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industry of Glasgow and the valley of the Clyde, and the great demand thereby created for raw products, breadstuffs, and provisions, &c., it will be seen that the conditions exist for an enormous trade with the United States. That the progress of this trade has been checked, (the actual amount has been but little, if any less,) by the loss of cotton and tobacco from the States and the reduced demand for manufactured goods therein, is not surprising. Much of this loss is here attributed to the new tariff policy of the United States government; but, if peace was restored in America, and trade had resumed its natural channels, there is no doubt but that our trade with this port would be much greater than ever before, and the results to the people of our own country largely more profitable. With cotton and tobacco (the consumption of the latter is rapidly increasing here) to swell the already large imports from the States, the balance of trade would be greatly in our own favor. That our tariff policy should be particularly favorable to British manufacturers and exporters I suppose was never intended; but that it is already beneficial to the development of our own internal industry is plain enough, and, with peace and prosperity throughout our borders, this result will, no doubt, become more and more apparent.
If any one-presuming upon my residence in this country in the consular capacity, with my mind necessarily directed to the study of the resources of the country and the sources of British prosperity and greatness-was to ask me to state the most striking fact connected with this nation's present condition, I should at once name her enormous wealth. She may, without exaggeration, be called the world's banker; and the whole fabric of her greatness is constructed, sustained, and perpetuated by her advantageous trade with the world; and especially with the new countries of the earth. Over all such she has immensely the advantage in capital at three per cent. per annum, in a crowded population and consequently abundance of labor at a low price, and in that absolutely necessary skill which can only come from a long and patient experience. Of all these she has an abundance; and only such nations as are similarly situated can enter into open and free competition with her. Give her, as she desires, (and I give her statesmen credit for desiring it,) absolute free trade, and she is beyond competition in the production of almost all the wares and fabrics that most largely enter into general consumption, and all new countries, at least, must yield their markets to her manufactures and merchants. To maintain and extend this state of things the whole British people are united as one man. Her statesmen, her press, her writers, her merchants and manfacturers, all give their whole skill and energy and influence to this end. It is her best policy and highest interest, and all influential classes are wise enough to know it. All the enormous wealth of this country flows in upon her as the legitimate result of her highly developed mechanical industry. Nine-tenths of all the ships that visit her ports bring to her the unwrought products of other climes, and go out laden with the highly wrought result of her mechanical industry. The profits on this feeds her working classes, enriches her merchants and manufacturers, pays her heavy taxes and overflows the vaults of her bankers; so that no nation of the earth (except the United States) can carry on any great enterprise without coming to British marts for the capital.
Beet root sugar.-In a former part of this report a slight reference is made to sugar refining. This branch of industry is extensively conducted at Greenock, and 88,694 tons of raw sugar was received at these refineries in 1861. This year the amount will not be less. Of this quantitity about one-twelfth is from the beet root. In the refining process it is said to be profitably mixed with the cane sugar. The importations of this article are made entirely from the European continent and chiefly from France and the Zollverein. The amount pro
duced in these two countries alone for the year 1861 is estimated at 320,000
Iron wire rope.-In addition to the numerous other new uses to which iron is now applied, the manufacture of rope suitable for the standing rigging of ships is coming into general use, and this article is already numbered in the list of goods exported from this to the United States. It is made of wires twisted around a hempen cone, and is now used on most of the new ships built at this port. Its advantages are, greater durability and strength.
Red and yellow prussiates of potash.-These salts, largely used in dying, are made from waste substances, such as the horns and hoofs of cattle, clippings of leather, cast-off woollen garments, blood and offal, and similar kinds of waste substances. These are mixed with crude pearlash, obtained from the combustion of wood, and with old scraps of iron, horseshoes, barrel hoops, &c., are fused together in an iron kettle until the nitrogen and carbon, potash and iron have chemically rearranged themselves in a different manner; the mixture is then dissolved out with water, when the beautiful yellow prussiate of potash is obtained. Prussian blue is made from the yellow salt in combination with perchloride of iron. The red prussiate is also prepared from the yellow by simply adding chlorine to it. This forms chloride of potassium and the red prusseate of potash, which is obtained by crystallization in the form of deep red needles. I call attention to these salts with two objects: one of which is to illustrate the value of skill in manufacturing, and the other to encourage the home production of these articles. The hoofs and waste substances out of which these articles are made are imported here from the United States at a shilling a bushel, manipulated by British skill and industry and returned to the United States, in the same ships, increased twenty fold in value. In my efforts to obtain information on subjects connected with manufacturing, I find that all establishments have, or think they have, some secrets connected with their business which they refuse to reveal. These they have discovered by their experience, and they value them very highly. This is the skill, which in the aggregate in this country is immense, and which gives greatly the advantage to these nations where manufacturing industry is highly developed by long experience,
In conclusion, and as this is probably the last (as well as first) report that I shall ever have the honor to make to the department, allow me a few words in relation to a subject which I know the government is deeply interested in, viz: that of the condition and treatment of its seamen. These are probably the most abused class of our citizens, except cabinet ministers, and the government has shown itself justly solicitous on their behalf. They are abused first and worst by boarding-house keepers and shipping masters; second, by themselves; and third, by some brutal mates and masters of ships. Most of the latter, however, grow out of the two former; and after much thought and inquiry on this subject, I have been led to conclude that most of the trouble grows out of the first-named cause. The boarding-house keepers and shipping masters collude together to make their living, and as much more as possible, out of the seamen. To this end, the men are taken into these houses with or without money to pay their board, and the shipping master in want of a crew for a ship calls and accepts those who have been the longest time on the hands of the keeper. To pay their board the keeper accepts their advance notes, which he pretends to the agents of the ship to cash for them. When the ship sails the keeper collects the amount of the advance from the agents of the ship and divides it amicably with the shipping master, while the poor sailor is sent off to sea with nothing, not even a change of clothes. If he refuses to go, he is plied with whiskey until "dead drunk," and thrust into the forecastle, where he recovers by the time the ship is towed to sea. By a thousand infamous tricks of this character these "land sharks" rob, abuse, and debase the men into their reckless course of life. If they thus happen to fall into the hands of a humane shipmaster, they H. Ex. Doc. 63-3
are supplied with some clothing and necessaries from the "slop chest;" if, on the other hand, they get on board of ships with brutal officers, they are kicked and cuffed to their duty without mercy or care; and too frequently, in spite of the law, and the best efforts of the consuls, they are turned away in a foreign port without money, clothing, or friends; the boarding-house keepers and shipping masters having robbed them in advance of all their wages for the voyage. Such treatment tends to make our seamen the reckless, thoughtless, improvident fellows they are.
