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Report on the commerce, industry, and agriculture of Pfalz (Rhenish Bavaria)

in 1861.

MARCH 14, 1862

In reviewing the general state of commerce and industry in the year 1861, we unfortunately find few or no traces of improvement. This may be ascribed chiefly to the unsettled state of affairs in Italy. Although the peace of Europe experienced scarcely any interruption during the last year, yet the complicated relations of that country with Austria tended to render the general security questionable, until the two governments came to an understanding satisfactory to themselves, as well as to the interests of the whole continent. Another cause of disquietude is to be found in the Hungarian difficulty, and especially the uncertain state of Austrian finances, which together with the constantly depressed rate of Austrian valuta, cannot otherwise than prejudicially affect commerce and industry, as well as business generally. Another lamentable consequence of the political insecurity in those countries is the warlike attitude which all the governments of Europe feel themselves obliged to maintain. By this not only is the working and tax-paying part of the population employed in an injurious manner for unproductive military purposes, but even other important interests are neglected for strategical considerations.

The war for the suppression of the southern rebellion in the United States has also greatly injured the Pfalz, as the exportation of its industrial produce has suffered a stagnation, and even interruption, by it, which was more felt as some of the suspensions of payment by American bank ng and commercial houses have led to heavy losses, and, in some cases, failures, in the Pfalz. There have, however, been some local influences also, which have, to a certain degree, counteracted these disadvantages. Ludwigshafen, for instance, the port and place of commerce in the Pfalz, situated on the Rhine, opposite to Mannheim, has exhibited this year a gratifying increase of traffic. The total traffic of the port amounted to almost eight million quintals of goods, about 148,600 quintals more than in the precceding year, which is worthy of notice, as the greater part consisted of foreign goods. The following statement specifies more particularly the traffic of Ludwigshaven :

1. Foreign goods: Imported, 370,268 quintals; exported, 366,059 quintals. Total, 736,327 quintals.

These goods consisted of coffee, rice, spice, oil, tobacco, twist, drugs, raw cotton, raw tobacco, grain, seeds, mill manufactures, fig and bar iron, plate iron, ironware, &c.

2. Domestic goods: Imported, 237,683 quintals; exported, 243,148 quintals. Total, 480,831 quintals.

These goods consisted of wine, brandy, tobacco, raw and manufactured drugs, twist, cotton, raw hides, lead and ironware, car and plate wire, cloth goods, stoneware, chalk, flour, &c.

3. At the city part of the harbor: Imports, 60,580 quintals; exports, 60,580 quintals. Total 121,160 quintals.

These goods consisted of oil-cakes, grain, burnt tiles, trunks of trees, casks, vine poles, staves, &c.

4. At the water harbor: Imports, 1,264,569 quintals; exports, 1,264,569 quintals. Total 2,529,138 quintals.

These goods consisted of pig iron, ironstone, railway rails, Ruhe coal, machines, potatoes, grain, boards, laths, hewn and raw building stone, firewood, &c.

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The shipping establishments at Ludwigshafen, belonging to companies and merchants, forwarded more than 1 quintal. The most important of them are the "Steam-tow Navigation Company of the Pfalz," which forwarded 1,415,984 quintals, or 63,131 more than in 1860, and the commission house of S. Ledorle, which forwarded 108,138 quintals, 26,000 more than in 1860. Higher up the Rhine, and also at Speyer, Newburg, Frankenthal, Zweibrucken, &c., the traffic was more considerable than in the preceding year.

The crop of 1861 was on an average a good middling crop. What was wanting in quantity was made up for in quality, especially oats, spelt, and barley, of which large quantities were sent to France. The prices in consequence were remunerating to the producers, though without causing scarcity. A further rise, however, is not to be expected, as there are considerable supplies on hand, and the exportation to England has much decreased since the amicable settlement of the Trent question, 378,888 of grain imported were brought by river to Ludwigshafen.

Of potatoes, 728,333 quintals were exported from the Pfalz to the Lower Rbine.

The vintage, in consequence of the severe frosts of the winter, and those which occurred in May, was injured as regards quantity to a degree not experienced since 1854. The higher and more sheltered vineyards alone furnished better produce, while those in a lower situation yielded almost nothing. On an average the crop can hardly be estimated at the eighth part of the produce of a good vintage. This is the more to be regretted as the quality is excellent, equal to, and perhaps surpassing those, of the three celebrated years 1857, 1858, and 1859. The prices of wines were consequently very high. The ordinary

middle class wines sold:

In the Obergolirgs....

