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crease very much the importance of the ports near the mouth of the Don. The work of the American company of raising the sunken ships in the harbor of Sevastopol is finished, and very successfully; a few more hulks remain in deep. water, which a Russian company is engaged to remove.
The Russian Steam Navigation Company continue to run steamers regularly to and from Nikolaief, Kherson, the ports of the Crimea and of the Caucasus, Tubizonde, Galatz, Constantinople, Alexandria, London. From Odessa to London twice a month, and from Odessa to the other places named once a week for the most part. Austrian steamers, also, run regularly once a week to and from Galatz. By taking the railway at Basiock, on the Danube, it is possible to reach Vienna in four days from Odessa. The trains on the railroad are run in connexion with the steamers from Odessa. London being within three days of Vienna, is thus then possible in seven days from Odessa. Letters take twelve days. The mails to St. Petersburg, also, take twelve days.
Value in rubles of imports at Odessa, from the first day of January to the 30th September, 1862, (O. S.)
Value in rubles of exports at Odessa, from the first day of January to the 30th September, 1862, (O. S.)
Vessels cleared from Odessa from the 1st day of January to the 30th September, 1862.
Freight other than grain.
Vessels arrived at Odessa from the 1st day of January to the 30th September, 1862.
HELSINGFORS.-R. FRENCKELL, Consul.
1. Commercial report for 1860.
DECEMBER 30, 1861.
The general trade of the Grand Duchy of Finland has begun to recover its former flourishing state, which, to some extent, had been depressed by the crisis in western Europe. It is gratifying to perceive that, in spite of the unfavorable state of the exchange, for such as had to come by remittances on Hamburg or London, the imports have considerably increased, and that the general prosperity of the country is going forward. All are particularly struck with this, in the rapid and most astonishing increase of the commercial fleet, as also in the very marked improvement in the implements of agriculture now in use; the result being a larger produce returned and of a far superior quality.
A railway will be open for traffic between this port and the town of Tavastohaus in the month of March next, and will particularly benefit the port of Helsingfors; the want of every means of communication having hitherto prevented the development of the resources of the adjacent country.
The value of the exports during the year 1860 amounted to 6,588,525 rubles silver, showing the considerable increase of 1,972,692 rubles on the preceding year. The following will give you the value of the exports for the five years succeeding the Russian war, viz:
The principal articles exported, and their relative value, were as follows, viz:
The imports reached the same year the very high sum being an increase of 1,884,087 rubles on the year 1859. the five years succeeding the war has been, viz:
379, 177 do.
1, 185, 046 do.
6, 588, 525 do.
The principal articles imported during the year 1860 were:
1,258, 596 rubles.
Total of imports.....
10,836, 967 do.
Among the articles imported from the United States raw cotton figures as the most important; the value of this importation having been considerably increased during the last few years, viz: In 1856, the value was 279,320 rubles; in 1857, 325,847; in 1858, 371,150; in 1859, 559,740; in 1860, 668,347.
We find, on comparison with the return for the year 1859, that raw cotton has been imported from the United States for 108,607 rubles more than in 1859. During the year 1860 there entered at the ports in the Grand Duchy of Finland 2,335 vessels of 273,956 tons, and cleared 2,601 vessels of 325,786 tons burden.
In my former reports I had the honor of drawing attention to the considerable losses sustained by the Finnish ship-owners during the late war with England and France, when their fine fleet was reduced to 295 vessels of 43,736 tons; and it is astonishing to see that their merchant fleet, now five years only having expired since that period, amounts to 471 vessels of 117,384 tons burden. When the trifling population of Finland (1,723,168 inhabitants) is taken into consideration, this large tonnage is very surprising, and next to Norway places Finland among the first rank of maritime nations. In this amount of tonnage is not included upwards of 70,000 tons, being the measurement of vessels employed solely in the home trade, and not built for ocean voyages.
Ship-building on an extensive scale is still going on along the whole coast of the Gulf of Bothnia, and a larger and finer class of vessels than heretofore is being launched.
A large portion of the Finnish merchantmen are engaged on long voyages, remaining out several years at a time, gaining lucrative freights, which in a great degree adds to the general prosperity of the country.
During the year 1861 three American vessels visited ports, in the Grand Duchy of Finland.
AMOOR RIVER.-P. McD. COLLINS, Commercial Agent.
NEW YORK, September 18, 1861.
Your note of the 10th instant, came to hand yesterday.
I have the honor to enclose you an article written for the Merchants' Magazine, at the request of the secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, and as it was prepared and in the hands of the printer before I received the notice of Mr. Platt's appointment, I had attached to it my title as commercial agent. I consider this explanation proper, as I would not have felt justified in appending said title had I received previous notice of the appointment of a successor.
In connexion with the acknowledgment of the receipt of your note, permit me to say, though not in person at the Amoor, I am sure that by Mr. Chase's