The laws already in existence for the benefit of these men are proper and good; and, if faithfully administered by consuls, which is very difficult to do, will be of immense service to seamen. But they do not seem to reach the root of the evil. To do this, the moral character of the men themselves must be elevated. If the commercial cities would provide homes for these men, where they would be honestly and kindly dealt with, and laws were enacted to prevent the advance pay system, requiring, instead, every ship to carry a "slop chest," with certain well-defined and described articles of clothing and necessaries for the supply of the men, at a stated price named in the law for each article supplied, a long step would be taken in the right direction. The advance pay is the inducement that the boarding-house keepers and the shipping masters have to abuse the men, and this ought speedily to be removed.
OCTOBER 14, 1862.
Since posting my despatch (No 49) I concluded, on reflection, to call the attention of the collector of customs at this port to the 22d section of the recent act of Congress, entitled "An act temporarily increasing the duties on imported merchandise, and for other purposes," as directed in circular No 17, without waiting for the receipt of a copy of the "Regulations of the Secretary of the Treasury" on the subject.
I did so, and the enclosed correspondence is the result.
CONSULATE OF THE UNITED STATES,
SIR: I am directed by the honorable Secretary of State of the United States to call your attention to the 22d section of the recent law of Congress, entitled "An act increasing temporarily the duties on imports, and for other purposes," approved April 14, 1862, and which is in the following words: "SECTION 22. And be it further enacted, That the privilege of purchasing supplies from the public warehouses, duty free, be extended, under such regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe, to the vessels-of-war of any nation in ports of the United States which may reciprocate such privilege towards the vessels of-war of the United States in its ports."
I am also directed, in connexion with this subject, to ascertain from you if the privilege of purchasing supplies from the public warehouses, duty free, is now, or will be, extended to vessels-of-war of the United States in this port. I have the honor to be your obedient servant.
F. W. TEVOR Esq.,
Customs Collector, Glasgow.
J. S. PRETTYMAN, Consul United States of America.
CUSTOM-HOUSE, Glasgow, October 11, 1862. SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of this date, and, in reply, to acquaint you that, by an order of the lords of the treasury, dated April 30, 1849, foreign ships-of-war, which may put into ports of the United Kingdom on a voyage home from a distant port, are allowed to receive bonded
stores, duty free, upon the same conditions as stores are allowed to merchant vessels.
There has been no change in the general regulations of trade since my last report, nor have there been any changes in the list of articles prohibited to be imported in the interim.
Differential customs, light-house or local harbor duties, do not exist with reference to the ships or goods of any countries.
Average price of wheat, 50 shillings, or $12 10 per quarter; of Indian corn, £7 10s., or $36 30 per ton.
The advance of 200 per cent. on the price of petroleum, or rock oil, in the English markets, owing to turpentine being extracted therefrom, is remarkable. The market value of other goods remains the same as per last report.
Statement showing the number of vessels arrived at Cork from United States ports during each of the four quarters of the year ended September 30, 1862, together with a description of their cargoes.
Statement showing the number and nationality of all vessels, other than American, arrived at the port of Cork during the year ended September 30, 1862.
Statement showing the number of vessels cleared at the port of Cork for the United States during the year ended September 30, 1862, together with a description of their cargoes.
Number of vessels...
Statement showing the number and nationality of all vessels, other than Ameri-
I have the honor to enclose the Canadian tariff, as amended by Parliament on the 9th instant; also a list of articles which have been affected by the amend
CANADIAN TARIFF.-June 9, 1862.
GOODS ON THE SLIDING SCALE.
Sugars until 1st June, 1859.-In addition to the following ad valorem duties, raw sugar pays a specific duty of 2 cents a pound, and refined sugar 3 cents. Sugar, refined, whether in loaves or lumps, candied, crushed, powdered, or granulated, or in any other form; white bastard sugar or other sugar equal to refined in quality, per 100 lbs., $2 50.
White clayed sugar, or yellow bastard sugar, or any kind equal in quality to white clayed sugar, but not equal to refined sugar, per 100 lbs., $1 75.