At Neustadt and Mussback....
Deidesheimer, Kuppersberg and Fort.
Wackenhim, Durkheim, Ungstim...
Kalkstadt, Hercheim and Frunsheim..

200 to 250 florins. 300" 350 do.

420" 500 do.

350 450 do.

300" 400 do.

The supplies are very small and the trade, of course, dull, for only trifling exports were made to the United States, and even a great part of the shipments were stopped in England or Holland. The negotiations also between the Zollverein and France for a treaty of commerce exercised a great pressure on the wine trade. The uncertainty as to the reduction of the import duties on foreign wines, and its probable extent, and of the abolition, or at least reduction, of the transit duties into the northern states of Germany, has caused many merchants to be cautious in making contracts. The exportation of sparkling wines, especially, for which the Pfalz has lately become so much celebrated, has suffered greatly by the American war and also by the negotiations between the Zollverein and France, as the reputation of the French champagne wines stands in general higher than that of the sparkling Rhine wines. The tobacco trade

was affected in two ways by the troubles in America, favorably and unfavorably. In consequence of the American blockade and the great limitation in supplies of tobacco from that country, the demand for the Pfalz tobacco increased considerably. Spain, England, Belgium, Switzerland, and Italy made heavy purchases of the tobacco of former years, so that the prices could not fail to advance. In consequence of this, the supplies of tobacco, especially of 1860, which was so suitable for the manufacture of cigars, and for which on that account higher prices were given, were considerably lessened. As a necessary result of these circumstances, even the tobacco of 1861, little fit for manufacturing, has attained very high prices. On the other hand, the manufacture of the low-priced cigars of Pfalz tobacco, formerly exported in vast quantities to the United States, has almost entirely ceased, and a great number of workmen have been thus deprived of their livelihood.

A great improvement was perceptible in the coal trade: 7,707,900 quintals, about a million more than in 1860, were transported by railway. As to the coal exports to France, the following is the statement in the report. The total consumption of coal in France amounted in 1853 to 94,000,000 quintals, of which 35,000,000 were imported, and of these 4,322,000 quintals from the Pfalz. In 1859 the consumption was increased to 131,000,000, of which 58,000,000 were imported, 10,155,405 quintals being from the Pfalz. The greatest injury which the Pfalz suffered, in consequence of the American embarrassments, was in the depressing influence on the manufacturing interests. It is gratifying, however, to be able to observe that the manufacturers provided themselves in time with the necessary supply of cotton at moderate prices, though the exportation of all sorts of manufactured goods to the United States was entirely stopped. The mechanical cotton-spinning and weaving establishment at Kayser's Lantern worked with 12,000 spindles, on which, in 1861, were produced 623,000 pounds of English, average No. 29. Besides, there were 420 mechanical weaving looms and about 30 hand looms in activity. The principal articles manufactured there were raw and dyed yarns, raw and bleached Nesseln, (fine spun cotton threads,) colored cloths, tricots, and beavers. The spinning and weaving manufactory at Oggersheim, renowned for their yarns and velvets, produced last year 600,000 Zoll pounds of English, average No. 3214, warp made on 15,000 spindles, and 600,000 yards of velvet made on 400 mechanical looms. About 800 workmen were employed, who received 160,000 florins, or $64,000, which made the rate of wages per day for each workman 40 kreutzers, or 27 cents. The worsted yarn spinning company at Kayser's Lantern, which is only in activity since 1858, consumed nearly 245,000 pounds of wool, of the value of 275,000 florins. Cloth manufacture also suffered severely from the American war, as the exportation to the United States wholly ceased, with the exception of some supplies for military purposes. The loss would have been still greater had not the supplies for the European armies afforded much employment. The prices of cloths, especially those for the American market, and also of the raw material, have declined. The early part of the year had presented favorable prospects for the silk manufacturers, and at Kayser's Lantern they had considerably increased the number of their workmen, but their expectations were soon disappointed when the reaction from the American war began to be felt on the continent. The pressure it produced on the German market constantly increased, until it reached its greatest height at the close of the year, in consequence of over-production and the reduced value of produce. Under these deplorable circumstances thousands of looms had to cease working at Lyons and Crefeld, as well as at the establishment at Kayser's Lantern, where a number of hands were dismissed, the working time of others being shortened by several hours. The stove factories at Pirmascus employed in five establishments 117 masters, and 692 male and 382 female laborers. There were 1,264,800 pairs of shoes, at the average price of 10 florins (84) per dozen, which were exported wholesale to all parts of the world. The wages have been

