum on board, at the same time specifying the exact number of casks.
"2. The vessel having entered the harbor, the petroleum is to be landed with the utmost despatch, and is then to be deposited in such open place as shall be pointed out by the police authorities, and where alone it is to be worked. The warehousing of the same on private property is, for the present, prohibited.
"3. If petroleum has to be shipped or reshipped in any port, it must be done. only by vessels which immediately afterwards leave that port.
"4. All fires or lights are prohibited on board of any vessel having petroleum in cargo. To enforce which regulation all such vessels are furnished with guards or watchmen at their own expense.
"5. Any vessel, wholly or partially laden with petroleum, may be prohibited altogether from entering the port, especially if neglecting regulation 2, and be ordered away.
"6. Infringement on regulations 2, 3, and 4, is punishable by a fine not exceeding 100 thalers," &c.
It is also understood that railroad companies prohibit the transport of the petroleum in the cars. The undersigned, at the request of some New York merchants, first introduced this oil into Germany, where now it is so large an article of commerce.
On the 4th of April last the treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation, concluded on the first of August, 1860, between the republic of Paraguay and the states of the Zollverein, was published also by the senate of Frankfort. This treaty, like others of the same kind, grants to the citizens and subjects of the respective countries all the rights and privileges which they enjoy in their own. The treaty of commerce between France and Prussia is of greater importance, having been concluded in the hope that all the states belonging to the Zollverein H. Ex. Doc. 63-28
would be induced to join also. This expression of hope has led to animated discussions both in the newspapers and in the different diets of the German states. Not only are the governments themselves divided in opinion as to the usefulness of this treaty, but also, which is still more to be regretted, the mass of the people are not yet agreed in their view of it. The treaty seems to offer many advantages to the trade and industry of this country. The following table of duties, charged on some of the principal articles of commerce, shows how much Germany suffers in its commercial dealings with France in comparison with England and Belgium, and what advantages were obtained by England by the treaties of 12th October and 16th November, 1860, and the decrees of 29th September and 26th and 28th October, 1860, as also of 27th and 29th of May, 1861, and by Belgium by the treaty of the 1st of May, 1860, and the decree of 27th and 29th May, 1861.
The duties paid on importation into France are:
The two annexed tables, marked F and G, show the amount of coin produced at the mint of Frankfort since the treaty of coinage of the 25th of August, 1837, to the end of 1861.
The annexed table, marked H, exhibits the budget of this free city for the year 1862, according to which the receipts amount to fl.2,576,484 44, and the expenditures to fl.2,223,646 55, leaving a surplus of fl.352,837 49, which amount, according to law, is applied to pay off part of the public debt.
The annexed table, marked N, shows the state of the temperature at some of the principal places of Europe, (Algiers included,) and of Frankfort especially, last week of September last. I add the same to show that the German newspapers, in many respects so far behind the public press of our country, are, in scientific things, generally ahead of us, and always endeavoring to be as detailed and profound as possible. *
Joint receipts of import, export, and transit duties of 1861, compared to those of 1860.