doubled since 1854. The other factories of note are the calico weaving and printing of Adam Orthwidow, at Kayser's Lantern; the Linen Twist Company at Otterburg, a joint stock establishment producing articles which compete with the best manufactories in France and Belgium; several machine factories, chemical works; the ultramarine factory at Kayser's Lantern; several madder factories, among which Casimer Lichtenberger's celebrated garancine factory in Speyer, whose alviarine furnished the most beautiful lilac in all shades, even as beautiful as that prepared from Smyrna madder roots, and in ordinary times exported in large quantities to the United States; many stoneware factories, especially that of Jacob & Hanber, at Kayser's Lantern; a number of papier maché factories; and the box factories at Ensheim, usually exporting in large quantities to the United States, England, France, Austria, Italy, and Turkey, All those establishments, owing to the unsettled state of affairs, generally have sustained considerable losses. In the summer of 1861 a match manufactory was established at Ganeisheim by a joint stock company. It was furnished with machinery on the newest principles, employed about 70 laborers, and produced 22,000 boxes a day of matches of every description.

With regard to sugar, it must be stated that from the constantly depressed prices of refined sugar the two manufactories in the Pfalz were unable to pay the beet root growers the prices to which they thought themselves entitled, from the high prices of potatoes and other agricultural products, so that scarcely 100,000 quintals of beet root were worked into sugar last year, though there would have been consumption for 400,000. The gross amount of the receipts of the two railway lines in the Pfalz were as follows:

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Traffic and communication in the Pfalz will be greatly extended and improved by the completion of the permanent bridge proposed to be made over the Rhine, from Ludwigshafen to Mannheim, and of the Odenwald railway, connecting the Pfalz with Bavaria proper and Austria.



SEPTEMBER 30. 1862.

In making the usual annual report for this consulate, I would remark that my acquaintance with the subjects necessarily treated upon being of comparatively recent date, I have been unable to make the same as full and complete as was wished, and have become compelled to omit entirely several topics of interest. It is unnecessary to speak of the geography, natural resources, or

politics of Saxony, these subjects having been fully explained by my predecessor in his late reports. On the 1st of January, 1862, a new law of trade (Yerverbe Gesetz) went into operation. This law confers the right of carrying on trade without becoming members of the various guilds, which formerly controlled, in a very great measure, the actions of their members, and many new, although small, establishments have been founded which would otherwise have had no existence. This law does not change the strict regulations relative to the various professions.

Saxony, as one of the Zollverein states, has consented to the commercial treaty between Prussia and France; several states have refused to consent to the same.

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inclusive of 280,879 thalers for contingencies. The total debt at the end of 1860 was 63,131,332 thalers; the state has, however, property amounting to a value of one hundred and sixteen million thalers.

Saxony is the most densely populated of the German states, containing within an area of 271 square miles (German) a population of 2,225,240, being an average of 8,213 to the square mile; or, reckoning the Saxon mile at 4.66 English miles, an area of 5,883 square miles, being an average of 378 to the square mile. This is an increase of 103,092 for the last three years. The number of towns is 142, of villages, 3,200.

Saxony, being an inland country, has, of course, no seaports or seaships, and the only navigable river is the Elbe, which is used almost exclusively for the transportation of merchandise; the amount carried in the year 1861 was as · follows:

Upward navigation, total...

Downward navigation, total..

being but a slight increase upon the preceding year.

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The total length of railways in Saxony is about 480 miles, 328 of which is the property of the state, the remainder, 152 miles, belonging to private companies. The total receipts in the year 1861 was 7,051,339 thalers, being 4,840,457 thalers for the state and 2,210,882 thalers for the private roads. The number of persons carried in the same year was 5,178,989; the quantity of goods, 80,346,403 cwt., being an average daily travel of 14,189 persons, and a daily transportation of 220,127 cwt. of goods.

Of the agricultural products of Saxony I have been unable to obtain any returns; the live stock includes 84,000 horses, 555,000 cattle, 600,000 sheep, (including many merinos,) 121,000 swine, and 65,000 goats. In the year 1856 more than one-half of the population of Saxony, (51.4 per cent.,) viz: 972,449 persons, were occupied in industry, and the Saxons have therefore deservedly the name of an industrious nation. In the year 1834 there were only 74 mechanical spinneries, with 371,000 fine spindles; there are now 153 cotton mills, with 705,500 fine spindles; moreover, in the corded yarn-Vicogne— mills, 220,000 spindles; in the worsted yarn mills, 85,000 spindles and 120 combing machines; in the flax spinneries, 12,000 spindles; at the same time there are engaged in weaving about 1,900 mechanical looms and 70,000 hand looms, giving employment to more than 100,000 persons, and annually pro

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